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Update on Literature Reviews for Wire-Fed Additive Manufacturing

Back to Core Research Programme 33632-2021-review-of-materials-am-and-nde-considerations-for-functionally-graded-materials 34236-2023-literature-review-on-the-potential-use-of-non-destructive-testing-techniques-for-residual-stress-measurement 34241-2023-artificial-intelligence-for-ndt-scanning-of-unknown-geometries-using-collaborative-robots 34459-2022-friction-stir-welding-of-pressure-vessel-liners-for-the-storage-and-transportation-of-hydrogen 34727-2023-techniques-for-high-temperature-ultrasonic-inspection-of-arc-welding-state-of-the-art-review 34793-2023-update-on-literature-reviews-for-wire-fed-additive-manufacturing 34847-2023-Literature-review-on-crack-length-measurement-techniques-on-environmental-fracture-toughness-tests 35268-2024-Literature-review-on-dual-sensing-applications-for-SHM-of-pipelines 32221-2020-hybrid-composite-to-metal-joining 32893-2020-mechanical-fastener-coatings-for-corrosion-protection 33557-2020-extreme-high-speed-laser-application-ehla-coatings 33557-2020-extreme-high-speed-laser-application-ehla-coatings 33557-2020-extreme-high-speed-laser-application-ehla-coatings 33557-2020-review-of-electric-vehicle-battery-joining-methods-and-testing 34250-2022-thermoplastic-materials-compatibility-for-hydrogen-service A Review of High Power, In-Vacuum and Narrow Gap Laser Welding Processes for Thick Section Welding A Review of High Productivity Additive Manufacture Using a Hybrid Laser-Arc Deposition (HLAD) Process A Review of Micro Welding with Fibre and Disc Continuous-Wave Laser Sources A Review of Residual Stress Measurement Techniques Used for Components Produced Using the Selective Laser Melting Process A Review of the Machine GTAW Ambient Temperature Temper Bead Repair Technique for Nuclear Power Plant Components A Review of Weld Repairs of Mar-M247 and Similar Alloys Applications, Modelling and Manufacturing Processes for Perforated Composites - Literature Review Butt Fusion Welding Procedures and Test Methods Used for PE Pipes Duplex Stainless Steel Welding – A Review of Current Practices Elastic Follow-Up in the Context of Fracture Assessment Flaw Sizing Techniques Using Guided Waves Flaw Sizing Techniques Using Guided Waves Flaw Sizing Techniques Using Guided Waves In-Bore Multi-Positional Laser Welding In-Process Monitoring of Arc Welding for Quality and Defect Detection Mechanical Fastening Technologies for Steel to Aluminium Joining in Automotive Manufacture Process Capability Study for Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) Resistance Spot Welding with Transition Discs – A Review of Dissimilar Joining Using Transition Materials with Specific Reference to Resistance Spot Welding Review of Process Simulations for Metal Additive Manufacturing Surface Modification and Micro-Machining with Pulsed-Laser Sources Wire Fed Electron Beam Additive Manufacture – A State-of-the-Art Review

Update on Literature Reviews for Wire-Fed Additive Manufacturing

By Tom Pinto


Following the creation of BS EN ISO/ASTM 52900:2021 which defines the terminology used in additive manufacturing (AM), this literature review has considered the following three wire-fed AM processes:

  • Directed energy deposition electron beam wire (DED-EB/w).Directed energy deposition laser beam wire (DED-LB/w).
  • Directed energy deposition plasma arc wire (DED-Arc/w).

This review builds upon previous extensive technical literature reviews that have been conducted in these areas as listed below:

  • DED-EB/w reported in TWI Report No. 24033/1/15.
  • DED-LB/w and DED-Arc/w both reported in TWI Report No. 33632/1/2021.

Key Findings

  • Coaxial DED-EB/w is unique and only one system is currently available with the majority of the publications including the equipment manufacturer, xBeam.
  • Coaxial DED-LB/w research in 2022 appears to be predominately published by German organisations such as Technical University of Munich, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT and Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen.
  • Coaxial DED-Arc/w systems are still in the academic/research phase. 
  • As most papers are still process development studies this highlights that the coaxial DED processes are low TRL and research is still required to develop them.


This review summarises the advancements of coaxial DED/w processes made since previous TWI literature reviews in TWI Report No. 24033/1/15 and TWI Report No. 33632/1/2021.

The review shows the work completed by others and identifies the shortfalls in knowledge with a view to addressing them within later project work.

Overall this literature review has highlighted some of the emerging applications such as space for DED-EB/w whereby the vacuum requirement is no longer a prohibitive prerequisite.

34793- Image

Metallurgical sample of coaxial directed energy deposition electron beam wire build


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