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A Review of Electric Vehicle Battery Joining Methods and Testing

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A Review of Electric Vehicle Battery Joining Methods and Testing


By Kandarp Amin and Dr Abbasi Gandhi


With the increasing focus on renewable energy generation there has been a significant change in the automotive industry with a drive towards electrification and electric vehicles (EVs). Recent European Union targets propose a ban on the sales of new cars with internal combustion engines by 2035 (Reuters, 2021) and 2030 in the UK (UK Government, 2020).

As a result of the current surge in targets for EV manufacturing, significant challenges are being placed on the supply chain in terms of design requirements, joining and manufacturing technologies, inspection, testing and validation and electrical testing. This literature review will explore these themes in detail and provide a top level insight and comparison of joining and testing processes for batteries.

Wire bonds


Key Findings

  • Laser welding and ultrasonic welding (including wire bonding) are leading joining methods and have been extensively discussed in literature.

  • No academic literature studies were found on the application of USWB to battery cells.

  • Resistance and TIG welding have shown promise however further research and development is required.

  • A study shows that laser welding appears to show the highest joint strength and lowest electrical contact resistance when compared with ultrasonic techniques, however, there was no directly comparable data available.

  • There was no universal mechanical, electrical and thermal testing standards available for evaluating battery joints for any joining method.


Reuters, 2021: ‘EU proposes effective ban for new fossil-fuel cars from 2035’.

UK Government, 2020: ‘Government takes historic step towards net-zero with end of sale of new petrol and diesel cars by 2030’.

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