Update on Literature Reviews for Wire-Fed Additive Manufacturing
By Tom Pinto
Following the creation of BS EN ISO/ASTM 52900:2021 which defines the terminology used in additive manufacturing (AM), this literature review has considered the following three wire-fed AM processes:
- Directed energy deposition electron beam wire (DED-EB/w).Directed energy deposition laser beam wire (DED-LB/w).
- Directed energy deposition plasma arc wire (DED-Arc/w).
This review builds upon previous extensive technical literature reviews that have been conducted in these areas as listed below:
- DED-EB/w reported in TWI Report No. 24033/1/15.
- DED-LB/w and DED-Arc/w both reported in TWI Report No. 33632/1/2021.
- Coaxial DED-EB/w is unique and only one system is currently available with the majority of the publications including the equipment manufacturer, xBeam.
- Coaxial DED-LB/w research in 2022 appears to be predominately published by German organisations such as Technical University of Munich, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT and Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen.
- Coaxial DED-Arc/w systems are still in the academic/research phase.
- As most papers are still process development studies this highlights that the coaxial DED processes are low TRL and research is still required to develop them.
This review summarises the advancements of coaxial DED/w processes made since previous TWI literature reviews in TWI Report No. 24033/1/15 and TWI Report No. 33632/1/2021.
The review shows the work completed by others and identifies the shortfalls in knowledge with a view to addressing them within later project work.
Overall this literature review has highlighted some of the emerging applications such as space for DED-EB/w whereby the vacuum requirement is no longer a prohibitive prerequisite.
Metallurgical sample of coaxial directed energy deposition electron beam wire build