TWI Industrial Member Report Summary 39/1977
By M L E Davis and F R Coe
The report is in three distinct parts. Part A deals with compositions of submerged arc fluxes, the concept of basicity and reaction chemistry in melts and reviews selected equations from the literature which describe the behaviour of oxygen silicon manganese sulphur phosphorus, hydrogen and water and carbon. Part B tests these equations for the first five elements in commercial fluxes representing the majority of compositional types and concludes that chemical equilibrium is achieved during welding in most cases. Part C reports new measurements of flux and slag physical properties including bulk density, grain size, flowability, melting range, thermogravimetric behaviour, expansion, surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity.