Laser welding and ultrasonic welding (including wire bonding) are leading joining methods and have been extensively discussed in literature.
No academic literature studies were found on the application of USWB to battery cells.
Resistance and TIG welding have shown promise however further research and development is required.
A study shows that laser welding appears to show the highest joint strength and lowest electrical contact resistance when compared with ultrasonic techniques, however, there was no directly comparable data available.
There was no universal mechanical, electrical and thermal testing standards available for evaluating battery joints for any joining method.