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Welded joints and fatigue monitoring 747/2002

Back to Research Reports Corrosion of FSW High Strength Aluminium Alloys after PWHT 1133/2020 Fracture of Pipeline Steel in a Sour Environment at Ambient Temperature 1132/2020 Green Laser Cutting of Carbon Fibre Composites 1131/2020 Validation of BS 7910 and R6 Fracture Assessment Procedures: Summary Report 1125/2020 25mm Diameter Orbital Friction Welds in Engineering Steels 50mm BS 4360 Grade 50D Steel 2 Pass Submerged-Arc Welding 5kW Yb-Fibre Lasers, Optics Selection and Process Parameters 7050-T7451 Aluminium Alloy FSW Pitting Corrosion A 3-D Analysis of a Fillet Welded Fatigue Specimen A Comparison of Cut Quality on C-Mn and 304 Stainless Steels A Comparison of Hot Bar and Laser Soldering Techniques for 0.5mm Pitch Electronic Devices A Comparison of the Gap-Bridging Capability of CO2 Laser and Hybrid CO2 Laser MAG Welding on 8mm Thickness C-Mn Steel Plate A Comparison of Three Stress Counting Methods Using Simulated Stress Spectra A Comparison of TIG Canning and Electron Beam Sealing A Cutting Process Comparison A Feasibility Study of Brazing Silicon Carbide to Metals A Feasibility Study of Ultrasonic Wire Bonding to Polymer Thick Films A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Adhesively Bonded Joints A Laser Diode Based Vision System for Monitoring Arc Welding A Low-Cost Camera for Monitoring Arc Welding Processes A Method of Measuring Displacements and Rotational Factors in SENB Specimens A Model of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels A New Approach to Improved Control of Thermoplastic Composites Induction Welding A PC Based System for Monitoring Arc Welding Parameters A Practical Guide to Process and Quality Control for Resistance Spot Welding A Preliminary Investigation into Welding Fume Formation Mechanisms for MIG/MAG Welding A Preliminary Study of the Ultrasonic Welding of Four Thermoplastics A Review and Evaluation of the Durability of Low Surface Energy Coatings A Review of Arc Welding and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) A Review of Ball Grid Arrays for Electronic Assembly A Review of Crack Arrest Tests, Models and Applications A Review of Fatigue Monitoring Methods for Welded Joints A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 1, Process Review A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 2, Selection of Tool Materials A Review of Glass-Ceramics as Ceramic Bonding Media A Review of HAZ Toughness Evaluation A Review of Joint Tracking Systems for Laser Welding A Review of Mechanical Test Procedures for Adhesively Bonded Joints A Review of Methods for Determining the Frequency and Size Distribution of Welding Flaws in Steel Fabrications A Review of Methods for Rapid Prototyping of Computer Software, and their Application to Structural Integrity Assessment A Review of Micromachining Technologies for Microstructures A Review of Micromechanical Failure Models for Cleavage and Ductile Fracture A Review of Mixed Mode Fracture Tests, Models and Assessment Procedures A Review of Models for Simulation of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding A Review of Optical Methods for Adaptive Control in Arc Welding A Review of Ozone Formation in Arc Welding A Review of Post Weld Heat Treatment Effects on Welding Residual Stresses A Review of Sensor Systems for the Top-Face Control of Weld Penetration A Review of Sol-Gel Technology for the Fabrication of Glasses and Ceramics A Review of Techniques for Measuring and Ranking Adhesion of HVOF Sprayed Coatings A Review of Techniques to Manage Penetration Variability during TIG Welding A Review of the Physical and Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides A Review of the use of Lasers for Precision Microcomponent Manufacture A Review of the use of Metal Powder Additions in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel A Review of Thermography used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) A Review on the Problem of Reheat Cracking in Nuclear Vessel Steels A Stress Intensity Factor Solution for Root Defects A Study of Arc and Friction Stir Welding of Two Al Alloys Containing a Low Level Scandium Addition A Study of Ceramic/Metal Bonding A Study of the Butt Fusion (Hot Plate) Welding Process for Polyethylene Pipe A Survey of Joining Techniques for Plastics A Survey of Welding and Repairing of Nickel Superalloys for Gas Turbines A System for Integrated Off-Line Programming of Welding Robots A Theoretical Investigation into Stresses Caused by Die-Bonding and the Validity of 'Low Stress' Die-Bonding Attachments A Thermal Model for Transmission Laser Welding of Thermoplastic Polymers A Video System for Control of TIG Welding Bead Penetration Abrasive Resistance of Experimental Hardfacing Materials Abrasive Wear Resistance of Hardfacing Weld Deposits: Review Absorber Coating Additives and Laser Welded Textiles AC Pulsed MAG and Powder Plasma Arc Welding of Positional Unbacked Root Passes - A Feasibility Study Acoustic Pulsing - A Condition Monitoring Technique Developed at the Welding Institute Active/Inert Gas Atomisation and Arc Spray Coating Quality Adaptive Control of the MIG Welding of Thin Sheet Steel Additions to Ferritic Steel Submerged-Arc Weld Metal Additive Manufacture by Friction and Forge Processes Additive Manufacture of Blisk and Guide Vanes by Friction Welding Adhesive Bonded GFRP Joints and Interlaminar Flaw Tolerance Adhesive Durability and Environmental Attack Mechanisms Adhesive-Free Bond Strength Test Method for Cold Spray Coatings 1127/2020 Adhesives and Test Methods for Thermal Spray Coatings Advanced MAG Welding Techniques for Thin Sheet Material Advanced Tool Material Technology for FSW Stainless Steel Advancement of Arc Welding Repair of Mar-M247 and Alloy 713C Advancements in Arc Weld Power Sources and Process in Japan Advancements in Quantitative Guided Wave Inspection of Pipes - 1106/2018 Advances in Computer Based Prediction of Weld Distortion Advances in Laser Welding Aerospace-standard laser weld porosity requirements: Part A Aerospace-standard laser weld porosity requirements: Part B Ageing and Structure/Properties of Hot Plate Welds Al, Ti and V and Steel Weld Microstructural Development Al-Mg Alloy Welds and Stress Corrosion Cracking Aluminium Alloy Sheet MIG Spot Welding: Process and Control Aluminium, C-Mn Steels and Microstructure/Toughness Progress Aluminium, C-Mn Steels and Microstructure/Toughness: Report Aluminium/Oxygen and the Microstructure of TIG Weld Metal Ambient Temperature Temper-Bead Repair of Nuclear Components An Analysis of Fracture under Biaxial Loading using the Finite Element Method An Appraisal of Methods for Quantifying the Performance of Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for Detecting and Sizing Weld Flaws An Appraisal of Statistical Inspection Strategies and Inspection Updating An Assessment of the Advantages of Plasma Control in Laser Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel An Assessment of the Tandem MIG-MAG Welding Process An Assessment of Weld Heterogeneities in PMMA using Birefringence An Evaluation of a High Tolerance Plasma Arc Cutting (HTPAC) Process An Evaluation of Infrared NDT Techniques Applied to Thermally Sprayed Coatings An Evaluation of NDT Methods for Adhesion Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings An Evaluation of the Production Welding Aspects of Flux-Cored Wires An Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Electrical Resistance Methods for the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of Resistance Spot Welds in Low Carbon Steel Sheet An Examination of Diffusion Bonded Interfaces in a Mild Steel An Initial Study of Arc Energy and Thermal Cycles in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel An Initial Study of Thermal Cycle Prediction in Submerged-Arc Welds An Initial Study on Laser Welding of Magnesium Alloys An Inter-Laboratory Programme of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Tests An Introduction to K, CTOD and J Fracture Mechanics Analyses and Toughness, and the Application of these to Metal Structures An Introduction to Laser Weld Monitoring An Introduction to Lean Manufacturing for SMEs An Introduction to Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots An introduction to risk based inspection An Investigation into the Mechanisms of Active Fluxes for TIG (A-TIG) Welding An Investigation into the Origin and Effect of Magnetic Fields in EB Welding An Investigation of the use of Transient Arc Data to Detect Process Deviations An Investigation of Weldment Toughness in Two Low Alloy High Strength Steels An R Curve Approach to COD and J for an Austenitic Steel Application of a Steelmaking Model to Predict Weld Metal Composition Application of Fatigue Design Rules for Welded Steel Joints Application of Microscopy to Welded Joints in Thermoplastics Application of Resistance/Laser Welding to AI-Li Alloy 8090 Applications and Parametric Relationships for Water Jet Cuts Applied Stress Ratio and Steel Fatigue Crack Propagation Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part II: Published and Additional TWI Data Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part III: Assessment of Actual Failures Appraisal of PD6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures. Part I - TWI Data Arc Disturbances in Consumable Electrode Welding Arc Disturbances/Poor Appearance in Spray Transfer MIG Welds Arc Energy, Plate Thickness, Preheat and Hydrogen Cracking Arc Initiation in MIG Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Arc Parameter Sensing using Second Generation Robots - A Preliminary Assessment Arc Spraying using Cored Wire Consumables to Produce Hard Coatings Arc Stability of Copper-Coated Mild Steel MIG Welding Wires - A Case Study Arc Weld Parameters/Fillet Weld Geometry in MIG Welding Arc Weld Tramlines and Oxidation of Titanium Plasma Welds Arc Welding Ferritic-Austenitic Steels: Microstructures Argon and Helium for Laser Weld Plasma Control/Shielding Ar-He-N2 Shielding Gases for TIG Welding Duplex Steel Aspects of the Improvement in Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welds by Peening Assessment and Process Factors of Self-Piercing Rivet Joints Assessment and Treatment of Residual Stresses for the Integrity of Welded Steel Structures: A State-of-the-Art Review 1110/2019 Assessment Methods for Environment Assisted Cracking Assessment of Ageing Properties and Residual Stresses in Thermoplastic Welds Assessment of Cold Spray Systems for the Deposition of Nickel Alloy 718 Coatings Assessment of Limit Loads for Circumferential Embedded Flaws in Pipes Assessment of Mechanical Property and Fracture Mechanics Tests Applicable to Plain Material and Welded Joints in Thermoplastics Assessment of Monitoring Methods for Clearweld Assessment of Shearography and Thermography for Flaw Detection Assessment of the Mechanised Flux Cored Arc Welding Process for Underwater Wet Welding Assessment of the Significance of LBZs in Steels using a Probabilistic Model Assessment of the Torsion Test for Resistance Spot Welds Assessment of the TWI Top Face Control System for TIG Welding Assessment Procedures for Non-Sharp (Blunt) Defects (AMICA) Atmospheric Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Welds Autogenous Welding of High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels Backscattered Electron Vision for Electron Beam Welding Baseline FSW Data for Aluminium Alloys up to 75mm Thick Beam Characterisation of Industrial CO2, Excimer and Nd:YAG Lasers Beam Characterisation of Industrial Lasers Behaviour of 0.5%Cr Steel in Sour Environments Behaviour of Semi-Elliptical Cracks in Welds with Yield Strength Mismatch Bending Correction Factor for Assessing Welded Joint Fatigue Biaxiality and Residual Stress Relief/Fracture in Joints Bonding of SiC Fibre Reinforced Ti-6Al-4V MMC Sheet Brazing of Zirconia for Structural and Sensor Applications Brazing Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Nickel Alloys Broadband Excitation Method Long Range Ultrasonic Testing BS7608 Changes: Fatigue Design/Assessment of Steel Products Butt Fusion Polyethylene Pipe Structural Integrity: Review Butt Fusion Welding of 125/400mm Diameter Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welding of Polyethylene/Polypropylene Pipe Butt Laser Welds Low Carbon Steel Sheets: Process Tolerances C and Si and Submerged Arc Welds in 25mm C-mn Steel Plate C/C-Mn Steel HAZ Toughness: Welding 25mm Plate at 1-7kJ/mm Calcium Treatment and Submerged-Arc Weld Metal/HAZ Strength Carbon Nanotube Safe Removal from Water Suspension: Mitigating Health Risks Carbon Nanotubes for Rubber Reinforcement/Better Laser Welds Cast Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloy Keyhole Plasma Welding Catastrophic Failures of Steel Structures in Industry: Case Histories Characterisation of a Novel Electron Beam Gun Design Characterisation of Nylon 6,6 Vibration Welds Characterisation of, and Guidelines for, Rotary Friction Welding of Common Metallic Engineering Materials Characterising Glob Top Materials for Chip-On-Board Parts Characteristics of Square Wave AC Manual Metal Arc Welding Charpy V-Notch Test: Striker Geometry and Specimen Thickness Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas Shielded Welding Of Steel: Pt II Chromium and Molybdenum Titanium Stabilised Steel Arc Welds Clamping/Joint Gaps for Through-Transmission Laser Welding Clearweld Process for Laser Welding of Plastics and Fabrics CO2 Laser Weld of Steel Tailored Blanks for Automotive Use CO2 Laser Welding of 5000 Series Aluminium Alloys CO2/Yb Fibre Laser and Hybrid Laser-TIG Welding Processes Coating Composites - A Review COD/J Contour Integral Concept Elastic Plastic Fractures Code Requirements for Ferritic Material Toughness Cohesive Zone Modelling of Ductile Crack Growth in Steel Cold and Hot Wire Feed Laser Welding of Structural Steel Cold Spray Technology Update and TWI Facility Installation Comparing Electro Discharge, Laser and Ion Beam Machining Comparison of the Cutting of Four Different Steels, using Linearly and Circularly Polarised Laser Light Compilation of K-Solutions for Fitness-for-Service Procedures Composition and Creep Properties of 9%Cr1%Mo Weld Metals Composition and Heat Treatment for Modified 9%Cr 1%Mo Metals Composition and Microstructural Development/Toughness Composition and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Steel Composition and Surface Effects on CO2 Laser Cut Edge Quality in Carbon and C-Mn Steels Composition/Weld Speed and Solidification Cracking in Steel Computer Based Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints: 3rd Report Computer Based Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints: 5th Report Computer Based In-Process Data Monitoring of Spot Welds Computer Design of Compact Electron Beam Guns Confirming the Validity of the BS7608 Fatigue Design Curves Considerations for a Robot Welding Cell - A Guide Document Constraint Calculation in Pipeline Girth Welds Contamination by Air on TIG Welded Pure Titanium Sheet Continuous Wave CO2 Laser Beam Measurement Techniques Control of Porosity in CO2 Laser Welds in C-Mn Steel Control of Weld Penetration in TIG Welding: A Review of Factors Affecting Weld Pool Behaviour and of Techniques to Improve Process Control Controlled Shot Peening and Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welds Controlling Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium in Welding Fume 1116/2019 Correlating Charpy V and COD Test Data for Ferritic Metals Correlating Fracture Toughness and Charpy Impact Energy Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Properties of Arc Welds Corrosion Behaviour of Cold Sprayed Tantalum Coatings Corrosion Fatigue Crack in a Simulated HAZ Microstructure Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation in Structural Steel Corrosion in Oxidising/Carburising/Metal Dust Environments Corrosion Protection of Metals by the Use of Sol-Gel Coatings Corrosion Resistance of Arc/Power Beam Welded Steel Pipes Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Steels in Sulphuric Acid Corrosion Resistance of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys 2014A-T651 and 7075-T651 Corrosion Resistance of High Speed Fusion Welds Corrosion Testing of Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds - Literature Review Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings for Biomass Use Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings in High Temperatures Corrosion Under Insulation: Causes, Prevention and Testing Crack Arrest Test Methods/Properties for Structural Steels Crack Depth Effects on C-Mn Pipe Steel in a Sour Environment Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Material Analysis Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Testing And Analysis Crack Tip Opening Displacement and Test Panel Restraint Creep Failure in Parts Subjected to High Temperature Loading Crystallinity in Polyethylene and Polypropylene Welds CTOD Design Curve: Limitations, Finite Size and Application CTOD Ductile Fractures of Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Tests Cumulative Damage Calculations and Low Spectrum Stresses Cumulative Damage Calculations with New Fatigue Design Rules Curing and Stability of Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coatings Current Characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Sets Cutting Processes for Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Cutting Stainless Steel with Disc and CO2 Lasers Defect Assessment Software Based on Revisions to BSI PD 6493 Defect Control in the Fade-Out Region of Electron Beam Welds Defect Control of Thick Section Electron Beam Welds Demagnetisation Techniques for Welding Requirements Demonstration: Finite Element Analysis of Conventional Ultrasonic Testing Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 1 Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 2 Deposition of Chromium Boride/Stainless Steel Hard-Facing Deposition of Glass/Ceramic Structures Using DMD Equipment Design and Damage Tolerance of Reinforced Polymer Composites Design when Welding Single Projections in Aluminium Sheet Design/Development of a High Frequency Pulser for EB Welding Detection and Characterisation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Detection of Early-Stage Creep Damage in Welded Steels Determining CTOD from SENB Specimens in Steel Determining the Fracture Resistance of Fully Ductile Metals Deterministic/Probabilistic Flaw Assessment for Weld Joints Development and Understanding of Wire-Fed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Development of a Brazed Ceramic-Faced Steel Tappet Development of a Computer Model for Welding Similar Thermoplastic Polymers Development of a Fatigue Sensor for Welded Steel Structures Development of a Local Vacuum Electron Beam Welding System Development of a Novel Pre-Treatment for Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloys Development of Alternative Hardfacing Materials - Report Development of an Electronic Weld Measurement Gauge Development of Improved Tool Designs and Parameters for the Friction Stir Butt Welding of 1.2, 6 and 25mm Thickness Aluminium Alloys Development of Joining and Sealing Technologies for Polymer Fuel Cells Development of Joint Finding, Following and Adaptive Arc Welding Procedures for Autonomous Robotic Manufacture Development of Microstructures in Low Oxygen Steel Welds Development of Novel Focused Ultrasonic Transducers for NDT Development of Procedures for Low Porosity Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 3.25 and 6.35mm Thickness Titanium Alloys Development of Sealing Technologies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Development of Tack Welding Procedures using the TIG Process Development of Transparent Conducting Coatings via Sol-Gel Developments in Arc Welding Data Retrieval Systems Developments in Manufacture and Characterisation of Comeld Joints Developments to the Master Curve for Application to Welds Diffractive Optical Manipulation of CO2 Laser Radiation Diffusion Bonding of 0.4 Carbon, Chromium/Molybdenum Steel Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium Alloys to Titanium Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium and its Alloys to Materials Diffusion Bonding of an Aluminium-Lithium Alloy (AA8090) Digital Image Measurement of Structural Components Dilution and Heat Input Control in Submerged Arc Welding Direct Fluxing and Steel Root Weld Metal Profiles Dissimilar Friction Welding of Titanium to Stainless Steel Dissimilar Materials Joins and Friction Weld Opportunities Dissimilar Metal Interfaces and Subsea Hydrogen Cracking Draft European/International Standard prEN ISO 10882-1 Drop Weight Impact Testing Dual Stage Pressure Cycle and Thermoplastic Vibration Welds Ductile Crack Extension in API 5L X65 and HY 130 Steels Ductile Instability and Driving Force Curve Predictions Effect of Cast to Cast Material Variations in TIG Welding Effect of Deoxidant Additions on Submerged-Arc Fluxes Effect of Hydrogen Gas on Fatigue Performance of Steels Effect of Nitrogen Addition to Metal Corrosion Resistance Effect of Preheat and Interpass Temperatures on Nickel Alloy Effect of Remelting on OES Calibrations for Ferritic Steels Effect of Welding Variables on Pitting Resistance Effects of Composition and Laser Focus Position on Solidification Cracking Susceptibility in C-Mn Steel CO2 Laser Welds Effects of Sulphur on HAZ Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Efficiency Measurements of Welding and Joining Equipment Elastic T-Stress and Fracture Mechanic Constraint Parameters Elastic-Plastic Fracture Assessments Based on CTOD Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis of Transverse Fillet Joint Electrical Pulse Control of Laser Weld Plasma Formation Electrode Coatings and Fume Emission Rate/Composition Electrode Coatings and Fume Emission Rates/Composition Electrode Formulation and Fume Emission Rate/Composition Electrode Weaving in Mechanised CO2 Vertical Fillet Welds Electromagnetic Transducers to Generate/Detect Guided Waves Electromagnets for Arc Oscillation in Surfacing Applications Electron Beam Deposition for Improved Material Processing Electron Beam Surface Imaging by Backscattered Electrons Electron Beam Surfi-Sculpt® Process and Mechanisms Electron Beam Texturing of Substrates Electron Beam Thick Section Steel Welding with Filler Wire Electron Beam Transverse Butt Weld Fatigue Strength Electron Beam Weld Missed Joints: Assessing Magnetic Effects Electron Beam Weld Solidification Cracking Testing Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 1: The Effect of Material Type and Composition on Electron Gun Discharging Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 2: Recent Developments in the Design and Application of Magnetic Trap Devices Electroslag and Electrogas Welding of C-Mn Steel Electrospark Deposition for Repair of Worn Components Electrostatic Bonding of Silicon to Glass Element Transfer in Ferritic Steel Submerged-Arc Welding Elevated Temperature Midlife Weldment Cracking (Type IV) Embedded Non-Planar Defects in Transmission Pipeline Welds Encapsulants for Implantable Electronic Medical Devices Engineering Critical Assessment of Steel Catenary Risers Environmental Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Welded Steel Environmental Testing of Polymer-Coated Materials Joints Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Duplex Stainless Steels Environmentally-Assisted Cracking in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds 1124/2020 Error Reduction for Region-of-Interest Computed Tomography ESIS Measurement of Thermoplastic J-Fracture Toughness Establishment and Application of a Welding Fume Database Estimation of Exposure to Arc Welding Fume EuP Legislation and Primary Energy Efficiency for Joining European FITNET Procedure: Fracture Assessment Option 4 European FITNET Procedure: Locally Thinned Area Assessment European FITNET Procedure: Use of Fatigue Assessment Route 4 European Standard for Automatic Ultrasonic Testing of Welds Evaluating Strength of Corroded Nozzles in Pressure Vessels Evaluating the Strength of Corroded Pressurised Components Evaluation of a High Velocity Wire Flame Spraying Process Evaluation of a New Corrosion Under Insulation Test Method Evaluation of a Silicon Carbide Model Metallisation System Evaluation of High Velocity Oxyfuel Sprayed Coatings Examination of the Protocol Defined by prEN/ISO 10882-1 Exploratory Tests on Nickel-Based Wet Welding Electrodes for Ferritic Steels Fabrication Aspects of a Laser Welded Lightweight Panel Fabrication, stress and integrity in clad components Factors Affecting MIG Arc Initiation in Mechanised Systems Factors Affecting the Level of Porosity in Nd:YAG Laser Welded 3.2mm 2024 Aluminium Alloy Factors Controlling Weld Toughness: Pt 1 Heat-Affected Zones Factors Controlling Weld Toughness: Pt 2 Weld Metals Factors Influencing Particulate Fume Emission in Arc Welding Factors Influencing Porosity in Aluminium Arc Welds Failure Mechanisms of Subsea Dissimilar Joints Fatigue Analysis of a Mast Structure Subject to Wind Loading Fatigue Assessment of Welded Aluminium Structures Fatigue Crack Growth in C-Mn Pipe Steel in Sour Environment Fatigue Crack Growth Within Adhesively Bonded Joints Fatigue Crack Propagation Data and Steel Tension Loading Fatigue Crack Propagation in C-Mn Steel HAZ Microstructures Fatigue Crack Shape and Fracture Toughness Measurements Fatigue Data for Butt Welded Specimens with Slag Inclusions Fatigue Data Relevant to Steel Pressure Equipment Design to EN 13445 Fatigue Life Improvement by Water-Jet Erosion Fatigue Life Prediction for Toe Ground Joints Fatigue of Clinched/Self-Piercing Rivet/Spot Welded Joints Fatigue of Fillet Welded Plate Joints under Varying Stress Fatigue of Laser Welded Zinc Coated Sheet Steel Lap Joints Fatigue of Multiaxial Load-Carrying Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue of Structures Under Variable Amplitude Loading Fatigue of Thin Steel Tungsten Inert Gas/Plasma Welds Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading - A Review Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading: Test Methods and Preliminary Results Fatigue of Welded Joints under Variable Amplitude Loading Fatigue Performance of Butt Welds in Titanium Fatigue Reassessment of Ageing Pressure Vessels Fatigue Strength of EB Transverse Butt Weld Joints in Steel Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Transverse Butt Welds Fatigue Strength of Transverse Electron Beam Butt Joints Fatigue Strength of Transverse Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue Test Results for Laser Welds in Steel - A Review Fatigue Testing Adhesively Bonded Fibre-Reinforced Laminates Fatigue Testing Variable Amplitude Load Fillet Weld Joints Fatigue Tests on Electron Beam Welded C-Mn Steel Butt Joints Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Pipes Fatigue Tests on Plasma Dressed Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue Tests on Two Types of Welded Joints Under Compressive Loading Fatigue Tests on Variable Amplitude Load Fillet Welded Joins Fatigue Tests on Variable Amplitude Loaded Fillet Welds Fatigue Tests on Welded Tubular Joints in Air and Sea Water Fatigue Tests to Establish Joint Classifications Fatigue Tests Under Variable Amplitude Loading FATIGUECALC: A Fatigue Design Microcomputer Program Fatiguing Load and R-Ratio Influences on Fracture Toughness FEA of Crack Driving Force in Circumferential Pipe Cracks FEA Response Probabilistic Assessment of Pipeline Flaws Feasibility of Solid State Joining of Aluminium to Alumina Feasibility of Twin Spot Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 2024 Aluminium Alloy Feasibility Studies into Surfacing by Friction Welding Ferrite/Austenite Balance in Arc Weld 22Cr/5Ni/2.5Mo/N Steel Ferritic/Austenitic TIG Welding using Nitrogen Shielding Gas Ferrous Weld Metal Compositional Analysis Sample Preparation Fibre Laser Welding of High Strength Steels for Automotive Fillet Weld Joint Fatigue Tests under Wide Band Loading Fillet Welded Joint Strength in Static Loaded Steels Fine-Scale Electron Beam Processing Development Finite Difference Software to Analyse Electron Guns Finite Element Analysis of Guided Waves in Pipe/Rail Flaws Finite Element Analysis of Long-Range Ultrasonic Waves in Metallic Structures of Arbitrary Cross Section Finite Element Analysis of Selected Welded Wide Plate Tests Finite element modelling of low stress no distortion welding FITNET Procedure: Weld Strength and Fracture Assessment Five Commercially Available Synergic MIG Weld Power Sources Flaws in Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Flux and Element Transfer During Submerged-Arc Welding Flux Cored Arc Welding Conditions and Hardfacing Alloys Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 1 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 2 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 3 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 4 Flux Type and Strength/Toughness of Submerged-Arc Weld Metal Flux-Cored Wire Welding of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Fluxes and Slags in Arc Welding Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels Part 2 Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels Part 3 Forced Cooling and Polyethylene Butt Fusion Weld Integrity Forced Cooling of Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welds Forces Generated During the Friction Stir Welding Process Forces in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys - Further Studies Formation and Corrosion of Weld Root Flaws in Duplex Steels Fracture Assessment Proposals for Revisions to BSI PD 6493 Fracture Case Studies for Fitness-for-Service Procedures Fracture in 50mm Thick Welded Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Fracture Toughness and Weld Defects: Solidification Cracks Fracture Toughness of Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Friction Skew-StirTM Lap Welding 5083-H111 Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Spot Welding Process Capability 1130/2020 Friction Stir Tools for Welding Thick Aluminium Alloys Friction Stir Weld Stress Corrosion in 7050 Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welding - The State of the Art Friction Stir Welding Aluminium Alloy 5083 - Increased Welding Speed Friction Stir Welding of a Ferritic Stainless Steel - A Feasibility Study Friction Stir Welding of an Aluminium Alloy: Tool Geometry Friction Stir Welding of Steel Friction Stir Welding of Steel: Process Considerations Friction Stir Welding of Steels - A Further Evaluation Friction Stir Welding of Steels - Status Report Friction Stir Welding of Steels: Mechanical Properties Friction Surfacing Material Deposition Friction Taper Plug Welding of 10mm AA6082-T6 [Aluminium Alloy] Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels: Pt 1 Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels: Pt 2 Friction Welding Injection Mould/Mid Density Thermoplastics Friction Welding Non-Circular Sections with Linear Motion Friction Welding of 25mm Steel Bars: Composition/Properties Friction Welding of Aluminium Alloy HE9 to Stainless Steel Friction Welding of Copper to Stainless Steel FSW as a Repair Technique for Surface Cracks in Stainless Steel FSW Tool Performance and Lifetime in High Strength Aluminium Full Matrix Capture Ultrasonic Inspection with Sparse Arrays Fume Characteristics: Effects of Arc Welding Practice Fume Emission Rate and Composition for Flux-Cored Arc Welds Fume Emissions from Arc Welding through Shop Primers Further Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys Further Progress in Joining of Intermetallic Alloys Further Toughness Data on Electroslag Welds in C-Mn Steels Fusion Welding Models to Predict Residual Stress/Distortion Gamma Sterilisation and Adhesive Bonded Dissimilar Materials Gap Filling in FSW using AdStir: Further Improvement Gas Oxygen and Weld Discolouration/Corrosion Resistance Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of the Al-Li Alloy 8090 GCHAZ Hardness in Microalloyed C-Mn Steels Before/After PWHT Generation of Surface Features Using A Low Power Laser Beam Geometry Changes and the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints Geometry/Orientation and Ductile Crack Growth Resistance Girth Weld, Small Scale Strip and Plate Specimen Fatigue Grade 91 Welding Practice and Repair Without Post-Weld Heat Grain Size/Morphology in Nickel-Chromium Alloy Weld Metal Grinding/Peening Improved Fatigue Strength of Fillet Joints Guided Wave Flaw Sizing for Pipe Inspection in the Field Guided Wave Focusing for Pipeline Inspection in the Field Guided Wave Inspection of Plate-like Structures Guidelines for the Interpretation of Automated Ultrasonic Test Images: Pulse Echo HAZ Cracking of C-Mn Steels in Tubular Cored Wire Welds HAZ Cracking of Low Carbon C-Mn Steels: Further Data HAZ Hydrogen Cracking of Low Carbon C-Mn Structural Steels HAZ Intermetallic Precipitates and Stainless Steel Toughness HAZ Microstructure/Toughness of Multipass Steel Welds HAZ Toughness of MMA Welded 12%Cr Martensitic-Ferritic Steel HAZMET: Microstructural Prediction Software Heat Sink Attachment for New Electronic Ceramic Substrates Heat Treatment and Mechanical Properties/Residual Stress High Average Power Nd:YAG Laser Processing for Metals High Chromium/Nitrogen Austenitic Alloy Pitting Corrosion High Power Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding High Pressure Inert Assist Gas Laser Welding of Cut Edges High Productivity Pipe Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys High Productivity Tape Laying of Carbon Fibre / PEEK High Productivity Welds in Advanced 9% Chromium Steel FB2 High Quality Welds in Titanium Alloys with Yb-Fibre Lasers High Speed Resistance Seam Welding of Low Carbon Steel Sheet High Stress Abrasive Wear Testing of Hard-Facing Materials High Temperature Corrosion Testing in Molten Chlorides High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying of Alumina Based Coatings High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying using Hydrogen Fuel High Voltage Breakdown in Electron Beam Welding Equipment High-Brightness Electron Beams for Micro Processing Hole Repair in Steel Plate using Friction Taper Plug Welding Hole/Plate Geometries and Friction Taper Plug Welding Hot Plate Welding Injection Moulded Thermoplastics Hot Spot Stress Based Fatigue Design for Welded Structures HVOF Sprayed Alternatives to Hard Chromium Plating Hybrid CO2 Laser-MAG Welding of Carbon Steel - A Literature Review and Initial Study Hybrid Laser-Arc Weld Quality Enhancement Hybrid Laser-MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Butt Joints Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser MAG Welding of T joints in C-Mn Steels for Shipbuilding Applications Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-AC MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Hydrogen Cracking/Microstructure/Hardness of MMA Weld Steels Hydrogen Cracks in Electrode Weld 450 N/mm2 Yield Strength Hydrogen Embrittlement of High Strength Precipitation Hardenable Nickel Alloys 1128/2020 Hydrogen Embrittlement of Subsea Joints Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Behaviour during Steel Welding Identifying Steel Pitting with Electrochemical Noise Impact Damage and Modelling of Flaws in Lap-Shear Joints Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt 1: Friction Welds Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt II Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt III: Flash Welds Implant Cracking Prediction of Hydrogen Cracking Behaviour Importance of Laser Beam Brightness on Melt Run Penetration Impression Creep Characterisation of Weldment Properties Improved Control of High Voltage EB Weld Discharges Improved Finite Element Predictions of Residual Stresses Improved Guided Wave Technology for Pipe Defect Detection Improved Operation of Nd:YAG Lasers Using Diode Pumping Improved Response to Electron Beam Weld Flashovers Improved Weld Process to Avoid C-Mn Steel Hydrogen Cracking Improvements in Friction Stir Welding Tool Technology Improvements to a High Brightness 7.5kW Electron Beam System and Initial Processing Trials Improving Essential Variables for Hardness Control: A Feasibility Study Improving Fatigue Life in Medium/High Strength Steel Welds Improving Manufacturing Performance with Computer Simulation Improving Microstructure/Properties of Electron Beam Welds Improving the Fatigue Performance of Welded Stainless Steels Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints by Grinding In-Bore Multi-Positional Laser Welding Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloy 718 and Ti-6Al-4V Inclusions and Control of C-Mn Steel Weld Microstructures Industrial Applications of Multi-Scale Modelling Industrial Ceramics: Materials, Applications and Joining Industrial Coatings for Mechanically Aggressive Uses Influence of Current Type and Welding Position on Properties Influence of Various Factors on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Plates with Fillet-Welded Attachments Influences on Composition, Microstructure and Properties Initial Assessment of Precision Reliability Test Methods Initial Performance Assessment of Yb Fibre Laser Technology in the Power Range from 4 to 7kW for Welding Structural Steel Initial Study into Thermal Piercing of Thermoplastic Composite Laminates Initiation of a Tungsten Inert Gas Arc by High Voltage DC Innovation Management Processes at TWI Insights into Friction Stir Welding Instrumentation for Quality Assurance in Arc Welding Instrumentation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Instrumented Indentation and Tensile Property Measurement Integration –and Intelligent Computer Aided Arc Welding Intercritical Reheating and HAZ Microstructure/Toughness Intercritical Thermal Cycles and HAZ Structure/Toughness Intercrystalline Corrosion Resistance in Stainless Steel Interface Modification and Solid-State Bonding of 0.4C Steel Interim Report on Submerged Arc Weld Toughness Distribution Intermetallic Content and Pitting Resistance of Steels Intermetallic Formation in Superduplex Steel Simulated HAZs Interpreting Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction Data Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture to SMEs Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture: Interim Report Introduction to Reliability Testing Methods in Microelectronics and Related Sectors Inverter Controlled Power Source MIG Weld Synergic Control Investigating Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Steel Investigation of Arc Based Additive Manufacturing 1114/2019 Investigation of Factors Which Affect the Fatigue Strength of Shot Peened Fillet Welded Joints Investigation of Submerged Arc Weld Metal Inclusions Investigation of the Orbital Friction Welding of Mild Steel Joining Aerospace Composite Structures Joining Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composites Joining Aluminium to Steel: Friction and Diffusion Bonding Joining Aluminium to Steel: Friction Welding/Diffusion Bonds Joining Creep-Resistant Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys Joining Dissimilar Alloy Combinations using Scanning Laser Beams Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet: Literature Survey Part 1 Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet: Literature Survey Part 2 Joining of Intermetallic Alloys: Further Studies Joining of Metal Matrix Composites - A Review Joint Angle and Bead Geometry for Submerged-Arc Welding Keyhole Plasma Orbital Welding Procedures for Steel Pipes Keyhole Plasma Welding of Carbon Steel Sheet Keyhole Plasma Welding of Thin Section Stainless Steels Laser Beam Spinning for Fitup/Beam Alignment Tolerances Laser Cutting and Welding of Mild and Stainless Steel Sheets Laser Cutting of Fibre Reinforced Polymers Laser Cutting of Sheet Steel - A Users' Guide Laser Deposition of Functionally Graded Material Laser Deposition of Nickel-Based Superalloy, Waspaloy - A Preliminary Study Laser Equipment and Process Development for Fabric Joining Laser Materials Processing using Tailored Heat Sources Laser Profiling for Image Enhancement of Digital Radiographs Laser Surface Hardening with Adaptive Control Laser Surface Modification Using the Surfi-Sculpt Process Laser Surface Processing of Nylon-Elastane Fabrics Laser Transformation Hardening of Medium Carbon Steel: Pt I Laser Transformation Hardening of Medium Carbon Steel: Pt II Laser Vision-Based Adaptive Control of Robotic MAG Welding Laser Welding 12.5mm Niobium Microalloyed Structural Steel Laser Welding Butt and T Joints in Low Carbon Steel Sheets Laser Welding Low Carbon/Low Sulphur Structural Steels Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys: Principles/Applications Laser Welding of Plastics Film and Sheet Laser Welding of Structural Steel with Wire Feed Laser Welding of T Joints in Low Carbon Steel Sheets - Process Tolerance Data Laser Welding of Titanium Alloys with Low Internal Porosity Lead-Free Solders: Current Status and Future Trends LFW of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Linear Friction Welding Info for Production Engineering Linear Friction Welding of Alpha 2 Titanium Aluminides Linear Friction Welding of Aluminium-Copper-Lithium Alloy Linear Friction Welding of Engineering Metals Linearity of Clip Gauges Used in Fracture Mechanics Tests Liquation Cracks in Thick Section Al-Mg-Si Alloy Plate Literature Review on Robotic Friction Stir Welding Literature Survey of Acceptance Criteria for the Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique Load Fluctuation and Sulphide Stress Cracking in C-Mn Steel 'Local Approach' and Cleavage Fracture of Ferritic Steels Local Approach for HAZ Cleavage Fracture Failure Prediction Local Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Branch Connections Local Vacuum Mobile Systems for Power Beam Welding of Steel Local Vacuum System for Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welds Long Range Monitoring of Corrosion Damage in Storage Tanks Long-Range Guided Wave Inspection Beyond Pipe Bends Long-Range Guided Wave Pipe Modelling and Inspection Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Low Stress Treatment and Miner's Rule for Aluminium Alloys Macro/Microstructural Features of Friction Stir Welds MAG Weld Procedures for Galvanneal Coated Steel Sheet Magnetic Arc Oscillation for Weld Surfacing Magnetic Control Arc Oscillation and Orbital TIG Welding Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welds in Aluminium Alloy Tube Manganese and Coating Basicity and Microstructure/Properties Manganese/Nitrogen and Microstructure/Toughness of Metals Manganese/Preheat and Microstructure/Mechanical Properties Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and Alloys Pt 1 Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and Alloys Pt 2 Manual Metal Arc and Flux Cored Wire Welding without Preheat Manual Metal Arc Welding Effects of Core Wire Deoxidation Manual Ultrasonic Inspection Characterisation Material Selection for Offshore Steel Structures Materials Technology Gap Analysis for Handling CO2 Maximum HAZ Hardness in Multiple Pass C-Mn/Low Alloy Steels Maximum Load Toughness For Ductile Fracture Assessments Mean Stress and Fatigue Lives Of Ground/Peened Fillet Welds Mean/Residual Stress and Welded Joint Fatigue Strength Measurement of True Resistance at High Alternating Current Measurement/Modelling R-Curves for Low Constraint Specimens Measurement/Prediction of Electron-Beam Thermal Cycles Measuring Crack Opening Displacement in Weldments Measuring Residual Stress and Effects of Prior Deformation Measuring the Quality of Electron Beams Mechanical Approaches to Seam Tracking for Arc Welding Mechanical Behaviour of Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Mechanical Fastening Technologies to Join Steel to Aluminium Mechanical Loading and Residual Stress/Fracture in BS 7910 Mechanical Properties of Flux-Cored Wire Welds in C-Mn Steel Mechanical testing and Finite Element Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Under High Strain Rate: Initial Results Mechanical Tests for Plain and Welded Plastics - A Review Mechanised Arc Welding with Industrial Robots - An Initial Study Mechanised Electrode Weaving for Vertical MIG Welding Mechanised Gas Shielded Arc Welding Processes for Steel Mechanised Orbital TIG Process Pipe Welding Mechanised Pulsed MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Mechanised Welding of Austenitic Steels: Progress Report Mechanised Wet Underwater Flux-Cored Arc Weld Repair Melt Profile/Deposition Rates in Thick Section Arc Welding Metal Powder Additions for One/Two-Pass Submerged-Arc Welds Metal Powder Additions to Multipower Submerged-Arc Welds Metal Powder Additions to Triple Arc Submerged-Arc Welds Metal Strength/Weld Current and Dilution in 9%Ni Steel Joins Methods for the Financial Optimisation of Plant Management MIAB Welding of Thick Wall Carbon/Low Alloy Steel Tubing Microalloyed Laser Weld Steel: Fracture Toughness/Porosity Microcomputer Control of Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Microcomputer Controlled Robotic Precision TIG Welding Microcomputer Program Guidance to Prevent HAZ Cracking Microcomputers and Applications for Welded Structures Microstructural Development in Low Oxygen Steel Weld Metal Microstructural Development/Toughness of 9-13%Cr Steels Microstructural Strain with Electron Backscatter Diffraction Microstructure of HVOF Sprayed Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Microstructure of Reheated Grain Coarsened C-Mn Steel HAZ Microstructure Properties of Heat Treated C-Mn-Ni Steel Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Arc Welds: Pt 1 Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Arc Welds: Pt 2 Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Vertical-Up Steels Microwave Curing of Composite Microwave Heating and Bonding of Alumina Ceramics Microwave Heating and its use for the Joining of Ceramics Microwave Powered Plasma Cutting and Welding Thin Materials Microwave Processing of Polymer Composites Microwelding of Overlapped-Foils with Continuous-Wave Lasers MIG and TIG Arc Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet MIG Butt Welds under Quasi-Static and Impact Loading MIG Weld Synergic Control with a Thyristor Power Source Mild/Austenitic Stainless Steel Surfacing Characteristics Minicomputer Techniques for Arc Welding Data Acquisition Misalignment and the Fatigue Strength of Cruciform Joints Misalignment in FAD-Based Fracture Assessment of Weld Flaws Misalignment in Transverse Fatigue Loaded Butt Welds Missed Joints in Electron Beam Welding: Further Investigation of Techniques for Rapid and Effective Demagnetisation of Thick Sections Mk Fatigue Assessment of Girth Weld Weld Root Toe Flaws Model for Predicting Cleavage and Ductile Fracture in Steel Modelling and Validation of Direct Metal Laser Depostion Modelling Fracture in Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Region Modelling Microstructure in C-Mn and Low-alloy Steel Welds Modelling of Heat Affected Zone Microstructures in C-Mn Microalloyed Steel Single Pass Welds Modified Charpy Testing for the Assessment of Narrow Welds Modulated/Twin Spot/High Beam Titanium Alloy Laser Welding Molecular Orientation/Structure in Polypropylene Welds Monitoring Laser and Hybrid Laser-Arc Fillet Weld Quality Monitoring Storage Tank Corrosion with Piezo Vibrations Multi-Layer HVOF Coatings of Alumina and Nickel Alloy Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Section Steel Multi-Pass Manual C-Mn Steel Arc Weld Root Run Toughness Multipass Weld Fracture Toughness with Local Embrittlement Multirun Submerged-Arc Welding with Metal Powder Addition Narrow Gap MIG Welding - A Review of the Literature Narrow Gap Submerged Arc Welding of Steel: A Technical Review Nd:YAG Laser Beam Hardening and Cladding of Steel ND:YAG Laser Joining of Aluminium Sheet to Galvanised Steel Sheet: Initial Studies NDT Methods for Adhesive Bond Joint Inspection: Review NDT Techniques for Inspection of Thick Section EB Welds in Ferritic Steels Neural Network Processing of Ultrasonic Test Signals Nickel Superalloy Linear Friction Welding for Oil and Gas Niobium and the HAZ Toughness of High Heat Input C-Mn Welds Niobium/Nitrogen and Localised Corrosion Resistance Non-Arc Welded 12%Cr Ferritic:Martensitic Steel HAZ Non-Destructive Inspection of Surface Mount Solder Joints Non-Destructive Testing and Measuring Residual Stress Nondestructive Testing of Radial Friction Welds Non-Destructive Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging of a Fatigue Crack Non-Metallic Inclusions and Carbon Steel Ferrite Nucleation Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding: Progress and Developments Novel Compact High Voltage Power Supplies for EB Welding Novel Specimen Interaction of Fracture Assessment Stresses Numerical Determination of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Welding in 304 Stainless Steel Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots - A Case Study for New Users One-Knob Controlled MIG Welding Power Sources: Steady D.D. Open Arc and Short-Circuiting Arc Operation - A Critical Review On-Line Adaptive Control for Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser/MAG Welding 8mm Thick Steel Plate On-Line Monitoring of Laser Welded Steel Tailored Blanks Optical Design and Performance of a 2kW CO2 Laser Optical Emission Spectrometry Analysis of Thick Steel Plate Optical Emission Spectrometry of Steel: Standard Calibration Optical Sensor Controlled Multipass Welding Optimisation and Observation of the Laser Surfi-Sculpt® Process Optimisation of Direct Laser Metal Deposition of Alloy 718 Optimising a Gas Jet Plasma Laser Welding Control System Optimising Focussed/Phased Array Ultrasonic Clad Pipe Tests Orbital A-TIG Welding of Steel Tube Using an Activating Flux Out-of-Chamber Thick C-Mn Steel Electron Beam Welding Overlay Welding For Light Water Nuclear Pressure Vessels Overview of Flexible Automation in the Structural Fabrication Industry Overview of Friction Stir Welding Modelling Projects at TWI Oxyfuel Spraying Preparation of Aluminide Coatings PA Ultrasonic Inspection of Thick Stainless Steel Welds Parametric Relationships in Short-Circuit MIG Welding PEEK/PP Laser Surface Modification for Adhesion/Wettability Penetration during Mechanised TIG Welding: Further Studies Penetrator Flaws in High Frequency Induction Welded Tube Phased Array Inspection/Fatigue Performance of FSW Joints Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Dissimilar Metal Welds Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Pipe Girth Welds Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Small Fatigue Cracks Physical/Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides: Review Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Friction/Arc Welded Joints Pitting Resistance in High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Plasma Control Gases and Laser Weld Quality in C-Mn Steel Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Weld Surfacing Process Plasma Transferred Arc Surfacing of Small/Medium Scale Parts Plastic Collapse Assessments for Ferritic Steel Defects Plastic Collapse Solutions for Assessing Part Wall Defects Polyethylene Hot Plate Fusion Weld Non-Destructive Tests Polymer Coated Material Welding of Dissimilar Materials Polymer Composite L-Joints - Static, Fatigue and Impact Tests with Modelling of Damage Growth Porosity/Bead Geometry/Cracking in Laser Welded Alloy 718 Portable Arc Welding Robots - An Industrial Survey Post Rotational Twist and Friction Properties of C-Mn Steel Postweld Heat Treatment and HAZ of C-Mn Submerged-Arc Welds Postweld Heat Treatment Exemption in C-Mn/Low Alloy Steel Potential of Welding for Repair of Wrought Iron Precipitates and Prior Austenite Grain Size in Ti-Nb Steels Precision Laser Welding of Plastic Components Predicting Maximum HAZ Hardness in C-Mn/Low Alloy Steels Predicting Successful Manufacture of Ceramic/Metal Joints using Weibull Modelling Predicting the HAZ Toughness of C And C-Mn Steels - Welding at 2kJ/mm Prediction of Weld Distortion in Complex Thin-Walled Components: The Development of SDPS - TWI's Structural Distortion Prediction System Predictive Formulae for Weld Distortion - A Critical Review Preliminary Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys Preliminary Evaluation of Metallic Coatings Deposited using the Cold Spray Process Preloads/Low Temperature Fracture in Pressure Vessel Steel Preparing Graded Metal Ceramic Coatings by HVOF Spraying Press Joining and Self Piercing Riveting for Sheet Joining Prior Overload Effects in Structural Integrity Assessments Probabilistic Modelling of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Probability of Detection Curves for Ultrasonic Testing Procedure for Determining Free Nitrogen in Ferritic Steels Procedures for Crack Tip Opening Displacement Weld Testing Process Guidance and Software for Clearweld Process Interactions in Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MIG/MAG Welding Process Monitoring for Friction Stir Welding Quality Control Process Parameters and Electron Beam Welds in Steel Process Parameters and Tensile Properties of Bonded Steel Process Parameters and the Weld Metal Toughness of EB Welds Process Tolerance in Submerged Arc Welding: Initial Report Progress in Friction Stir Welding of Steels Proof of Concept for Real-Time Hydrogen Weld Monitoring Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel (Technology Briefing No. 131 - December 1980) Properties of Flash Welded Carbon Manganese Steel Properties of Friction Welds in 50mm Carbon Manganese Steel Properties of Spot Welds in Cold Rolled High Strength Steels Pseudo-Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) Analyses Published Creep Rupture Data for Modified 9%Cr Steel Welds Pulsed MIG Arc Welding Processes for Joining of Thin Sheet Aluminium Pulsed MIG Welding of Titanium with a Novel Wire Pulsed MIG with Phased Transverse Oscillation Pulsed Wire Feed Spray MIG-Welding PWHT and Critical Hardness of Sour Service Steels PZFlex Ultrasonic Beam Profile/Response on Fatigue Cracks Qualifying Long-Term Performance of Butt Fusion Welds in PE Pipes from Short-Term Tests Quality Assurance in Developing Welding Engineering Software Quality Control of the Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Process - A Literature Survey Quality Control Systems for Spot Welding Steel/Aluminium Rapid Prototyping (RP) - Technology Overview Real Time Defect Assessment from Ultrasonic Test Data Real-Time Hydrogen Monitoring During Welding Recommendations for the Avoidance of Porosity in TIG Welding Reduced-Pressure, Local Vacuum Electron Beam Welding Trials Reducing Solidification Cracking in CO2 Laser Welds Reflow Performance of Solder Paste with Tin/Silver/Copper Alloy Relationships Between Process Variables and Weld Geometry Reliability Testing and Modelling for Printed Circuit Boards Relief/Prediction of Residual Stresses in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Welds Repair of Single Crystal CMSX-10 Blades and Mar-M247 Vanes Repair Weld Residual Stress Measurements in Pressure Vessels Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Slag Defect Welds Residual Stress in Clad Pipe Girth Welds Residual Stress in Girth Weld Pipe After Plastic Deformation Residual Stress/Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al-4V Parts Residual Stresses and Elastic Follow-Up 1129/2020 Residual Stresses and Fatigue of Fillet Welded Steel Joints Residual Stresses in 25mm Thick Weld Metal COD Specimens Residual Stresses in Double Tension Crack Arrest Specimens Residual Stresses in MIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Panels Residual Stresses in Prior Loaded Cracked Specimens Residual Stresses in Steel Girth and Butt Welds Resistance and Laser Sheet Welds in Type UNS S32304 Steel Resistance Spot Welded Steel, Electrode Life/Corrosion Tests Resistance Spot Welding of High Strength (600-1200N/mm2) Steel Sheet Resistance Spot Welding of Hot Pressed Boron Steels Resistance Spot Welding Steel to Aluminium with Interlayers Resistance Welding Fume Emissions through Organic Coatings Resistance Welding of Thick Section Low Carbon Steel Resistance Welding Toolkit Review of Fatigue Results from Girth Welds in Risers Review of Innovation Management Tools Review of Laser Heat Treatment and Surfacing Techniques Review of Optical NDT Techniques in Industrial Applications Review of Porosity Formation and Avoidance in MIG Welding Review of Shearography Review of Sustained Load Strain and Cracking Phenomena in Titanium Alloys Under Static and Dynamic Loading Revisions to PD 6493 for Fusion Weld Structure Assessments Risk Assessment and Control of Exposure to Fume During Arc Welding of Steel Robotic Bobbin and Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding Robotic Floating Bobbin FSW in 3mm Thickness Al Alloys Root Flaws and Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys Root Run Formation In Mechanised Vertical MIG Arc Welding Rotating Arc Welding of Thin Section Tubulars Samples and Techniques for Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joints Semi-Automatic Steel Welding with Small Tubular Cored Wires Sensitivity Analysis of a Fracture Assessment Procedure Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour in Sour Pipelines Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth in Sour Pipeline Girth Welds Shielding Gases for CO2 Laser Welding - An Experimental Case Study on Lap Welds in High Strength Low Alloy Steel Short-Circuit Arc MIG Weld Synergic Control in DC Open Arc Signal Post Processing to Improve Guided Wave Tests Significance of Prior Overload to Fracture in A533B Steel Significance of the Low Stresses in Fatigue Loading Spectrum Silane Pre-Treatment of Al Alloys for Adhesive Bonding Simple Numerical Model for Hydrogen Diffusion in C-Mn Steels Single Sensor Top-Face Monitoring of Weld Penetration Single-Side Manual Metal Arc Butt Weld Root Run Consumables Sizing Locally Thinned Areas and Guided Wave Pipe Inspection Sliding Seal Reduced Pressure Laser Beam Welding Trials Solidification Cracking in C-Mn Steel Laser Welds Solidification Cracking of High Speed TIG and Laser Welds Solidification Cracking of Modified Submerged Arc Weld Metal Solidification Cracking Test of Carbon-Manganese Steel Welds Solidification Cracking: Effect of Parent Plate Compositions Solidification Cracking: Parent Plate Strength/Composition Solutions in PD6493: 1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Some Basic Fatigue Data for Various Types of Fillet Welded Joints in Structural Steel Some Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Steel Bars Sour Produced Fluid Corrosion Fatigue of C-Mn Steel HAZs Spatter Reduction When Welding with High Brightness Lasers Specification of Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Spectrum Shape and Cumulative Damage of Fillet Weld Plates Spot Weld Electrode Life Tests: Electrode Design/Materials Spot Weld Electrode Life: Machine Characteristics/Schedule Spot Weld Electrode Life: Parent Metal/Surface Treatment Spot Welds in Low Carbon/High Strength Steel Sheet: Pt 1 Spot Welds in Low Carbon/High Strength Steel Sheet: Pt 2 Spray Particle Characteristics and Arc Spray Coating Quality Spray-Formed Ti and Ti Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray Square Wave Pulse Current Control of MIG Weld Metal Transfer SSC of Welded 0.5%Cr Steel: Effect of pH and H2S Partial Pressure Stainless Steel Microsegregation/Laser Beam Surface Melting Stainless Steel Stress Corrosion Testing In Chloride Media Standardisation of NDT by Time-of-Flight Diffraction Standards and Fracture Toughness of Offshore Wind Structures Static Properties of Point and Hybrid Joints in Steel Sheets Static/Fatigue of Mechanically Fastened/Hybrid Joints Stationary Shoulder FSW of Aluminium Alloy T-Butt Joints Steel Surface Cleanliness/Diffusion Bonding Below A1 Temp Strain-Based Driving Force Estimates for Pipe Girth Cracks Strain-Based Pipe Girth Weld Engineering Critical Assessment Stress and J-Based Limit Load for Flaws in Pipe Girth Welds Stress Intensity Factors Due to Standard Residual Stress Profiles Stress Intensity Factors for a Semi-Elliptical Surface Crack Stress Intensity Factors For Transverse Butt Weld Toe Cracks Stress Interaction Effects in Fatigue: Experimental Findings Stress Magnification of Angular Misalignment at Butt Welds Stress Wave Emission Equipment Performance Pt 1: Transducers Stress-Relief/Seawater Temperature and Corrosion Fatigue Stress-Relieved Fillet Welds Under Part-Compressive Loading Structural Integrity of Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welds Structure of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Hot Plate Welds Structure/Corrosion of Friction Stir Weld Aluminium Alloys Structure/Property in Polyetheretherketone Hot Plate Welds Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Pt 1: Parameters Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Pt 2: Weld Beads Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel: Procedures Submerged Arc Weld Residual Stress During Postweld Heating Submerged Arc Weld Solidification Cracks in Commercial Steel Submerged Arc Welding Of Aluminium Bronze Submerged-Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Surface Condition and CO2 Laser Cutting Quality in Steel Surface Modification of Thermoplastic Materials Using Lasers Surface Preparation and Adhesion of Sprayed Alumina Coatings Surface Roughness/Porosity for Arc Spray Coatings Surface, Plate and Interface Waves in Adhesive Bond Joints Sustained Load Cracking of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and its Weldments Switched Arc Twin MIG Welding Of Joints Synergic Pulse MIG Welding System Elements and Concepts for Portable FSW Equipment Systems for Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Tearing Resistance Curves in SENB Specimens Techniques for Improving the Resistance Spot Weldability of 1.6-2.0mm Ultra-High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications Techniques for Improving the Weldability of TRIP Steel Using Resistance Spot Welding Technology Survey and Assembly of Flip Chip Bonding Temperature/Specimen Geometry Dependence of Structural Steel Tensile and Compressive Peak Overloads and Fatigue Cracks Tensile And Toughness Of Arc Welds In Aluminium Bronze Tensile And Toughness Properties Of Arc-Welded Alloys Tensile Properties/Structure of Polyethersulphone Welds Tensile Weld Tests for Thick Walled Polyethylene Pipe Test Geometry Stress Intensity Factors/Elastic Nu Factors Testing Electrofusion Joints in Polyethylene Pipes Testing Submerged Arc Welds Made With Boron Consumables The Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas-Shielded Welding Of Steel The Chemistry Of Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes The COD Approach And Its Application To Welded Structures The COD Design Curve: Validity Using Wide Plate Tests The Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Design Curve The Development And Welding Performance Of A 6kW Laser The Development of Equipment for Electron Beam Characterisation The Development of Reinforced Braze Alloys for Brazing Ceramics The Effect of Restraint on HAZ Cold Cracking of Butt Welds The Effect Of Specimen Geometry On Crack Growth Resistance The Effects of Composition on the Toughness and Creep Behaviour of Weld Metals for Advanced High Temperature 9-13%Cr Steels The Electrode Weave Pattern For CO2 Vertical Fillet Welds The Fatigue Performance of Adhesively Bonded Joints - A Review The Fatigue Performance of Repaired Fillet Welds The Flux-Cored Arc Welding Of Carbon Manganese Steels - A Review Of The Present Position The Hydrogen Economy: Materials and Joining Technology Needs The MIAB Welding Of Mild Steel Tubing The potential of neural networks in welding The Prediction of External Corrosion in Buried Pipelines from Survey Data 1126/2020 The Properties of Stainless Steel Friction Welds The Relationship Between Arc Welding Parameters And Weld Bead Geometry - A Literature Survey The Repair of Aircraft Structures Using Adhesive Bonding - A Survey of Current UK Practices The Use of Active Fluxes for MIG/MAG Welding of C-Mn Steel The Use of Glass-Ceramics as Joining Media The Use of Process Gases for High Power Nd:YAG Laser Welding The V-Factor: Parameters for Fracture Mechanics Assessments The Weldability Of Low Carbon Structural Steels The Welding Performance of High Brightness Lasers Theoretical Analysis Of The Influence Of Attachment Size On The Fatigue Strength Of Transverse Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welds Theoretical Modelling of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Thermal Cycles and Properties of 25%Cr Duplex Steel Plates Thermal History and Mechanical Properties in Grade 91 Steel Thermal Management Technology/Measurement for Electronics Thermal Spray Coating Surface Characterisation/Preparation Thermal Spraying Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Metallic Coatings Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermally-Assisted Piercing of Thermoplastic Composites Thermoelastic Determination of Toe Crack Stress Intensity Thermomechanical Steel Processing and HAZ Properties Thickness and Critical Crack Opening Displacement/J Values Thickness and Structural Predictions for A533B Class 1 Steel Thin-Wall Structure Low Stress Non-Distortion TIG Welds Ti/Al and the Toughness/Creep Rupture Strength of 92 Steel TIG Penetration Control: Hard-Wired Control Unit Development TIG Welding High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels TIG Welding Procedure and Slag Island Formation on 316 Steel Time Dependent Ductile Fracture of Line Pipe Steels TiN Particles and the HAZ Properties of Microalloyed Steels Titanium 5553/811 Laser Metal Deposition for Aerospace Use Titanium Dioxide Coatings for Photocatalytic Applications Titanium Flux Additions in Steel Submerged-Arc Welding Titanium/Boron Additions and Weld Chemistry/Microstructure Toe Defect Stress Intensity in Full Penetration Welds Toe Defects and Fatigue Strength of Transverse Fillet Welds Toe Defects and the Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welded Joints Tolerance of the MAG Welding Processes to Gaps in Lap Joints in Thin Sheet Steel Tolerant MIG Fillet Welding Procedures: Preliminary Report Tool Development for 6mm Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Tool Performance for Friction Stir Welding Stainless Steel Tool Shoulder and Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys Topographic Analysis of Mechanised Grit Blasted Surfaces Toughness Distributions In Two Steels Toughness of Submerged-Arc Welds in C-Mn Structural Steels Toughness of Thick Section C-Mn/Microalloyed Steel EB Welds Toughness Properties Of Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels Transition Resistance Spot Welding of Steel to Aluminium Transverse Butt Weld Fatigue Strength and Axial Misalignment Twin Spot Laser Welding for Dissimilar Thickness Steel Tailored Blanks Two-Layer Deposition Techniques for Metal Arc Repair Welds Type IV Cracking in 9-12%Cr Creep Strength Enhanced Steels Ultrasonic Au Wire Bondability of Thin Film Aluminium Alloy Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding 200µm Diameter Al-1%Si/Al Wire Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding of 500µm Diameter Al Wires Ultrasonic Bonding of Al-1 %Si Wire to NI-Cr Thin Film Ultrasonic Full Matrix Capture to Improve Characterisation Ultrasonic Inspection of External Stress Corrosion Cracking Ultrasonic Plastic Bonding of Protective Device Packages Ultrasonic Welding Fibre Reinforced Polyphenylene Sulphide Ultrasonic Welding of Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Chip-On-Board Applications Ultrasonic/Radiographic NDT of Fusion Weld Polyethylene Pipe Ultrasonic/Radiographic NDT of Polyethylene Fusion Joints Underwater Wet Welding: Welding Steel with Carbon Equivalent Unloading Compliance and Crack Growth Resistance Curves Unloading Compliance for Generating SENT Specimen R-Curves Unloading Compliance Method for Single-Specimen R-Curves Update on Fracture Toughness Test Methods for Welded Joints Using Electron Beam Real-Time Seam Tracking Equipment Using Fracture Mechanics to Claim Exemption from PWHT Using Glob Top Materials to Chip On Board Components: Review Using Water in Plasma Arc Cutting for Improved Performance Validating BS 7910:2013/R6 Fracture Assessment Procedures Validating CrackFirst Sensors at Ambient/Reduced Temperature Validation of Analytical and Computational Models of Friction Stir Welding Validation of Electron Beam Probing Equipment Validation of Methods to Determine CTOD from SENT Specimens Validation of R6 Strain-Based FAD Using Pipe Test Data/FEA Validation of Theoretical Models for Ultrasonic Inspection Variations in Stress Intensity Factor in Curved Crack Fronts Vibration Welding of Polyetheretherketone Vibration Welding of Thermoplastic Extruded Sheet Vision Systems and Hot Wire TIG Welding Positional Control Vitolane® Method for the Synthesis of Methacrylate Resins Vortex Generator Nozzles for Oxy-Fuel Cutting of C-Mn Steel Warm Prestress and Residual Stress/Fracture in Welded Joints Wear/Corrosion Resistant Coatings by Resistance Surfacing Weibull Parameters and Cleavage Fracture Predictions Weld Joint Impact Tests in 6000 Series Aluminium Alloy Weld Metal Mixing in Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MAG Welding Weld Metal Porosity/Hydride Cracking in Titanium and Alloys Weld Metal Toughness and Test Panel Restraint Levels: Report Weld Metal Toughness of Welded Modified 9%Cr1%Mo Steel Weld Overlaying and Process/Process Parameters on Dilution Weld Pass/Placement in Robotic Multipass Steel MAG Welding Weld Preparation/Restraint and Risk of Root Pass HAZ Cracks Weldability of Corrosion Resistant Steel: Interim Report Weldability of Corrosion Resistant Steels: 25Cr-5Ni-Cu-Mo Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Welding Institute Studies On Duplex And ELI Ferritic Materials Weldbonding of 1mm Aluminium Alloy Sheet Welding and Cutting Trials with a 3kW Carbon Monoxide Laser Welding and Deposition of Nickel Superalloys 718, Waspaloy and Single Crystal Alloy CMSX-10 Welding Characteristics of an 800W Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser Welding CRA Clad Materials: Three Layer (Buffer) Approach Welding CRA Clad Materials: Three Layer Butt Weld Trials Welding Electrode Aluminium and Microstructure/Toughness Welding Fine Insulated Cu Wire Without Removal of Insulation Welding Fume and Carbon-Manganese Steel Flux-Cored Arc Welds Welding of Thin Galvanised Sheet to Hydroformed Tube Welding Parameter Changes and HAZ Microstructure/Toughness Welding Parameters and Forge Butt Weld Impact Properties Welding Plastic Films with Infrared Lamp/Laser Technologies Welding Processes for S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate Welding Variables and Cracking in Cobalt-Based MMA Deposits Welding Variables and Pitting Resistance of Autogenous Welds Welding with Pulsed 1kW Nd: YAG Laser with Fibre Optic Beam Wire/Flux and Solidification Cracks in Submerged-Arc Welds Wire/Ribbon Interconnection of Bond Pads <50 Micrometers X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Small Metal Samples Yield Strength Mismatch and Welding Residual Stresses

A review of fatigue monitoring methods for welded joints

TWI Technology Briefing 747/2002

Y-H Zhang, P J Tubby and R King


Fatigue cracking in welded components starts almost always from welds and there is a risk that it may extend to the point of catastrophic failure. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a simple fatigue gauge which, when attached to or installed on a component, can give advance warning of structural failure, or provide an estimate of its remaining life.

Although many types of damage monitoring systems have been developed and used in a variety of service conditions, the nature of the fatigue process in welded joints imposes special requirements and limitations on the fatigue gauges which can be applied successfully. In particular, the presence of fine crack-like flaws at the weld toe largely eliminates the crack initiation phase, which is a significant proportion of the fatigue life of unwelded components. Secondly, tensile residual stresses substantially increase the damaging effects of nominally compressive applied loading cycles. In addition, the low fatigue strengths of welded details require that a gauge must be capable of responding to stress cycles of very low amplitude. Thus a device developed, for example in the aerospace industry for application to airframes, may not be appropriate for welded structures. This study has therefore reviewed the attributes of fatigue gauges and other structural monitoring methods currently available and some under development, and examines their suitability for welded structures.


  • Examine fatigue monitoring methods currently available or under development
  • Assess their suitability as a damage indicator in welded structures
  • Where appropriate, to recommend further work required for validation

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