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Single Sensor Top-Face Monitoring of Weld Penetration

Back to Research Reports Bending Correction Factor for Assessing Welded Joint Fatigue Environmentally-Assisted Cracking in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds 1124/2020 Guided Wave Focusing for Pipeline Inspection in the Field Guided Wave Flaw Sizing for Pipe Inspection in the Field Linear Friction Welding of Aluminium-Copper-Lithium Alloy LFW of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Signal Post Processing to Improve Guided Wave Tests Tearing Resistance Curves in SENB Specimens 5kW Yb-Fibre Lasers, Optics Selection and Process Parameters A 3-D Analysis of a Fillet Welded Fatigue Specimen CTOD Ductile Fractures of Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Tests A Comparison of Cut Quality on C-Mn and 304 Stainless Steels Comparing Electro Discharge, Laser and Ion Beam Machining A Comparison of Hot Bar and Laser Soldering Techniques for 0.5mm Pitch Electronic Devices A Comparison of the Gap-Bridging Capability of CO2 Laser and Hybrid CO2 Laser MAG Welding on 8mm Thickness C-Mn Steel Plate A Comparison of Three Stress Counting Methods Using Simulated Stress Spectra A Comparison of TIG Canning and Electron Beam Sealing Code Requirements for Ferritic Material Toughness Modelling Fracture in Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Region Model for Predicting Cleavage and Ductile Fracture in Steel Evaluating the Strength of Corroded Pressurised Components A Cutting Process Comparison A Feasibility Study of Brazing Silicon Carbide to Metals A Feasibility Study of Ultrasonic Wire Bonding to Polymer Thick Films A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Adhesively Bonded Joints European Standard for Automatic Ultrasonic Testing of Welds A Method of Measuring Displacements and Rotational Factors in SENB Specimens A New Approach to Improved Control of Thermoplastic Composites Induction Welding A Practical Guide to Process and Quality Control for Resistance Spot Welding The Effect of Restraint on HAZ Cold Cracking of Butt Welds A Preliminary Investigation into Welding Fume Formation Mechanisms for MIG/MAG Welding A Preliminary Study of the Ultrasonic Welding of Four Thermoplastics Fatigue Data for Butt Welded Specimens with Slag Inclusions A Review and Evaluation of the Durability of Low Surface Energy Coatings A Review of Arc Welding and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) A Review of Ball Grid Arrays for Electronic Assembly A Review of Crack Arrest Tests, Models and Applications A Review of Fatigue Monitoring Methods for Welded Joints A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 1, Process Review A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 2, Selection of Tool Materials A Review of Glass-Ceramics as Ceramic Bonding Media A Review of HAZ Toughness Evaluation A Review of Joint Tracking Systems for Laser Welding Review of Porosity Formation and Avoidance in MIG Welding A Review of Mechanical Test Procedures for Adhesively Bonded Joints Evaluating Strength of Corroded Nozzles in Pressure Vessels A Review of Methods for Determining the Frequency and Size Distribution of Welding Flaws in Steel Fabrications A Review of Methods for Rapid Prototyping of Computer Software, and their Application to Structural Integrity Assessment A Review of Micromachining Technologies for Microstructures A Review of Micromechanical Failure Models for Cleavage and Ductile Fracture A Review of Mixed Mode Fracture Tests, Models and Assessment Procedures A Review of Models for Simulation of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding Fusion Welding Models to Predict Residual Stress/Distortion A Review of Optical Methods for Adaptive Control in Arc Welding A Review of Ozone Formation in Arc Welding Recommendations for the Avoidance of Porosity in TIG Welding A Review of Post Weld Heat Treatment Effects on Welding Residual Stresses Advancements in Arc Weld Power Sources and Process in Japan A Review of Sensor Systems for the Top-Face Control of Weld Penetration A Review of Sol-Gel Technology for the Fabrication of Glasses and Ceramics Stress Intensity Factors for a Semi-Elliptical Surface Crack Yield Strength Mismatch and Welding Residual Stresses A Review of Techniques for Measuring and Ranking Adhesion of HVOF Sprayed Coatings A Review of Techniques to Manage Penetration Variability during TIG Welding A Review of the Physical and Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides A Review of the use of Lasers for Precision Microcomponent Manufacture A Review of the use of Metal Powder Additions in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel A Review of Thermography used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Weld Metal Porosity/Hydride Cracking in Titanium and Alloys A Review on the Problem of Reheat Cracking in Nuclear Vessel Steels Toe Defects and Fatigue Strength of Transverse Fillet Welds A Stress Intensity Factor Solution for Root Defects A Study of Arc and Friction Stir Welding of Two Al Alloys Containing a Low Level Scandium Addition Tensile Weld Tests for Thick Walled Polyethylene Pipe A Study of the Butt Fusion (Hot Plate) Welding Process for Polyethylene Pipe Stress-Relief/Seawater Temperature and Corrosion Fatigue Multi-Pass Manual C-Mn Steel Arc Weld Root Run Toughness C and Si and Submerged Arc Welds in 25mm C-mn Steel Plate Ultrasonic Welding Fibre Reinforced Polyphenylene Sulphide Plastic Collapse Solutions for Assessing Part Wall Defects A Survey of Welding and Repairing of Nickel Superalloys for Gas Turbines A System for Integrated Off-Line Programming of Welding Robots Fatigue Strength of Transverse Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue Analysis of a Mast Structure Subject to Wind Loading A Theoretical Investigation into Stresses Caused by Die-Bonding and the Validity of 'Low Stress' Die-Bonding Attachments A Thermal Model for Transmission Laser Welding of Thermoplastic Polymers AC Pulsed MAG and Powder Plasma Arc Welding of Positional Unbacked Root Passes - A Feasibility Study Aerospace-standard laser weld porosity requirements: Part B Aerospace-standard laser weld porosity requirements: Part A Acoustic Pulsing - A Condition Monitoring Technique Developed at the Welding Institute Adaptive Control of the MIG Welding of Thin Sheet Steel Additions to Ferritic Steel Submerged-Arc Weld Metal Additive Manufacture by Friction and Forge Processes Additive Manufacture of Blisk and Guide Vanes by Friction Welding Advanced MAG Welding Techniques for Thin Sheet Material Advanced Tool Material Technology for FSW Stainless Steel Advancement of Arc Welding Repair of Mar-M247 and Alloy 713C Advancements in Quantitative Guided Wave Inspection of Pipes - 1106/2018 Advances in Laser Welding Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and Alloys Pt 1 Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and Alloys Pt 2 An Analysis of Fracture under Biaxial Loading using the Finite Element Method Published Creep Rupture Data for Modified 9%Cr Steel Welds Fatigue Crack Propagation Data and Steel Tension Loading Simple Numerical Model for Hydrogen Diffusion in C-Mn Steels An Appraisal of Methods for Quantifying the Performance of Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for Detecting and Sizing Weld Flaws An Appraisal of Statistical Inspection Strategies and Inspection Updating Ar-He-N2 Shielding Gases for TIG Welding Duplex Steel Pseudo-Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) Analyses An Assessment of the Advantages of Plasma Control in Laser Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Al-Mg Alloy Welds and Stress Corrosion Cracking An Assessment of the Tandem MIG-MAG Welding Process An Assessment of Weld Heterogeneities in PMMA using Birefringence An Evaluation of a High Tolerance Plasma Arc Cutting (HTPAC) Process An Evaluation of Infrared NDT Techniques Applied to Thermally Sprayed Coatings Minicomputer Techniques for Arc Welding Data Acquisition An Evaluation of NDT Methods for Adhesion Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Reliability Testing and Modelling for Printed Circuit Boards An Evaluation of the Production Welding Aspects of Flux-Cored Wires An Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Electrical Resistance Methods for the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of Resistance Spot Welds in Low Carbon Steel Sheet An Examination of Diffusion Bonded Interfaces in a Mild Steel Backscattered Electron Vision for Electron Beam Welding Microwelding of Overlapped-Foils with Continuous-Wave Lasers Applications and Parametric Relationships for Water Jet Cuts An Initial Study of Arc Energy and Thermal Cycles in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel An Initial Study of Thermal Cycle Prediction in Submerged-Arc Welds An Initial Study on Laser Welding of Magnesium Alloys An Inter-Laboratory Programme of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Tests Microcomputers and Applications for Welded Structures An Introduction to K, CTOD and J Fracture Mechanics Analyses and Toughness, and the Application of these to Metal Structures An Introduction to Laser Weld Monitoring An Introduction to Lean Manufacturing for SMEs An Introduction to Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots An introduction to risk based inspection Fatigue of Fillet Welded Plate Joints under Varying Stress Joint Angle and Bead Geometry for Submerged-Arc Welding Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Arc Welds: Pt 1 Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Arc Welds: Pt 2 An Investigation into the Mechanisms of Active Fluxes for TIG (A-TIG) Welding An Investigation into the Origin and Effect of Magnetic Fields in EB Welding The Use of Active Fluxes for MIG/MAG Welding of C-Mn Steel Plastic Collapse Assessments for Ferritic Steel Defects Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Behaviour during Steel Welding Applied Stress Ratio and Steel Fatigue Crack Propagation An Investigation of the use of Transient Arc Data to Detect Process Deviations An Investigation of Weldment Toughness in Two Low Alloy High Strength Steels An R Curve Approach to COD and J for an Austenitic Steel Vitolane® Method for the Synthesis of Methacrylate Resins Application of a Steelmaking Model to Predict Weld Metal Composition Application of Fatigue Design Rules for Welded Steel Joints Local Approach for HAZ Cleavage Fracture Failure Prediction Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part II: Published and Additional TWI Data Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part III: Assessment of Actual Failures Appraisal of PD6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures. Part I - TWI Data Arc Disturbances in Consumable Electrode Welding Arc Initiation in MIG Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Arc Parameter Sensing using Second Generation Robots - A Preliminary Assessment Arc Spraying using Cored Wire Consumables to Produce Hard Coatings Arc Stability of Copper-Coated Mild Steel MIG Welding Wires - A Case Study Arc Welding Ferritic-Austenitic Steels: Microstructures Aspects of the Improvement in Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welds by Peening Assessment and Treatment of Residual Stresses for the Integrity of Welded Steel Structures: A State-of-the-Art Review 1110/2019 Assessment of Ageing Properties and Residual Stresses in Thermoplastic Welds Assessment of Cold Spray Systems for the Deposition of Nickel Alloy 718 Coatings Assessment of Limit Loads for Circumferential Embedded Flaws in Pipes Assessment of Mechanical Property and Fracture Mechanics Tests Applicable to Plain Material and Welded Joints in Thermoplastics Assessment of Monitoring Methods for Clearweld Spot Welds in Low Carbon/High Strength Steel Sheet: Pt 1 Assessment of Shearography and Thermography for Flaw Detection Spot Welds in Low Carbon/High Strength Steel Sheet: Pt 2 Unloading Compliance and Crack Growth Resistance Curves Assessment of the Mechanised Flux Cored Arc Welding Process for Underwater Wet Welding Welding Fume and Carbon-Manganese Steel Flux-Cored Arc Welds Assessment of the Significance of LBZs in Steels using a Probabilistic Model Assessment of the Torsion Test for Resistance Spot Welds Assessment of the TWI Top Face Control System for TIG Welding Assessment Procedures for Non-Sharp (Blunt) Defects (AMICA) Atmospheric Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Welds Autogenous Welding of High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels Ambient Temperature Temper-Bead Repair of Nuclear Components Misalignment in FAD-Based Fracture Assessment of Weld Flaws BS7608 Changes: Fatigue Design/Assessment of Steel Products Beam Characterisation of Industrial CO2, Excimer and Nd:YAG Lasers Beam Characterisation of Industrial Lasers Behaviour of 0.5%Cr Steel in Sour Environments Behaviour of Semi-Elliptical Cracks in Welds with Yield Strength Mismatch Bonding of SiC Fibre Reinforced Ti-6Al-4V MMC Sheet Brazing of Zirconia for Structural and Sensor Applications Brazing Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Nickel Alloys Carbon Nanotube Safe Removal from Water Suspension: Mitigating Health Risks Penetration during Mechanised TIG Welding: Further Studies Mechanised Welding of Austenitic Steels: Progress Report Catastrophic Failures of Steel Structures in Industry: Case Histories A Study of Ceramic/Metal Bonding Characterisation of a Novel Electron Beam Gun Design Dissimilar Metal Interfaces and Subsea Hydrogen Cracking Characterisation of Nylon 6,6 Vibration Welds Characterisation of, and Guidelines for, Rotary Friction Welding of Common Metallic Engineering Materials Charpy V-Notch Test: Striker Geometry and Specimen Thickness CO2/Yb Fibre Laser and Hybrid Laser-TIG Welding Processes CO2 Laser Welding of 5000 Series Aluminium Alloys CO2 Laser Weld of Steel Tailored Blanks for Automotive Use Coating Composites - A Review Cohesive Zone Modelling of Ductile Crack Growth in Steel Cold Spray Technology Update and TWI Facility Installation Deterministic/Probabilistic Flaw Assessment for Weld Joints Residual Stresses in Steel Girth and Butt Welds Cutting Processes for Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Static Properties of Point and Hybrid Joints in Steel Sheets Comparison of the Cutting of Four Different Steels, using Linearly and Circularly Polarised Laser Light Girth Weld, Small Scale Strip and Plate Specimen Fatigue Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Friction/Arc Welded Joints Compilation of K-Solutions for Fitness-for-Service Procedures Composition and Surface Effects on CO2 Laser Cut Edge Quality in Carbon and C-Mn Steels Solidification Cracking in C-Mn Steel Laser Welds Computer Based Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints: 5th Report Computer Based Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints: 3rd Report Computer Design of Compact Electron Beam Guns Confirming the Validity of the BS7608 Fatigue Design Curves Considerations for a Robot Welding Cell - A Guide Document Constraint Calculation in Pipeline Girth Welds Control of Porosity in CO2 Laser Welds in C-Mn Steel Control of Weld Penetration in TIG Welding: A Review of Factors Affecting Weld Pool Behaviour and of Techniques to Improve Process Control Controlling Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium in Welding Fume 1116/2019 Testing Electrofusion Joints in Polyethylene Pipes Phased Array Inspection/Fatigue Performance of FSW Joints Correlating Fracture Toughness and Charpy Impact Energy Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Properties of Arc Welds Corrosion Behaviour of Cold Sprayed Tantalum Coatings Corrosion Fatigue Crack in a Simulated HAZ Microstructure Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation in Structural Steel Sour Produced Fluid Corrosion Fatigue of C-Mn Steel HAZs Corrosion Protection of Metals by the Use of Sol-Gel Coatings Corrosion Resistance of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys 2014A-T651 and 7075-T651 Corrosion Resistance of High Speed Fusion Welds Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Steels in Sulphuric Acid Corrosion Testing of Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds - Literature Review Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings in High Temperatures Corrosion Under Insulation: Causes, Prevention and Testing Crack Arrest Test Methods/Properties for Structural Steels Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Material Analysis Fracture Assessment Proposals for Revisions to BSI PD 6493 CTOD Design Curve: Limitations, Finite Size and Application Cumulative Damage Calculations and Low Spectrum Stresses Cumulative Damage Calculations with New Fatigue Design Rules Curing and Stability of Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coatings Revisions to PD 6493 for Fusion Weld Structure Assessments Grade 91 Welding Practice and Repair Without Post-Weld Heat Cutting Stainless Steel with Disc and CO2 Lasers Defect Control of Thick Section Electron Beam Welds Demagnetisation Techniques for Welding Requirements Demonstration: Finite Element Analysis of Conventional Ultrasonic Testing Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 1 Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 2 Local Vacuum Mobile Systems for Power Beam Welding of Steel Friction Surfacing Material Deposition Procedure for Determining Free Nitrogen in Ferritic Steels Design and Damage Tolerance of Reinforced Polymer Composites Design/Development of a High Frequency Pulser for EB Welding Electromagnets for Arc Oscillation in Surfacing Applications Detection and Characterisation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Detection of Early-Stage Creep Damage in Welded Steels Penetrator Flaws in High Frequency Induction Welded Tube Development and Understanding of Wire-Fed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Development of a Brazed Ceramic-Faced Steel Tappet Development of a Computer Model for Welding Similar Thermoplastic Polymers Development of a Fatigue Sensor for Welded Steel Structures Samples and Techniques for Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joints Development of a Novel Pre-Treatment for Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloys A PC Based System for Monitoring Arc Welding Parameters Development of Alternative Hardfacing Materials - Report Development of an Electronic Weld Measurement Gauge Fatigue of Structures Under Variable Amplitude Loading Assessment Methods for Environment Assisted Cracking Full Matrix Capture Ultrasonic Inspection with Sparse Arrays Friction Stir Tools for Welding Thick Aluminium Alloys Development of Improved Tool Designs and Parameters for the Friction Stir Butt Welding of 1.2, 6 and 25mm Thickness Aluminium Alloys Development of Joining and Sealing Technologies for Polymer Fuel Cells Development of Joint Finding, Following and Adaptive Arc Welding Procedures for Autonomous Robotic Manufacture Keyhole Plasma Orbital Welding Procedures for Steel Pipes Laser Vision-Based Adaptive Control of Robotic MAG Welding Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Section Steel Novel Compact High Voltage Power Supplies for EB Welding Development of Novel Focused Ultrasonic Transducers for NDT Defect Assessment Software Based on Revisions to BSI PD 6493 Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Pipe Girth Welds Development of Procedures for Low Porosity Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 3.25 and 6.35mm Thickness Titanium Alloys Robotic Bobbin and Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding Development of Sealing Technologies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Development of Tack Welding Procedures using the TIG Process Defect Control in the Fade-Out Region of Electron Beam Welds Encapsulants for Implantable Electronic Medical Devices Titanium Dioxide Coatings for Photocatalytic Applications Two-Layer Deposition Techniques for Metal Arc Repair Welds Ultrasonic Full Matrix Capture to Improve Characterisation Developments in Arc Welding Data Retrieval Systems Developments in Manufacture and Characterisation of Comeld Joints Developments to the Master Curve for Application to Welds Diffractive Optical Manipulation of CO2 Laser Radiation Diffusion Bonding of 0.4 Carbon, Chromium/Molybdenum Steel Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium Alloys to Titanium Diffusion Bonding of an Aluminium-Lithium Alloy (AA8090) Digital Image Measurement of Structural Components Dilution and Heat Input Control in Submerged Arc Welding Dissimilar Friction Welding of Titanium to Stainless Steel Drop Weight Impact Testing Ductile Crack Extension in API 5L X65 and HY 130 Steels Ductile Instability and Driving Force Curve Predictions Adhesive Durability and Environmental Attack Mechanisms Aluminium, C-Mn Steels and Microstructure/Toughness: Report Aluminium, C-Mn Steels and Microstructure/Toughness Progress Gas Oxygen and Weld Discolouration/Corrosion Resistance Effect of Cast to Cast Material Variations in TIG Welding Clamping/Joint Gaps for Through-Transmission Laser Welding Composition and Heat Treatment for Modified 9%Cr 1%Mo Metals Composition and Creep Properties of 9%Cr1%Mo Weld Metals Composition and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Steel Contamination by Air on TIG Welded Pure Titanium Sheet Flux Cored Arc Welding Conditions and Hardfacing Alloys Forced Cooling and Polyethylene Butt Fusion Weld Integrity Gamma Sterilisation and Adhesive Bonded Dissimilar Materials Geometry Changes and the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints HAZ Intermetallic Precipitates and Stainless Steel Toughness Effect of Hydrogen Gas on Fatigue Performance of Steels Intercritical Reheating and HAZ Microstructure/Toughness Interface Modification and Solid-State Bonding of 0.4C Steel Intermetallic Content and Pitting Resistance of Steels Effect of Nitrogen Addition to Metal Corrosion Resistance Postweld Heat Treatment and HAZ of C-Mn Submerged-Arc Welds Effect of Preheat and Interpass Temperatures on Nickel Alloy Process Parameters and Electron Beam Welds in Steel Design when Welding Single Projections in Aluminium Sheet Effect of Remelting on OES Calibrations for Ferritic Steels Surface Preparation and Adhesion of Sprayed Alumina Coatings Thermal Cycles and Properties of 25%Cr Duplex Steel Plates Weibull Parameters and Cleavage Fracture Predictions Welding Variables and Cracking in Cobalt-Based MMA Deposits Effect of Welding Variables on Pitting Resistance Welding Variables and Pitting Resistance of Autogenous Welds Wire/Flux and Solidification Cracks in Submerged-Arc Welds Effect of Deoxidant Additions on Submerged-Arc Fluxes Active/Inert Gas Atomisation and Arc Spray Coating Quality Al, Ti and V and Steel Weld Microstructural Development Arc Energy, Plate Thickness, Preheat and Hydrogen Cracking Electrode Coatings and Fume Emission Rates/Composition Biaxiality and Residual Stress Relief/Fracture in Joints Effects of Composition and Laser Focus Position on Solidification Cracking Susceptibility in C-Mn Steel CO2 Laser Welds Composition/Weld Speed and Solidification Cracking in Steel Electrode Coatings and Fume Emission Rate/Composition Mechanical Loading and Residual Stress/Fracture in BS 7910 Niobium/Nitrogen and Localised Corrosion Resistance Heat Treatment and Mechanical Properties/Residual Stress Surface Roughness/Porosity for Arc Spray Coatings Spray Particle Characteristics and Arc Spray Coating Quality Surface Condition and CO2 Laser Cutting Quality in Steel Warm Prestress and Residual Stress/Fracture in Welded Joints COD/J Contour Integral Concept Elastic Plastic Fractures Elastic-Plastic Fracture Assessments Based on CTOD Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis of Transverse Fillet Joint Identifying Steel Pitting with Electrochemical Noise Electron Beam Texturing of Substrates Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 1: The Effect of Material Type and Composition on Electron Gun Discharging Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 2: Recent Developments in the Design and Application of Magnetic Trap Devices Electroslag and Electrogas Welding of C-Mn Steel Electrostatic Bonding of Silicon to Glass Elevated Temperature Midlife Weldment Cracking (Type IV) Engineering Critical Assessment of Steel Catenary Risers Environmental Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Welded Steel Efficiency Measurements of Welding and Joining Equipment EuP Legislation and Primary Energy Efficiency for Joining Laser Equipment and Process Development for Fabric Joining Error Reduction for Region-of-Interest Computed Tomography Baseline FSW Data for Aluminium Alloys up to 75mm Thick Unloading Compliance for Generating SENT Specimen R-Curves Estimation of Exposure to Arc Welding Fume Probability of Detection Curves for Ultrasonic Testing Evaluation of a High Velocity Wire Flame Spraying Process A Laser Diode Based Vision System for Monitoring Arc Welding A Low-Cost Camera for Monitoring Arc Welding Processes Evaluation of a Silicon Carbide Model Metallisation System Evaluation of a New Corrosion Under Insulation Test Method A Video System for Control of TIG Welding Bead Penetration Adhesives and Test Methods for Thermal Spray Coatings Five Commercially Available Synergic MIG Weld Power Sources Evaluation of High Velocity Oxyfuel Sprayed Coatings Determining CTOD from SENB Specimens in Steel Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Dissimilar Metal Welds Fume Characteristics: Effects of Arc Welding Practice PZFlex Ultrasonic Beam Profile/Response on Fatigue Cracks Carbon Nanotubes for Rubber Reinforcement/Better Laser Welds Quality Control Systems for Spot Welding Steel/Aluminium Tool Performance for Friction Stir Welding Stainless Steel Welding Processes for S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate Crystallinity in Polyethylene and Polypropylene Welds Examination of the Protocol Defined by prEN/ISO 10882-1 Draft European/International Standard prEN ISO 10882-1 Significance of the Low Stresses in Fatigue Loading Spectrum Multipass Weld Fracture Toughness with Local Embrittlement Exploratory Tests on Nickel-Based Wet Welding Electrodes for Ferritic Steels Fabrication Aspects of a Laser Welded Lightweight Panel Fabrication, stress and integrity in clad components Thermal History and Mechanical Properties in Grade 91 Steel Factors Affecting MIG Arc Initiation in Mechanised Systems Factors Affecting the Level of Porosity in Nd:YAG Laser Welded 3.2mm 2024 Aluminium Alloy Ferrite/Austenite Balance in Arc Weld 22Cr/5Ni/2.5Mo/N Steel Factors Controlling Weld Toughness: Pt 1 Heat-Affected Zones Factors Controlling Weld Toughness: Pt 2 Weld Metals Properties of Spot Welds in Cold Rolled High Strength Steels Abrasive Wear Resistance of Hardfacing Weld Deposits: Review Failure Mechanisms of Subsea Dissimilar Joints Fatigue Crack Shape and Fracture Toughness Measurements Fatigue Crack Growth Within Adhesively Bonded Joints Fatigue Crack Propagation in C-Mn Steel HAZ Microstructures Fatigue Data Relevant to Steel Pressure Equipment Design to EN 13445 Fatigue Life Improvement by Water-Jet Erosion Fatigue Life Prediction for Toe Ground Joints Fatigue of Multiaxial Load-Carrying Fillet Welded Joints Stress-Relieved Fillet Welds Under Part-Compressive Loading Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading - A Review Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading: Test Methods and Preliminary Results Fatigue Performance of Butt Welds in Titanium Fatigue of Thin Steel Tungsten Inert Gas/Plasma Welds Fatigue of Clinched/Self-Piercing Rivet/Spot Welded Joints Fatigue Reassessment of Ageing Pressure Vessels Electron Beam Transverse Butt Weld Fatigue Strength Fatigue Test Results for Laser Welds in Steel - A Review Fatigue Tests on Electron Beam Welded C-Mn Steel Butt Joints Fillet Weld Joint Fatigue Tests under Wide Band Loading Fatigue Tests on Variable Amplitude Load Fillet Welded Joins Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Pipes Fatigue Tests on Plasma Dressed Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue Tests to Establish Joint Classifications Fatigue Tests on Two Types of Welded Joints Under Compressive Loading Fatigue Tests on Welded Tubular Joints in Air and Sea Water Fatigue Tests Under Variable Amplitude Loading FATIGUECALC: A Fatigue Design Microcomputer Program Monitoring Storage Tank Corrosion with Piezo Vibrations Feasibility of Solid State Joining of Aluminium to Alumina Feasibility of Twin Spot Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 2024 Aluminium Alloy Electromagnetic Transducers to Generate/Detect Guided Waves Laser Profiling for Image Enhancement of Digital Radiographs Feasibility Studies into Surfacing by Friction Welding Heat Sink Attachment for New Electronic Ceramic Substrates Ferritic/Austenitic TIG Welding using Nitrogen Shielding Gas Fibre Laser Welding of High Strength Steels for Automotive Fine-Scale Electron Beam Processing Development FEA of Crack Driving Force in Circumferential Pipe Cracks Finite Element Analysis of Guided Waves in Pipe/Rail Flaws Finite Element Analysis of Long-Range Ultrasonic Waves in Metallic Structures of Arbitrary Cross Section Finite Element Analysis of Selected Welded Wide Plate Tests Misalignment in Transverse Fatigue Loaded Butt Welds Flaws in Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Flux-Cored Wire Welding of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Fluxes and Slags in Arc Welding Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels Part 2 Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels Part 3 Forces in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys - Further Studies Formation and Corrosion of Weld Root Flaws in Duplex Steels Arc Weld Tramlines and Oxidation of Titanium Plasma Welds Fracture in 50mm Thick Welded Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Fracture Case Studies for Fitness-for-Service Procedures Fracture Toughness and Weld Defects: Solidification Cracks Fracture Toughness of Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Friction Skew-StirTM Lap Welding 5083-H111 Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welding - The State of the Art Friction Stir Welding Aluminium Alloy 5083 - Increased Welding Speed Friction Stir Welding of a Ferritic Stainless Steel - A Feasibility Study Friction Stir Welding of an Aluminium Alloy: Tool Geometry Friction Stir Welding of Steel Friction Stir Welding of Steel: Process Considerations Friction Stir Welding of Steels - A Further Evaluation Friction Stir Welding of Steels: Mechanical Properties Friction Stir Welding of Steels - Status Report Friction Taper Plug Welding of 10mm AA6082-T6 [Aluminium Alloy] Friction Welding of 25mm Steel Bars: Composition/Properties Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels: Pt 1 Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels: Pt 2 Friction Welding Non-Circular Sections with Linear Motion Friction Welding of Aluminium Alloy HE9 to Stainless Steel Friction Welding of Copper to Stainless Steel Friction Welding Injection Mould/Mid Density Thermoplastics FSW as a Repair Technique for Surface Cracks in Stainless Steel FSW Tool Performance and Lifetime in High Strength Aluminium Fume Emission Rate and Composition for Flux-Cored Arc Welds Fume Emissions from Arc Welding through Shop Primers Resistance Welding Fume Emissions through Organic Coatings Further Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys A Model of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Finite Difference Software to Analyse Electron Guns Fatigue Tests on Variable Amplitude Loaded Fillet Welds Further Progress in Joining of Intermetallic Alloys Development of Microstructures in Low Oxygen Steel Welds The Welding Performance of High Brightness Lasers Further Toughness Data on Electroslag Welds in C-Mn Steels Gap Filling in FSW using AdStir: Further Improvement Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of the Al-Li Alloy 8090 Geometry/Orientation and Ductile Crack Growth Resistance Grain Size/Morphology in Nickel-Chromium Alloy Weld Metal High Average Power Nd:YAG Laser Processing for Metals Quality Assurance in Developing Welding Engineering Software Guidelines for the Interpretation of Automated Ultrasonic Test Images: Pulse Echo HAZMET: Microstructural Prediction Software HAZ Cracking of Low Carbon C-Mn Steels: Further Data HAZ Cracking of C-Mn Steels in Tubular Cored Wire Welds HAZ Toughness of MMA Welded 12%Cr Martensitic-Ferritic Steel HAZ Hydrogen Cracking of Low Carbon C-Mn Structural Steels Nd:YAG Laser Beam Hardening and Cladding of Steel Electron Beam Deposition for Improved Material Processing Electron Beam Thick Section Steel Welding with Filler Wire High Power Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding High Productivity Pipe Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys High Productivity Tape Laying of Carbon Fibre / PEEK High Productivity Welds in Advanced 9% Chromium Steel FB2 High Stress Abrasive Wear Testing of Hard-Facing Materials Corrosion in Oxidising/Carburising/Metal Dust Environments High Temperature Corrosion Testing in Molten Chlorides Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings for Biomass Use High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying of Alumina Based Coatings High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying using Hydrogen Fuel High-Brightness Electron Beams for Micro Processing Hole Repair in Steel Plate using Friction Taper Plug Welding Hot Plate Welding Injection Moulded Thermoplastics HVOF Sprayed Alternatives to Hard Chromium Plating Hybrid CO2 Laser-MAG Welding of Carbon Steel - A Literature Review and Initial Study Hybrid Laser-Arc Weld Quality Enhancement Hybrid Laser-MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Butt Joints Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser MAG Welding of T joints in C-Mn Steels for Shipbuilding Applications Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-AC MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Subsea Joints Impact Damage and Modelling of Flaws in Lap-Shear Joints Weld Joint Impact Tests in 6000 Series Aluminium Alloy Improved Control of High Voltage EB Weld Discharges Using Water in Plasma Arc Cutting for Improved Performance Improved Operation of Nd:YAG Lasers Using Diode Pumping Improvements in Friction Stir Welding Tool Technology Improved Guided Wave Technology for Pipe Defect Detection Improvements to a High Brightness 7.5kW Electron Beam System and Initial Processing Trials Improving Essential Variables for Hardness Control: A Feasibility Study Improved Weld Process to Avoid C-Mn Steel Hydrogen Cracking Multirun Submerged-Arc Welding with Metal Powder Addition Improving the Fatigue Performance of Welded Stainless Steels Grinding/Peening Improved Fatigue Strength of Fillet Joints Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints by Grinding In-Bore Multi-Positional Laser Welding Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloy 718 and Ti-6Al-4V Improving Manufacturing Performance with Computer Simulation Industrial Applications of Multi-Scale Modelling Industrial Ceramics: Materials, Applications and Joining Dissimilar Materials Joins and Friction Weld Opportunities Influences on Composition, Microstructure and Properties Influence of Current Type and Welding Position on Properties Hole/Plate Geometries and Friction Taper Plug Welding Manganese and Coating Basicity and Microstructure/Properties Spectrum Shape and Cumulative Damage of Fillet Weld Plates Thickness and Critical Crack Opening Displacement/J Values Influence of Various Factors on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Plates with Fillet-Welded Attachments Initial Assessment of Precision Reliability Test Methods Current Characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Sets Development of Transparent Conducting Coatings via Sol-Gel Transition Resistance Spot Welding of Steel to Aluminium Investigation of the Orbital Friction Welding of Mild Steel Initial Performance Assessment of Yb Fibre Laser Technology in the Power Range from 4 to 7kW for Welding Structural Steel Microwave Powered Plasma Cutting and Welding Thin Materials Initial Study into Thermal Piercing of Thermoplastic Composite Laminates Initiation of a Tungsten Inert Gas Arc by High Voltage DC Innovation Management Processes at TWI Sizing Locally Thinned Areas and Guided Wave Pipe Inspection Monitoring Laser and Hybrid Laser-Arc Fillet Weld Quality Insights into Friction Stir Welding Instrumentation for Quality Assurance in Arc Welding Instrumentation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Integration –and Intelligent Computer Aided Arc Welding Interim Report on Submerged Arc Weld Toughness Distribution Optical Emission Spectrometry Analysis of Thick Steel Plate Intermetallic Formation in Superduplex Steel Simulated HAZs Interpreting Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction Data Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture: Interim Report Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture to SMEs Microwave Heating and its use for the Joining of Ceramics Introduction to Reliability Testing Methods in Microelectronics and Related Sectors Measuring the Quality of Electron Beams Improved Response to Electron Beam Weld Flashovers Abrasive Resistance of Experimental Hardfacing Materials Calcium Treatment and Submerged-Arc Weld Metal/HAZ Strength Joining Creep-Resistant Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys Ultrasonic Welding of Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers Non-Metallic Inclusions and Carbon Steel Ferrite Nucleation Investigation of Arc Based Additive Manufacturing 1114/2019 Crack Depth Effects on C-Mn Pipe Steel in a Sour Environment Investigation of Factors Which Affect the Fatigue Strength of Shot Peened Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue of Welded Joints under Variable Amplitude Loading Investigation of Submerged Arc Weld Metal Inclusions Steel Surface Cleanliness/Diffusion Bonding Below A1 Temp Fatigue Crack Growth in C-Mn Pipe Steel in Sour Environment Deposition of Chromium Boride/Stainless Steel Hard-Facing Temperature/Specimen Geometry Dependence of Structural Steel Joining Aerospace Composite Structures Joining Aluminium to Steel: Friction and Diffusion Bonding Joining Aluminium to Steel: Friction Welding/Diffusion Bonds Joining Dissimilar Alloy Combinations using Scanning Laser Beams Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet: Literature Survey Part 2 Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet: Literature Survey Part 1 Joining Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composites Joining of Intermetallic Alloys: Further Studies Joining of Metal Matrix Composites - A Review Cast Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloy Keyhole Plasma Welding Keyhole Plasma Welding of Carbon Steel Sheet Validation of Electron Beam Probing Equipment Laser Surface Modification Using the Surfi-Sculpt Process Laser Cutting and Welding of Mild and Stainless Steel Sheets Laser Cutting of Fibre Reinforced Polymers Laser Cutting of Sheet Steel - A Users' Guide Laser Deposition of Functionally Graded Material Laser Deposition of Nickel-Based Superalloy, Waspaloy - A Preliminary Study Laser Materials Processing using Tailored Heat Sources Titanium 5553/811 Laser Metal Deposition for Aerospace Use Laser Surface Hardening with Adaptive Control PEEK/PP Laser Surface Modification for Adhesion/Wettability Laser Surface Processing of Nylon-Elastane Fabrics Laser Transformation Hardening of Medium Carbon Steel: Pt I Laser Transformation Hardening of Medium Carbon Steel: Pt II Microalloyed Laser Weld Steel: Fracture Toughness/Porosity Laser Welding 12.5mm Niobium Microalloyed Structural Steel Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys: Principles/Applications Laser Welding Butt and T Joints in Low Carbon Steel Sheets Butt Laser Welds Low Carbon Steel Sheets: Process Tolerances High Pressure Inert Assist Gas Laser Welding of Cut Edges Laser Welding of Plastics Film and Sheet Laser Welding Low Carbon/Low Sulphur Structural Steels Cold and Hot Wire Feed Laser Welding of Structural Steel Laser Welding of Structural Steel with Wire Feed Laser Welding of T Joints in Low Carbon Steel Sheets - Process Tolerance Data Laser Welding of Titanium Alloys with Low Internal Porosity Lead-Free Solders: Current Status and Future Trends Linear Friction Welding Info for Production Engineering Linear Friction Welding of Alpha 2 Titanium Aluminides Linear Friction Welding of Engineering Metals Nickel Superalloy Linear Friction Welding for Oil and Gas Linearity of Clip Gauges Used in Fracture Mechanics Tests Literature Review on Robotic Friction Stir Welding Forced Cooling of Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welds Literature Survey of Acceptance Criteria for the Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique Local Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Branch Connections Local Vacuum System for Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welds Long Range Monitoring of Corrosion Damage in Storage Tanks Broadband Excitation Method Long Range Ultrasonic Testing Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Finite element modelling of low stress no distortion welding Thin-Wall Structure Low Stress Non-Distortion TIG Welds Macro/Microstructural Features of Friction Stir Welds MAG Weld Procedures for Galvanneal Coated Steel Sheet Magnetic Arc Oscillation for Weld Surfacing High Voltage Breakdown in Electron Beam Welding Equipment Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welds in Aluminium Alloy Tube Manual Metal Arc and Flux Cored Wire Welding without Preheat Manual Metal Arc Welding Effects of Core Wire Deoxidation Manual Ultrasonic Inspection Characterisation MIG Butt Welds under Quasi-Static and Impact Loading Improved Finite Element Predictions of Residual Stresses Material Selection for Offshore Steel Structures Materials Technology Gap Analysis for Handling CO2 Measurement/Modelling R-Curves for Low Constraint Specimens Measuring Crack Opening Displacement in Weldments Measuring Residual Stress and Effects of Prior Deformation Measurement of True Resistance at High Alternating Current Mechanical Approaches to Seam Tracking for Arc Welding Mechanical Behaviour of Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Mechanical Fastening Technologies to Join Steel to Aluminium Chromium and Molybdenum Titanium Stabilised Steel Arc Welds Mechanical testing and Finite Element Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Under High Strain Rate: Initial Results Mechanical Tests for Plain and Welded Plastics - A Review Mechanised Arc Welding with Industrial Robots - An Initial Study Mechanised Electrode Weaving for Vertical MIG Welding Mechanised Orbital TIG Process Pipe Welding Mechanised Pulsed MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Mechanised Wet Underwater Flux-Cored Arc Weld Repair Guided Wave Inspection of Plate-like Structures Metal Powder Additions to Multipower Submerged-Arc Welds Metal Powder Additions to Triple Arc Submerged-Arc Welds Improving Microstructure/Properties of Electron Beam Welds Residual Stress in Clad Pipe Girth Welds Methods for the Financial Optimisation of Plant Management Improving Fatigue Life in Medium/High Strength Steel Welds Microcomputer Control of Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Microcomputer Controlled Robotic Precision TIG Welding Microcomputer Program Guidance to Prevent HAZ Cracking Stainless Steel Microsegregation/Laser Beam Surface Melting Microstructure of HVOF Sprayed Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Microstructural Development in Low Oxygen Steel Weld Metal Microstructure of Reheated Grain Coarsened C-Mn Steel HAZ Microstructure/Mechanical Properties of Vertical-Up Steels Microstructure Properties of Heat Treated C-Mn-Ni Steel Microwave Curing of Composite Microwave Heating and Bonding of Alumina Ceramics Microwave Processing of Polymer Composites MIG and TIG Arc Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Electron Beam Weld Missed Joints: Assessing Magnetic Effects Missed Joints in Electron Beam Welding: Further Investigation of Techniques for Rapid and Effective Demagnetisation of Thick Sections Mk Fatigue Assessment of Girth Weld Weld Root Toe Flaws PA Ultrasonic Inspection of Thick Stainless Steel Welds Long-Range Guided Wave Pipe Modelling and Inspection Modelling and Validation of Direct Metal Laser Depostion Modelling of Heat Affected Zone Microstructures in C-Mn Microalloyed Steel Single Pass Welds Long-Range Guided Wave Inspection Beyond Pipe Bends Modelling Microstructure in C-Mn and Low-alloy Steel Welds Modulated/Twin Spot/High Beam Titanium Alloy Laser Welding Multi-Layer HVOF Coatings of Alumina and Nickel Alloy Narrow Gap MIG Welding - A Review of the Literature Narrow Gap Submerged Arc Welding of Steel: A Technical Review ND:YAG Laser Joining of Aluminium Sheet to Galvanised Steel Sheet: Initial Studies NDT Techniques for Inspection of Thick Section EB Welds in Ferritic Steels Neural Network Processing of Ultrasonic Test Signals Non-Destructive Inspection of Surface Mount Solder Joints NDT Methods for Adhesive Bond Joint Inspection: Review Nondestructive Testing of Radial Friction Welds Non-Destructive Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging of a Fatigue Crack Solutions in PD6493: 1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding: Progress and Developments Keyhole Plasma Welding of Thin Section Stainless Steels Novel Specimen Interaction of Fracture Assessment Stresses Numerical Determination of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Welding in 304 Stainless Steel Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots - A Case Study for New Users Standards and Fracture Toughness of Offshore Wind Structures Tensile and Compressive Peak Overloads and Fatigue Cracks Unloading Compliance Method for Single-Specimen R-Curves One-Knob Controlled MIG Welding Power Sources: Steady D.D. Open Arc and Short-Circuiting Arc Operation - A Critical Review On-Line Adaptive Control for Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser/MAG Welding 8mm Thick Steel Plate On-Line Monitoring of Laser Welded Steel Tailored Blanks Optical Design and Performance of a 2kW CO2 Laser Optical Emission Spectrometry of Steel: Standard Calibration Optical Sensor Controlled Multipass Welding Optimisation and Observation of the Laser Surfi-Sculpt® Process Optimising a Gas Jet Plasma Laser Welding Control System Optimisation of Direct Laser Metal Deposition of Alloy 718 Optimising Focussed/Phased Array Ultrasonic Clad Pipe Tests Orbital A-TIG Welding of Steel Tube Using an Activating Flux Out-of-Chamber Thick C-Mn Steel Electron Beam Welding Overview of Flexible Automation in the Structural Fabrication Industry Overview of Friction Stir Welding Modelling Projects at TWI Parametric Relationships in Short-Circuit MIG Welding TIG Penetration Control: Hard-Wired Control Unit Development 7050-T7451 Aluminium Alloy FSW Pitting Corrosion High Chromium/Nitrogen Austenitic Alloy Pitting Corrosion Pitting Resistance in High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Plasma Transferred Arc Surfacing of Small/Medium Scale Parts Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Weld Surfacing Process A Survey of Joining Techniques for Plastics Polymer Coated Material Welding of Dissimilar Materials Polymer Composite L-Joints - Static, Fatigue and Impact Tests with Modelling of Damage Growth Porosity/Bead Geometry/Cracking in Laser Welded Alloy 718 Portable Arc Welding Robots - An Industrial Survey Potential of Welding for Repair of Wrought Iron Precision Laser Welding of Plastic Components Predicting Successful Manufacture of Ceramic/Metal Joints using Weibull Modelling Predicting the HAZ Toughness of C And C-Mn Steels - Welding at 2kJ/mm C/C-Mn Steel HAZ Toughness: Welding 25mm Plate at 1-7kJ/mm Creep Failure in Parts Subjected to High Temperature Loading Element Transfer in Ferritic Steel Submerged-Arc Welding GCHAZ Hardness in Microalloyed C-Mn Steels Before/After PWHT Precipitates and Prior Austenite Grain Size in Ti-Nb Steels Square Wave Pulse Current Control of MIG Weld Metal Transfer Prediction of Weld Distortion in Complex Thin-Walled Components: The Development of SDPS - TWI's Structural Distortion Prediction System Weld Pass/Placement in Robotic Multipass Steel MAG Welding Predictive Formulae for Weld Distortion - A Critical Review Preliminary Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys Environmental Testing of Polymer-Coated Materials Joints Electrospark Deposition for Repair of Worn Components Preliminary Evaluation of Metallic Coatings Deposited using the Cold Spray Process Spray-Formed Ti and Ti Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray Forces Generated During the Friction Stir Welding Process Arc Disturbances/Poor Appearance in Spray Transfer MIG Welds Investigating Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Steel Oxyfuel Spraying Preparation of Aluminide Coatings The Properties of Stainless Steel Friction Welds Modified Charpy Testing for the Assessment of Narrow Welds Electrical Pulse Control of Laser Weld Plasma Formation Controlled Shot Peening and Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welds Sliding Seal Reduced Pressure Laser Beam Welding Trials Press Joining and Self Piercing Riveting for Sheet Joining Prior Overload Effects in Structural Integrity Assessments FEA Response Probabilistic Assessment of Pipeline Flaws Probabilistic Modelling of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Reducing Solidification Cracking in CO2 Laser Welds Mild/Austenitic Stainless Steel Surfacing Characteristics Process Guidance and Software for Clearweld Process Monitoring for Friction Stir Welding Quality Control Melt Profile/Deposition Rates in Thick Section Arc Welding Process Tolerance in Submerged Arc Welding: Initial Report High Quality Welds in Titanium Alloys with Yb-Fibre Lasers Progress in Friction Stir Welding of Steels Proof of Concept for Real-Time Hydrogen Weld Monitoring Non-Arc Welded 12%Cr Ferritic:Martensitic Steel HAZ 25mm Diameter Orbital Friction Welds in Engineering Steels Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel (Technology Briefing No. 131 - December 1980) Properties of Flash Welded Carbon Manganese Steel Properties of Friction Welds in 50mm Carbon Manganese Steel Resistance and Laser Sheet Welds in Type UNS S32304 Steel Pulsed MIG Arc Welding Processes for Joining of Thin Sheet Aluminium Pulsed MIG Welding of Titanium with a Novel Wire Pulsed MIG with Phased Transverse Oscillation Pulsed Wire Feed Spray MIG-Welding Qualifying Long-Term Performance of Butt Fusion Welds in PE Pipes from Short-Term Tests Quality Control of the Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Process - A Literature Survey Rapid Prototyping (RP) - Technology Overview Real Time Defect Assessment from Ultrasonic Test Data Real-Time Hydrogen Monitoring During Welding Procedures for Crack Tip Opening Displacement Weld Testing Development of a Local Vacuum Electron Beam Welding System Reduced-Pressure, Local Vacuum Electron Beam Welding Trials Stress and J-Based Limit Load for Flaws in Pipe Girth Welds Reflow Performance of Solder Paste with Tin/Silver/Copper Alloy Characteristics of Square Wave AC Manual Metal Arc Welding Metal Strength/Weld Current and Dilution in 9%Ni Steel Joins Relationships Between Process Variables and Weld Geometry Submerged Arc Weld Residual Stress During Postweld Heating Relief/Prediction of Residual Stresses in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Welds Repair of Single Crystal CMSX-10 Blades and Mar-M247 Vanes Residual Stress/Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al-4V Parts Residual Stress in Girth Weld Pipe After Plastic Deformation Repair Weld Residual Stress Measurements in Pressure Vessels Residual Stresses in 25mm Thick Weld Metal COD Specimens Residual Stresses in Double Tension Crack Arrest Specimens Residual Stresses in Prior Loaded Cracked Specimens Residual Stresses in MIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Panels Resistance Spot Welded Steel, Electrode Life/Corrosion Tests Resistance Spot Welding of High Strength (600-1200N/mm2) Steel Sheet Resistance Spot Welding of Hot Pressed Boron Steels Resistance Spot Welding Steel to Aluminium with Interlayers Resistance Welding of Thick Section Low Carbon Steel Resistance Welding Toolkit Assessment and Process Factors of Self-Piercing Rivet Joints Continuous Wave CO2 Laser Beam Measurement Techniques Factors Influencing Particulate Fume Emission in Arc Welding Factors Influencing Porosity in Aluminium Arc Welds Fatigue Assessment of Welded Aluminium Structures Review of Fatigue Results from Girth Welds in Risers Review of Innovation Management Tools Review of Laser Heat Treatment and Surfacing Techniques Review of Optical NDT Techniques in Industrial Applications Overlay Welding For Light Water Nuclear Pressure Vessels Advances in Computer Based Prediction of Weld Distortion Mechanised Gas Shielded Arc Welding Processes for Steel Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Duplex Stainless Steels Review of Shearography Review of Sustained Load Strain and Cracking Phenomena in Titanium Alloys Under Static and Dynamic Loading Systems for Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Type IV Cracking in 9-12%Cr Creep Strength Enhanced Steels Risk Assessment and Control of Exposure to Fume During Arc Welding of Steel Robotic Floating Bobbin FSW in 3mm Thickness Al Alloys Single-Side Manual Metal Arc Butt Weld Root Run Consumables Root Run Formation In Mechanised Vertical MIG Arc Welding Rotating Arc Welding of Thin Section Tubulars Ferrous Weld Metal Compositional Analysis Sample Preparation Industrial Coatings for Mechanically Aggressive Uses Sensitivity Analysis of a Fracture Assessment Procedure Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour in Sour Pipelines Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth in Sour Pipeline Girth Welds Shielding Gases for CO2 Laser Welding - An Experimental Case Study on Lap Welds in High Strength Low Alloy Steel Liquation Cracks in Thick Section Al-Mg-Si Alloy Plate Significance of Prior Overload to Fracture in A533B Steel Silane Pre-Treatment of Al Alloys for Adhesive Bonding Welding of Thin Galvanised Sheet to Hydroformed Tube Solidification Cracking: Effect of Parent Plate Compositions Solidification Cracking: Parent Plate Strength/Composition Solidification Cracking of High Speed TIG and Laser Welds Solidification Cracking of Modified Submerged Arc Weld Metal Residual Stresses and Fatigue of Fillet Welded Steel Joints Time Dependent Ductile Fracture of Line Pipe Steels Some Basic Fatigue Data for Various Types of Fillet Welded Joints in Structural Steel Correlating Charpy V and COD Test Data for Ferritic Metals Fatigue Testing Adhesively Bonded Fibre-Reinforced Laminates Fatigue Testing Variable Amplitude Load Fillet Weld Joints Some Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Steel Bars Implant Cracking Prediction of Hydrogen Cracking Behaviour Spatter Reduction When Welding with High Brightness Lasers Specification of Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Thickness and Structural Predictions for A533B Class 1 Steel Spot Weld Electrode Life Tests: Electrode Design/Materials Spot Weld Electrode Life: Machine Characteristics/Schedule Spot Weld Electrode Life: Parent Metal/Surface Treatment SSC of Welded 0.5%Cr Steel: Effect of pH and H2S Partial Pressure Standardisation of NDT by Time-of-Flight Diffraction Static/Fatigue of Mechanically Fastened/Hybrid Joints Stationary Shoulder FSW of Aluminium Alloy T-Butt Joints Microstructural Strain with Electron Backscatter Diffraction Strain-Based Driving Force Estimates for Pipe Girth Cracks Strain-Based Pipe Girth Weld Engineering Critical Assessment Friction Stir Weld Stress Corrosion in 7050 Aluminium Alloy Test Geometry Stress Intensity Factors/Elastic Nu Factors Stress Intensity Factors Due to Standard Residual Stress Profiles Stress Intensity Factors For Transverse Butt Weld Toe Cracks Toe Defect Stress Intensity in Full Penetration Welds Stress Interaction Effects in Fatigue: Experimental Findings Hot Spot Stress Based Fatigue Design for Welded Structures Butt Fusion Polyethylene Pipe Structural Integrity: Review Structural Integrity of Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welds Structure/Corrosion of Friction Stir Weld Aluminium Alloys Structure of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Hot Plate Welds Structure/Property in Polyetheretherketone Hot Plate Welds Weld Metal Toughness and Test Panel Restraint Levels: Report The Use of Process Gases for High Power Nd:YAG Laser Welding Establishment and Application of a Welding Fume Database Mechanical Properties of Flux-Cored Wire Welds in C-Mn Steel Process Interactions in Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MIG/MAG Welding Argon and Helium for Laser Weld Plasma Control/Shielding Submerged Arc Welding Of Aluminium Bronze Thermal Spray Coating Surface Characterisation/Preparation Electron Beam Surface Imaging by Backscattered Electrons Surface Modification of Thermoplastic Materials Using Lasers Sustained Load Cracking of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and its Weldments Switched Arc Twin MIG Welding Of Joints MIG Weld Synergic Control with a Thyristor Power Source Inverter Controlled Power Source MIG Weld Synergic Control Short-Circuit Arc MIG Weld Synergic Control in DC Open Arc Synergic Pulse MIG Welding System Elements and Concepts for Portable FSW Equipment Techniques for Improving the Resistance Spot Weldability of 1.6-2.0mm Ultra-High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications Techniques for Improving the Weldability of TRIP Steel Using Resistance Spot Welding Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Chip-On-Board Applications Welding Fine Insulated Cu Wire Without Removal of Insulation Technology Survey and Assembly of Flip Chip Bonding Tensile And Toughness Of Arc Welds In Aluminium Bronze Tensile And Toughness Properties Of Arc-Welded Alloys Testing Submerged Arc Welds Made With Boron Consumables Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Testing And Analysis Vision Systems and Hot Wire TIG Welding Positional Control Using Glob Top Materials to Chip On Board Components: Review Magnetic Control Arc Oscillation and Orbital TIG Welding Application of Microscopy to Welded Joints in Thermoplastics Application of Resistance/Laser Welding to AI-Li Alloy 8090 'Local Approach' and Cleavage Fracture of Ferritic Steels Butt Fusion Welding of Polyethylene/Polypropylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welding of 125/400mm Diameter Polyethylene Pipe Stress Wave Emission Equipment Performance Pt 1: Transducers Characterising Glob Top Materials for Chip-On-Board Parts Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas Shielded Welding Of Steel: Pt II The Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas-Shielded Welding Of Steel The Chemistry Of Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes Clearweld Process for Laser Welding of Plastics and Fabrics The COD Approach And Its Application To Welded Structures The COD Design Curve: Validity Using Wide Plate Tests Corrosion Resistance of Arc/Power Beam Welded Steel Pipes The Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Design Curve Crack Tip Opening Displacement and Test Panel Restraint Deposition of Glass/Ceramic Structures Using DMD Equipment The Development And Welding Performance Of A 6kW Laser Computer Based In-Process Data Monitoring of Spot Welds Solidification Cracking Test of Carbon-Manganese Steel Welds Electron Beam Weld Solidification Cracking Testing Impression Creep Characterisation of Weldment Properties Using Electron Beam Real-Time Seam Tracking Equipment The Development of Equipment for Electron Beam Characterisation Polyethylene Hot Plate Fusion Weld Non-Destructive Tests The Development of Reinforced Braze Alloys for Brazing Ceramics Tolerant MIG Fillet Welding Procedures: Preliminary Report Dual Stage Pressure Cycle and Thermoplastic Vibration Welds Post Rotational Twist and Friction Properties of C-Mn Steel Absorber Coating Additives and Laser Welded Textiles Ageing and Structure/Properties of Hot Plate Welds Tensile Properties/Structure of Polyethersulphone Welds Transverse Butt Weld Fatigue Strength and Axial Misalignment Microstructural Development/Toughness of 9-13%Cr Steels Direct Fluxing and Steel Root Weld Metal Profiles Electrode Weaving in Mechanised CO2 Vertical Fillet Welds Intercritical Thermal Cycles and HAZ Structure/Toughness Load Fluctuation and Sulphide Stress Cracking in C-Mn Steel Manganese/Nitrogen and Microstructure/Toughness of Metals Mean Stress and Fatigue Lives Of Ground/Peened Fillet Welds Misalignment and the Fatigue Strength of Cruciform Joints Niobium and the HAZ Toughness of High Heat Input C-Mn Welds PWHT and Critical Hardness of Sour Service Steels Process Parameters and Tensile Properties of Bonded Steel Process Parameters and the Weld Metal Toughness of EB Welds The Effect Of Specimen Geometry On Crack Growth Resistance Tool Shoulder and Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys Thermomechanical Steel Processing and HAZ Properties TiN Particles and the HAZ Properties of Microalloyed Steels Welding Parameter Changes and HAZ Microstructure/Toughness Welding Parameters and Forge Butt Weld Impact Properties The Effects of Composition on the Toughness and Creep Behaviour of Weld Metals for Advanced High Temperature 9-13%Cr Steels Electrode Formulation and Fume Emission Rate/Composition Preloads/Low Temperature Fracture in Pressure Vessel Steel Effects of Sulphur on HAZ Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Titanium/Boron Additions and Weld Chemistry/Microstructure Electron Beam Surfi-Sculpt® Process and Mechanisms Molecular Orientation/Structure in Polypropylene Welds Surface, Plate and Interface Waves in Adhesive Bond Joints Fatigue of Laser Welded Zinc Coated Sheet Steel Lap Joints The Fatigue Performance of Adhesively Bonded Joints - A Review The Fatigue Performance of Repaired Fillet Welds Fatigue Strength of Transverse Electron Beam Butt Joints Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Transverse Butt Welds Fatigue Strength of EB Transverse Butt Weld Joints in Steel Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding 200µm Diameter Al-1%Si/Al Wire The Flux-Cored Arc Welding Of Carbon Manganese Steels - A Review Of The Present Position Generation of Surface Features Using A Low Power Laser Beam HAZ Microstructure/Toughness of Multipass Steel Welds High Speed Resistance Seam Welding of Low Carbon Steel Sheet The Hydrogen Economy: Materials and Joining Technology Needs Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt III: Flash Welds Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt II Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds Pt 1: Friction Welds Importance of Laser Beam Brightness on Melt Run Penetration Welding Electrode Aluminium and Microstructure/Toughness Aluminium/Oxygen and the Microstructure of TIG Weld Metal Composition and Microstructural Development/Toughness Fatiguing Load and R-Ratio Influences on Fracture Toughness Flux and Element Transfer During Submerged-Arc Welding Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 2 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 3 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 1 Flux Type and Strength/Fracture Toughness of Mild Steel Pt 4 Flux Type and Strength/Toughness of Submerged-Arc Weld Metal Manganese/Preheat and Microstructure/Mechanical Properties Mean/Residual Stress and Welded Joint Fatigue Strength Plasma Control Gases and Laser Weld Quality in C-Mn Steel Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Slag Defect Welds Ti/Al and the Toughness/Creep Rupture Strength of 92 Steel TIG Welding Procedure and Slag Island Formation on 316 Steel Weld Preparation/Restraint and Risk of Root Pass HAZ Cracks Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium and its Alloys to Materials Measurement/Prediction of Electron-Beam Thermal Cycles The MIAB Welding Of Mild Steel Tubing MIAB Welding of Thick Wall Carbon/Low Alloy Steel Tubing Aluminium Alloy Sheet MIG Spot Welding: Process and Control Physical/Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides: Review The potential of neural networks in welding Predicting Maximum HAZ Hardness in C-Mn/Low Alloy Steels Maximum HAZ Hardness in Multiple Pass C-Mn/Low Alloy Steels Preparing Graded Metal Ceramic Coatings by HVOF Spraying Arc Weld Parameters/Fillet Weld Geometry in MIG Welding The Relationship Between Arc Welding Parameters And Weld Bead Geometry - A Literature Survey The Repair of Aircraft Structures Using Adhesive Bonding - A Survey of Current UK Practices Inclusions and Control of C-Mn Steel Weld Microstructures Embedded Non-Planar Defects in Transmission Pipeline Welds Root Flaws and Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys The Electrode Weave Pattern For CO2 Vertical Fillet Welds Submerged Arc Weld Solidification Cracks in Commercial Steel Fillet Welded Joint Strength in Static Loaded Steels Stress Magnification of Angular Misalignment at Butt Welds Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel: Procedures Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Pt 1: Parameters Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Pt 2: Weld Beads Adhesive Bonded GFRP Joints and Interlaminar Flaw Tolerance The Use of Glass-Ceramics as Joining Media Laser Beam Spinning for Fitup/Beam Alignment Tolerances Maximum Load Toughness For Ductile Fracture Assessments Non-Destructive Testing and Measuring Residual Stress Elastic T-Stress and Fracture Mechanic Constraint Parameters The V-Factor: Parameters for Fracture Mechanics Assessments Vibration Welding of Thermoplastic Extruded Sheet The Weldability Of Low Carbon Structural Steels Determining the Fracture Resistance of Fully Ductile Metals Theoretical Analysis Of The Influence Of Attachment Size On The Fatigue Strength Of Transverse Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welds Toe Defects and the Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welded Joints Theoretical Modelling of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Thermal Management Technology/Measurement for Electronics Thermal Spraying Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Metallic Coatings Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermally-Assisted Piercing of Thermoplastic Composites Thermoelastic Determination of Toe Crack Stress Intensity TIG Welding High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels Titanium Flux Additions in Steel Submerged-Arc Welding Tolerance of the MAG Welding Processes to Gaps in Lap Joints in Thin Sheet Steel Tool Development for 6mm Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Single Sensor Top-Face Monitoring of Weld Penetration Topographic Analysis of Mechanised Grit Blasted Surfaces Toughness Distributions In Two Steels Toughness of Thick Section C-Mn/Microalloyed Steel EB Welds Toughness of Submerged-Arc Welds in C-Mn Structural Steels Postweld Heat Treatment Exemption in C-Mn/Low Alloy Steel Low Stress Treatment and Miner's Rule for Aluminium Alloys Instrumented Indentation and Tensile Property Measurement Twin Spot Laser Welding for Dissimilar Thickness Steel Tailored Blanks 50mm BS 4360 Grade 50D Steel 2 Pass Submerged-Arc Welding Ultrasonic/Radiographic NDT of Polyethylene Fusion Joints Ultrasonic/Radiographic NDT of Fusion Weld Polyethylene Pipe Ultrasonic Au Wire Bondability of Thin Film Aluminium Alloy Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding of 500µm Diameter Al Wires Ultrasonic Bonding of Al-1 %Si Wire to NI-Cr Thin Film Ultrasonic Plastic Bonding of Protective Device Packages Ultrasonic Inspection of External Stress Corrosion Cracking Underwater Wet Welding: Welding Steel with Carbon Equivalent Update on Fracture Toughness Test Methods for Welded Joints Metal Powder Additions for One/Two-Pass Submerged-Arc Welds Using Fracture Mechanics to Claim Exemption from PWHT Validation of Analytical and Computational Models of Friction Stir Welding Validating BS 7910:2013/R6 Fracture Assessment Procedures Validating CrackFirst Sensors at Ambient/Reduced Temperature Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Small Fatigue Cracks Validation of Methods to Determine CTOD from SENT Specimens ESIS Measurement of Thermoplastic J-Fracture Toughness FITNET Procedure: Weld Strength and Fracture Assessment European FITNET Procedure: Locally Thinned Area Assessment European FITNET Procedure: Use of Fatigue Assessment Route 4 European FITNET Procedure: Fracture Assessment Option 4 Validation of R6 Strain-Based FAD Using Pipe Test Data/FEA Validation of Theoretical Models for Ultrasonic Inspection Variations in Stress Intensity Factor in Curved Crack Fronts Vibration Welding of Polyetheretherketone Vortex Generator Nozzles for Oxy-Fuel Cutting of C-Mn Steel Wear/Corrosion Resistant Coatings by Resistance Surfacing Hydrogen Cracking/Microstructure/Hardness of MMA Weld Steels Hydrogen Cracks in Electrode Weld 450 N/mm2 Yield Strength Weld Metal Mixing in Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MAG Welding Weld Metal Toughness of Welded Modified 9%Cr1%Mo Steel Weld Overlaying and Process/Process Parameters on Dilution Weldability of Corrosion Resistant Steel: Interim Report Weldability of Corrosion Resistant Steels: 25Cr-5Ni-Cu-Mo Intercrystalline Corrosion Resistance in Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stress Corrosion Testing In Chloride Media Toughness Properties Of Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Welding Institute Studies On Duplex And ELI Ferritic Materials Weldbonding of 1mm Aluminium Alloy Sheet Welding and Cutting Trials with a 3kW Carbon Monoxide Laser Welding and Deposition of Nickel Superalloys 718, Waspaloy and Single Crystal Alloy CMSX-10 Submerged-Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welding with Pulsed 1kW Nd: YAG Laser with Fibre Optic Beam Welding Characteristics of an 800W Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser Welding CRA Clad Materials: Three Layer (Buffer) Approach Welding CRA Clad Materials: Three Layer Butt Weld Trials Welding Plastic Films with Infrared Lamp/Laser Technologies Semi-Automatic Steel Welding with Small Tubular Cored Wires Wire/Ribbon Interconnection of Bond Pads <50 Micrometers X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Small Metal Samples

Top-Face Monitoring of Weld Penetration Using a Single Sensor with Two Assessment Parameters

TWI Industrial Member Report Summary 619/1997

P C J Anderson and J Tapp

A top-face sensor system has been developed to monitor the depth of weld penetration during autogenous TIG welding.


For high integrity components, there is a need for a system to accurately determine weld bead penetration. Currently there are a number of sensor systems but each has generic limitations that define its application.

Previous work [1] suggested that a combination of sensor types may allow the restrictions of individual methods to be overcome, as the information made available by one sensor can be used to counteract the limitations of another. In particular, a system based upon simultaneous weld pool viewing and thermal sensing with a single infra-red camera was proposed.

  • Sensing by weld pool viewing does not appear to be affected by the surface condition of the workpiece, but is less reliable when used to detect variations in the component thickness and joint fit-up.
  • Thermal sensing with an infra-red camera can provide a qualitative indication of variations in these factors, although its quantitative accuracy for penetration control is adversely affected by variations in the surface emissivity of the component material.

Both techniques function independently of welding process, position and joint type.

This report details firstly the sensor system design, and secondly the operation of the sensor system on some autogenous TIG trial welds. The trial welds demonstrate that the sensor is able to detect changes in the thermal properties of a weld and, from that information conclude changes in the material thickness.


The objective of this project is to develop a top-face penetration control system for TIG welding.

The objectives of this phase of work were:

  • To design a top-face monitoring system using an infra-red camera such that it can detect variations in the weld pool shape and thermal information during TIG welding.
  • To use this information to determine changes in plate thickness.
  • To establish potential of the system for use as a control system.

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