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Repair Procedure Development

Effective repairs save time and money. When performed correctly, a weld repair can leave a product that performs over and above its design requirements. If performed efficiently, it can enable product delivery timescales to be met or extend the lifetime of a structure. As a world-leading centre of excellence in joining technology, TWI is here to help companies in all aspects of repair and reclamation involving welding and joining.

The initial cause of the defect(s) or damage that may warrant repair vary, and include:

  • Failure of processes or procedures during fabrication
  • In-service defects missed during fabrication or having grown during operation
  • Degradation of parts and components through unforeseen environmental factors or extended operation
  • Damage resulting from incorrect use or external factors

Each can influence the processes, timescale and environment necessary; in-service defects, for example, may demand on-site repair and inspection. The primary question, however, relates to whether a repair is required.

Establishing the need for repair

There are a number of reasons to consider repair, but initially, one question that must be answered is, do any factors deem it essential?

This will relate to the risks and consequences of not conducting a repair, for which the following must be considered:

  • What is the function of the part, component or structure in question?
  • What are its operating conditions: static/cyclic load and environment?
  • Are there safety implications related to its failure?
  • Are there codes, standards or customers’ expectations that clearly identify that a repair is necessary?
  • How will a given defect impact the performance and lifetime of the product?

Repair-related factors to consider

If a repair is necessary, a number of factors should be considered to enable the correct and best repair methodology to be adopted. These include:

  • Establishing the nature (size, shape and position) of the defect(s) – which  non-destructive test methods are necessary?
  • What processes can or should be considered to conduct a weld repair?
  • What external factors or constraints may limit the choice of repair method (process and procedure)? For example, is it practical to perform heat treatment that is normally necessary for the material in question?
  • Does the part or structure deem repair trials necessary to develop and qualify a weld repair procedure and personnel?
  • Is  third party inspection necessary?

Addressing these and other questions requires knowledge and expertise related to welding and joining processes, welding engineering, non-destructive testing, materials, corrosion, structural integrity, quality and safety and training. TWI has a team of recognised experts in all of these areas.

Welding and fabrication expertise

TWI is an industry leader in joining technology and is recognised globally as a centre of excellence. Our qualified engineers have many years of experience across all aspects of fabrication ranging across many industry sectors, including construction and engineering, aerospace, automotive, energy and environment, oil and gas, electronics, photonics, medical, chemical, equipment, consumables and materials. Remedial techniques are applied by skilled technologists and can often lead to innovative solutions.

Technique comparison and best practice

We can help you choose the best techniques and working methods to ensure the most effective, safe and efficient repair method. TWI welding engineers also provide third party independent review and supervision of weld repair procedures, from the development stage to their application.

Project management and consultancy

Whether you need a complete management solution or just some extra resource, we can help.
We can manage the entire project supported by site visits, sample fabrication, numerical modelling, demonstration pieces and testing, or simply provide advice to you over the phone. We'll give you direct access to the people best qualified to help, so you get the best advice and service.

Working with you, TWI can keep your equipment, machines, structures, and your business in the best condition. 

Typical weld repair and reclamation services

  • Root cause analysis

    On-site support
    Failure mode analysis
    Material characterisation
  • Design optimisation

    Stress redistribution
  • Repair strategy

    Numerical modelling
    Welding engineering
    Engineering critical assessment
    Mechanical testing
    Procedure qualification
    Sub-contractor audit and review
    Laser section extraction
  • Post-weld treatment

    Heat treatment
    Weld toe peening
    TIG dressing
    Weld toe burr grinding
    Ultrasonic impact treatment
    High frequency mechanical impact treatment
    Vibratory stress relief

If you require more information or something not listed above, please email

For more information please email: