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Back to Media and Events $8M Saved Following Abington Consultation - Case Study 94 1 Million Pound per Annum Potential Savings Through Project - Case Study 167 100kW Electron Beam Machine for Framatome - Case Study 52 100kW Electron Beam Machine for Framatome - Case Study 52 10X Saving in Material Handling Costs - Case Study 438 15% Increase in Production of Flue Products - Case Study 440 1980s Material - A Question of Fracture Toughness - Case Study 407 20% Reduction in Project Management Costs - Case Study 436 20% Savings in Welding Operations - Case Study 437 A Crushing Reply - Technical Advice Casebook - Case Study 162 A Cut Above the Rest - Especially When It Comes to Titanium - Case Study 35 A Novel Approach to Offshore Wind Power ...But Where and How Much? - Case Study 413 A Novel NDT Technique for Inspecting Offshore Structures A Novel X-Ray Inspection System for Counterfeit Component A Tough Choice - Made Easier by Talking to the Right People - Case Study 381 Abington Work Behind Standards Revision - Case Study 307 Adhering to Sound Advice - Case Study 404 Adhesive Surface Mount Technology - Case Study 163 Adhesives and Composite Structures for Lightweight Armour - Case Study 175 Advanced Long Range Ultrasonic Technology for Integrity Assessment - Case Study 496 Advanced Material Characterisation Helps Northumbria Optical Coatings Build Fundamental Materials - Case Study 580 Advanced Material Characterisation Techniques for Failure Investigation - Case Study 423 Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Assessment - Case Study 420 Advanced Techniques for Metallurgical Assessment - Case Study 446 Advances in Polymer Stent Manufacture - Case Study 510 Advice and Technical Support for Tricky Offshore Repair - Case Study 408 AEA Commissions WELDTEST Defect Test Assembly Giant - Case Study 289 AEROPLAN – Disseminates Best Practice in Aerospace Composites Repair, Monitoring and Validation - Case Study 576 Aged Impellers Demand Unorthodox Procedures - Case Study 134 AI Li Alloy Bonding - Case Study 1 Aircraft Wing Refurbishment - Case Study 91 Alnmaritec Evaluates Friction Stir Welding for Deck Plate Construction - Case Study 563 Analysis of Flaws in North Cormorant Jacket Saves Shell 45m - Case Study 169 Array Ultrasonic Measuring of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates Assessing Plant Life - Case Study 184 Assessing the Fitness-for-Purpose of Root Defects in Offshore Structures - Case Study 36 Assessment of Electroslag Welds for UK Infrastructure – London 2012 Olympics - Case Study 623 Assessment of Power Station Header Weld Flaws - Case Study 233 Automated Ultrasonic Inspection and ECA of Riser Tie-In Welds Offshore - Case Study 110 Barrikade - Case Study 203 Barrikade® - A Fire Resistant Composite Insulation Material Developed by TWI - Case Study 230 Biggest Girth Weld Test Gets Underway - Case Study 342 Bridge Behaviour - Case Study 4 Burning Desire to Succeed - Case Study 454 Bursting with Efficiency - Case Study 53 Call in the Experts - Welding Procedures and Fracture Toughness under Scrutiny - Case Study 389 Canadian Bridge Failure Litigation - Case Study 135 Car Suspension Work Flourishes - Case Study 58 Carbon Dioxide Laser Welding - Case Study 220 Cassini Space Probe to Titan - Case Study 522 Cast Steel Housing Repaired - Case Study 5 Ceramics Provide a New Way to Manufacture Precision Products - Case Study 543 Chinese Counterpart Benefits from Cambridge's Twin Spot Laser Experience - Case Study 364 Chubb Locks on to Abington Advice - Case Study 64 Circuit Board Vibration - Case Study 113 Cladding Disbonding Explored - Case Study 78 Clean Up the Act - Case Study 250 Cleaning Up Your Act… A Fresh Approach to Factory Layout - Case Study 387 CleanShip Industry Solution for Prevention and Detection of Fouling on Ships - Case Study 592 Coatings Comparison Lends Insight to Cost Cutting - Case Study 392 Cold Comfort - Ratification for Welds Working in Cryogenic Conditions - Case Study 358 Cold Comfort - Ratification for Welds Working in Cryogenic Conditions - Case Study 371 Comparative Fatigue Lives in Question - So Ask TWI - Case Study 410 Comparing EB and Laser Welding Processes for a New Production Line - Case Study 512 Composite Lifeboat Hatches Tested at TWI - Case Study 483 Condition Assessment of Hot Gas Path Turbine Components - Case Study 325 Conductive Adhesive for Ultrasound Catheter - Case Study 252 Confidence Restored in Diesel Generator - Case Study 253 Copper Canisters to Encapsulate Nuclear Waste 316 Corrosion Testing for Seawater Service 068 Cost Cutting a Radical Approach 377 Cost–Risk Software for P91 Steam Piping and Hot Reheat Piping - Case Study 598 Crackfirst a New Sensor System to Assist in Structural Health Monitoring 339 Crashworthiness of Welded Aluminium Train Carriages 378 Crucial Replication Made Easy 474 Customer Requirements Drive Manufacturing Change 159 Customised Software Reliably Predicts Accumulated Plastic Strain 366 Defect Assessment Saves Repair 118 Defect-Free Low Distortion Welding for Autoclave Fabrication 362 Delivering Best Practice Training for Offshore Wind Farms Design Advice at 30 mph - Case Study 335 Designer's Blues - Case Study 254 Developing Environmentally Friendly Coatings Dielectric Measurements at MW Frequency and High Temperature Dipole Vacuum Vessel Saved by EB - Case Study 63 Distortion in Fusion Reactor Coil Case - Case Study 236 Downtime Reduced After Ethylene Plant Assessment - Case Study 308 Earth-Moving Giant Cleans Up - Case Study 401 Eastenders' Rail Link Upgraded - Case Study 100 EB Deflection on Target - Case Study 61 EB Programmable Deflection - Case Study 27 EB Technique Tells Tales on Weak Welds - Case Study 59 EB Welding – Minimal Distortion - Case Study 51 Economic Harnessing of River and Tidal Energy - Case Study 531 Eight Countries - Fourteen Companies - Budget US$1.4M - Case Study 336 Electron Beam Welding of Fuel Bundles - Case Study 237 Electronic Component Reliability - Case Study 114 Electronic Joint Breakdowns Prompt TWI Investigation - Case Study 418 Engine Mount Quality Tests - Case Study 21 Engineering Ceramics – Turbine Blades - Case Study 249 Engineering Critical Assessment of Mooring System Casting Welds - Case Study 108 Enhanced QA System Puts Welding on a More Formal Footing - Case Study 84 Environmentally Friendly Material Looks Weldable - Case Study 85 Ethylene Plant Assessment - Case Study 126 European Space Agency Receives TWI Support - Case Study 388 Examination of Failed Fuel Nozzles - Case Study 239 Examination of Failure in Fir Tree Connection in Disc Explosion Damage Limitation - Case Study 34 Extra-Large Diameter Pipeline Inspection - Case Study 517 Extrusion Press Repair Avoids Replacement Cost - Case Study 102 Fabricator Receives Assistance under the REMTEC Programme - Case Study 484 Fast Results Achieved in South Wales - Case Study 121 Fatigue Life Analysis of a Stent - Case Study 256 Fatigue Performance of Locally Thickened and Machined Pipes Fatigue Strength of Steel RHS T Joints - Case Study 24 FEA Aids Design of Climbers' Snow Safety Device - Case Study 86 Fine Tuning to Spot Welding Kit - Case Study 87 Finite Element Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines - Case Study 499 Flaw Assessment Saves Repair - Case Study 313 Flexible Risers - Is Repair a Viable Option? - Case Study 174 Foreseeing the Unforeseen - Case Study 354 Formula One Benefits from Electron Beam Welding - Case Study 88 Free Technical Support comes to Welsh Business - Case Study 393 Friction Stir in Europe - The Low Cost Way - Case Study 395 Friction Stir Welding of Thick Section Aluminium - Case Study 328 Friction Stir Welding on the London Underground - Case Study 383 Friction Welding Manufacture of Flexible Medical Instruments Friction Welding Proves Perfect in Nuclear Work - Case Study 97 FSW Variant Leads the Way with 'Impossible' Joints Furnace Operators Call in the Experts - A Case Study - Case Study 370 Game, Set, and Match...Sporting Goods Business Gets Stuck In - Case Study 453 Girth Weld Repair Assessment Procedure for Offshore Pipelay Gluemaker - Case Study 111 Gripping End to Design of Innovative Wall Repair Device - Case Study 399 Group Restructure Leads to Tailored Training - Case Study 215 GSPs Yield $17m for Oil Producer - Case Study 142 Heat Sink Joining Finds EB Solution - Case Study 258 Help for Hydro - Case Study 337 Help When the Heat Is On - Case Study 400 Helping the Flying Scotsman to Fly Again - Case Study 259 High Pressure Hydrogen Test Service Launched at TWI - Case Study 390 High Quality Doesn't have to be a Daily Grind - Case Study 95 High Release Sleeve Sticks to its Leading Role - Case Study 106 High Speed MIG/Laser Welding for Aluminium Alloy Railcars - Case Study 461 Higher Strength Steels Evaluated - Case Study 62 Historic Aircraft Restoration - Case Study 505 'Honeycomb' Structures made using Surfi-Sculpt - Case Study 15 Hong Kong Bridge Builders Call on TWI - Case Study 136 Hot Gas Welding of Filtration Units - Case Study 26 Hot Stuff…..Turns the Heads of the Furnace Business - Case Study 376 Huge Increases Achieved in Torsional Resistance... Thanks to Comeld - Case Study 380 Ice Making System to Offer a Low Cost Solution for Fishing Boats - Case Study 584 Improved Brazing Technique in Push for Enhanced Tool Endurance - Case Study 124 Improved Design for Heat Exchanger - Case Study 67 Improvements in the Pipeline for Fire Sprinkler System Safety - Case Study 586 Improving the Toughness of Weldments - Case Study 79 In Search of Excellence - Case Study 216 Increased Confidence in New Build Design of Pipelines - Case Study 546 Increased Customer Demand Triggers Review of Strip Processes - Case Study 217 Increased Support to Members with New Linear Friction Welding Machine - Case Study 544 Increasing Robot Cell Utilisation - Case Study 442 Inducing Flaws Intentionally - Case Study 70 Induction welding of long fibre reinforced thermoplastics Information Keeps Hobart Ahead - Case Study 81 Infrared Alternative Scores Highly in Plastics Joining Task - Case Study 405 Infrared Fusion Weld Assessment - Case Study 72 In-Situ Wireless Monitoring of Wind Towers and Blades Inspection of a 14 inch Ammonia Line - Case Study 320 Intelligent Robot Gains Approval for Ship Repair - Case Study 226 Investigation and Advice Leads to Improved Sensor Fabrication Method - Case Study 629 Investigation of Liquid Metal Damaged Pipe Provides Confidence - Case Study 548 Joint Design Alterations for Adhesive Bonding - Case Study 261 Joint Effort on Tank Integrity Training - Case Study 331 Laser Welding of Military Vehicles at TWI - Case Study 262 Laser Welding of Plastics for Energy Storage System - Case Study 242 Laser Welding of Rear Upright for Formula 1 Car - Case Study 263 Lead Time Halved in Heat Exchanger Production - Case Study 439 Lead-Time Halved in Heat Exchanger Production - Case Study 264 Leak Check Simplifies Mast Crack Testing - Case Study 130 Lean Manufacturing Prepares Stainless Fabricator for Growth Case Study 140 Life Extension of FCC Reactor - Case Study 211 Linear Friction Welding Cuts Costs - Case Study 403 Linear Friction Welding for Solid Phase Additive Manufacture Linear Friction Welding of Preforms - Case Study 457 Long Range Ultrasonic Inspecting of Aircraft Wires Low Cost Titanium Structure - Case Study 147 Make It With Lasers Proving Trials Success - Case Study 66 Manifold Failure in Service…But Why? - Case Study 406 Manufacturing a Friction Stirwelded Demonstration Piece - Case Study 506 Mast Repair Maintains Communication - Case Study 129 Material Performance in Hydrogen Chloride Environments Materials Handling Costs Set to Fall - Case Study 105 Measuring Complex Geometries for Residual Stress - Case Study 77 Mechanical Testing Made Easy - Top Equipment at TWI - Case Study 386 Medical Research Carried Out by TWI for the NHS - Case Study 504 Metallurgical Examination of Gas Pipeline Reassures Shell - Case Study 69 Metal-to-Composite Coating Solves Insulation Problem - Case Study 382 Microfocus Inspection System a Winner - Case Study 266 Million Pound Laser Scabbling Job Won by TWI - Case Study 465 Miniature Design Creates Big Business - Case Study 267 MMC Surfacing - Case Study 31 Mobile Technology Provides Flexible Solution for Multi-Pass EB Welding - Case Study 541 Monitoring Flaw Growth in EDF Energy Nuclear Boiler Spines Moth-Balled Naphtha Plant - Case Study 189 Motorway Safety Fences – Welded Barriers in the Spotlight - Case Study 99 Multi-Pass Laser Welding Production of Wind Turbine Jackets Navy Underwater Trials Completed in TWI Tank - Case Study 333 NDT for Mechanical Performance Loss in Damaged Composites NDT Inspection of a 24 Inch Slurry Line - Case Study 324 NDT Inspection of a 48'' Line - Case Study 323 NDT Inspection of Offshore Risers in Lake Maracaibo - Case Study 321 NDT Inspection of Three Kilometres of 10 Inch Gas Line in Venezuela - Case Study 319 NDT of Adhesive Bonds - Case Study 268 NDT Survey of a 10'' Buried Line - Case Study 322 New Alloys for Abrasive Wear - Case Study 29 New Contract, New Market Sector - Case Study 450 New Design of Weldbonded Refrigerated Containers - Case Study 269 New Direction, New Business - Case Study 361 New Facility Studies Flame Straightening Effects - Case Study 137 New NDT Gear Side-Steps Awkward Inspection - Case Study 148 New Pipe Connector Passes the Crucial Test - Case Study 467 New Product, New Assembly Problem - Case Study 160 New Risk-Based Inspection Strategy for Offshore Assets Nickel Superalloy Blades Pass the Test - Case Study 330 No More Fire-Fighting Production Snags - Case Study 158 No Room for Mistakes….….Welds under Suspicion, So Call in the Experts - Case Study 363 Non Destructive Testing of Lifeboats - Case Study 462 Non Stick Developments Underway... to Counter Paint, Dirt and Grease - Case Study 411 North Sea Giant Calls on TWI Expertise - Case Study 149 North Sea Giant Calls on TWI Expertise - Case Study 93 North Sea Pipe Takes the Strain - Case Study 56 Offshore Ferrous Link Investigation - Case Study 492 OGN to Introduce Wind Turbine Jacket Manufacturing Capabilities - Case Study 553 On Site Strain Gauging and Fatigue Analysis - Case Study 270 On Track with London Underground - Case Study 271 On-Going Work Helps Verify Reliability of Radiography - Case Study 334 On-Site Analysis Sheds Light on Teleporter Stresses - Case Study 42 On-Site Consultancy for Adoption of New Welding Standards - Case Study 486 On-Site Metallography of Al Alloys - Case Study 28 On-Site Metallography Solves a Pressure Vessel Problem - Case Study 150 On-Site Strain Measurement - Case Study 8 Optimisation of Microwave Processing of Composites Optimising an Aerospace Component: Replacing Metal with Composite - Case Study 601 Optimising Manufacturing for Aggressive Environments Paxman Commissions Engine Repairs - Case Study 49 Peening to Enhance Fatigue Life - Case Study 33 Pipework Dents Assessment - Case Study 9 Plasma Control and Shielding in CO2 Laser Welding - Case Study 30 Plasma to the Fore - Case Study 391 Plastics Joining at the Speed of Light - Case Study 452 Plastics Welder Training Reaches Scotland's Western Isles - Case Study 347 Polypipe Civils Take CSWIP Plastics Welding Examination - Case Study 152 Post-Exposure Testing of Powerformer Furnace Tubes - Case Study 187 Power Beam Aids Power Vehicle Performance - Case Study 273 Powerweave - Energy Revolution – Fibres Generating and Storing Energy - Case Study 528 Prediction and Control of Distortion in Light-Weight Ship Panels - Case Study 161 Preheat Avoided - Case Study 18 Procedures for Pioneering Fusion Project - Case Study 12 Product and Process Review Leads to Improved Welded Fuel Tank Quality - Case Study 449 Product Improvement Prompts Welding Procedure Development - Case Study 369 Production of Welding Consumables from Scrap Material - Case Study 489 Productivity Improvements for Welding Plastics Pipes - Case Study 48 Project Century Project Management in Component Manufacture - Case Study 16 Project Saves Time and Money for Amerada Hess - Case Study 170 Putting One's Mind at Rest - Case Study 353 Putting Your Mind at Rest - A Close-Up Structural Inspection by TWI - Case Study 398 Quality Assessment of Power Plant Reveals Multiple Defects Quality Criteria for Weld Procedure Development Quality Improvements - Case Study 206 Quick Response Favours the Experts - in Search of Contamination Quick Response to a Contamination Problem - Case Study 295 Radicle - Real-Time Dynamic Control System for Laser Welding - Case Study 698 Raising the Standards - Case Study 349 Real-Time Auto-Focussing with Full Matrix Capture Redesign Follows Exhaustive Examination - Case Study 57 Reduced Pressure EBW of Copper Canisters for SKB, Sweden - Case Study 244 Reduced Pressure EBW of Tokamak Vacuum Containment Vessel - Case Study 245 Reducing Costs Offshore - Case Study 143 Reel Results - Offshore Pipe Plastic Straining - Case Study 356 Reel Results - Offshore Pipe Plastic Straining …. Simulated in the Lab - Case Study 374 Regional Technology Project Pops Welded Bubbles - Case Study 447 REMO – Online Remote Condition Monitoring of Tidal Stream Generators - Case Study 596 Repair of Hydropower Station Turbine Casings to a Tight Deadline - Case Study 246 Repair of Steel Viaduct - Case Study 101 Research Project to Bring Down High Cost of Autoclaving - Case Study 581 Residual Stress and Structural Integrity using Thermography Resilient Rubber - Case Study 107 Resistive implant welding of fibre reinforced thermoplastics Revalidation of Gas Field Facilities - Case Study 127 Rework of MCM Die Bonds - Case Study 89 RISKCalc in UltraPIPE in Texas - Case Study 350 RISKWISE for Tanks Applied in Malaysia - Case Study 351 RISKWISE for TotalFinaElf's Refinery in Belgium - Case Study 190 RISKWISE Software used in Japan - Case Study 318 RISKWISE™ RBI Planning Software - Case Study 444 Roll Bar and Cage Lead Time Reduced by 75% - Case Study 434 Rubbing Along Nicely …Tailored Training in Linear Friction Welding - Case Study 415 SAFERAIL Prototypes Minimise Wheelset Failures - Case Study 508 Search for a Welded Solution Ends with Election Beam - Case Study 379 Second Opinion Sets Client's Mind at Rest - Case Study 419 Self-Piercing Riveting - Case Study 151 Self-Piercing Riveting Case Study of Volvo FH12 Truck Cab - Case Study 154 Self-Piercing Riveting for Electric Window Winders - Case Study 157 Self-Piercing Riveting of Sunroof Framework - Case Study 156 Serious Savings from Service Assessment - Case Study 223 Shallow Cracks Help! - Case Study 74 SimCoDeQ - Process Monitoring of Composite Materials Manufacturing Simulation of Roll Cage Manufacture - Case Study 201 Simulation Tests Robot Feasibility - Case Study 47 Small Sample Analysis Solves a Problem - Case Study 73 Software for Plant Inspection Analysis - Case Study 194 Software to Predict Distortion and Improve Fatigue SOIMON – Fast and Reliable Technology for In-Situ Soil Inspection - Case Study 608 Solder Materials for use in 'Down Hole' Data Loggers - Case Study 122 Solution Found to Refinery Damage Problem - Case Study 185 Solvent Helps the Tate Modern Restore a Vandalised Work of Art - Case Study 558 Something in the Air - Fume Dangers Recorded - Case Study 394 Specialist NDT Services Move Offshore - Case Study 45 Spoilt for Choice...Tiptoeing through the Plastics Minefield - Case Study 373 SpotTrack: A Spot Weld Inspection Device Ready for Field Trials - Case Study 552 Sputter Coating - Case Study 109 Staying in Shape - Case Study 466 Step Tests Reveal Failure Details - Case Study 277 Strain Gauging in Extremis - Case Study 120 Structural Health Monitoring of 1950s Bridge - Case Study 509 Structural Integrity Assured for Liverpool Bay - Case Study 116 Structural Integrity of a Gas Separation Plant - Case Study 209 Structural Integrity of Pressure Systems for Power Sites Structural Performance of Components for Racing Vehicles - Case Study 227 Subsea dissimilar joint resistance to hydrogen embrittlement Successful Inspection Beyond Pipe Bends Using Teletest® - Case Study 525 Swedish and American Conferences Joined by Friction Stir - Case Study 280 Switch Box Redesign Reduces Cost - Case Study 90 Tank Corrosion Investigation - Case Study 71 Team Helps in Magnus Repair - Case Study 55 Teething Troubles… Dental Engineers Given a Helping Hand - Case Study 397 Teletest Focus+ Launched - Case Study 493 Teletest Inspection of Road Crossings on the North Slope - Case Study 210 Teletest Long Range UT Inspection of 12 Inch Heavy Fuel Oil - Case Study 212 Teletest Long Range UT Inspection Trials for Caltex, Indone - Case Study 193 'Teletest' Long-Range UT Inspection of Jetty Lines for Shell - Case Study 192 Teletest Long-Range UT Inspection of Riser Bundles - Case Study 225 Teletest Permamount Guiding the Wave of Innovation - Case Study 565 Teletest Survey of Pipework at ST Services' Eastham Tank Farm - Case Study 222 Teletest® in of a 24'' Slurry Line - Case Study 432 Teletest® Inspection of Road Crossings on the North Slope - Case Study 430 Teletest® Long Range UT Inspection of Jetty Lines for Shell - Case Study 426 Teletest® Long Range UT Inspection of Riser Bundles - Case Study 429 Teletest® long range UT inspection trails Caltex, Indonesia - Case Study 427 Teletest® Long-Range UT Inspection of 12'' Heavy Fuel Oil Line - Case Study 425 Teletest® Survey of a 10'' Buried Line - Case Study 310 Teletest® Survey of a 10'' Buried Line - Case Study 433 Teletest® Survey of Pipework at ST Services' Eastham Tank Farm - Case Study 428 Ten Years of Support to the Karachaganak Plant - Case Study 567 Testing of Dry Film Coating System to Protect Welding Components - Case Study 515 Testing Time for Highway Parapets - Case Study 41 TestPEP helps with inspection of Welded Joints in Plastic Pipes - Case Study 530 The First In-Process Inspection System for Friction Stir Welding - Case Study 554 The Literature Search Made Easy - Weldasearch - Case Study 481 The Trevor Gooch Environmental Testing Laboratory - Case Study 343 Thermal Protection System for Combustion Chambers - Case Study 197 Tough Advice Improves Cost Efficiency - Case Study 82 Tough Transparent Coatings Present Tough Challenges - Case Study 412 Train Makers Question Traditional Welding Processes Measuring Residual Stresses in Hard to Reach Areas Turbine is Given a Clean Bill of Health - Case Study 385 Structural Batteries Concept for Automotive Applications TWI Advises on M6 Bridge Strengthening - Case Study 50 Development of Electronic Packaging for Bore Hole Data Logs TWI Assists Mobil During Turnaround Inspection - Case Study 213 TWI Assists with Critical Repair at Canadian Nuclear Plant - Case Study 475 TWI Assists with Nuclear Boiler Repair - Case Study 247 TWI Group Sponsored Projects Yield $17m for Oil Producer - Case Study 241 TWI Helps Repair Vintage Sabre Jet - Case Study 485 TWI Helps to Verify the Reliability of Radiography - Case Study 125 TWI Helps to Verify the Reliability of Radiography - Case Study 243 TWI Helps with Company's Long Term Plans - Case Study 346 TWI Improves Welding Performance for Chinese Rail Manufacturer - Case Study 634 TWI Keeps Centrifuge Turning - Case Study 6 TWI Provides On-Stream Inspection Service - Case Study 248 TWI Rescue Operation - Case Study 65 TWI Studies Significance of Aleyaska Pipeline Defects - Case Study 103 TWI Training Courses Add to Phillips's Inspection Capability - Case Study 123 TWI-BGA Certification Scheme for Geomembrane Welders - Case Study 345 Typpi Oy Ammonia Plant Water Coolers - Case Study 182 UK Contractor Turns to Arcs on Far East Fabrication - Case Study 164 UK Contractor Turns to TWI on Far East Fabrication - Case Study 104 Software Mods for More Accurate Predictions Underwater Friction Welding for Electrical Couplings - Case Study 173 Underwater Friction Welding for Electrical Couplings - Case Study 314 Unexpected Fatigue Behaviour Explained - Case Study 37 Up, Down, Up, Down - Cyclic Pressure Testing at TWI - Case Study 359 Validating a New Product - Case Study 502 Verification of Brass Valve Components for Air Products - Case Study 327 Vessel Dismantling - TWI Broadens its Marine Interests Virtual Ultrasonic Testing to the Fore - Case Study 338 WallJAM: Beat the Best! - Case Study 622 Warming to Friction Stir Welding - Case Study 451 Weldability of New Pipeline Steel - Case Study 23 Weldasearch for World-Wide Information - Case Study 75 Welded Afterthoughts…..Prompt A Closer Look - Case Study 375 Welding Improvements for the Maritime Industry - Case Study 501 Welding in Space – Who Needs Gravity? - Case Study 92 Welding Trials Permit Reduced Inspection Times - Case Study 44 Welding Up the Tubes - Case Study 260 Welds Before and After Underline Value of Butt Fusion Course - Case Study 348 Wet or Dry…Teletest Exceeds Expectations - Case Study 409 Winch Shaft Failures Diagnosed - Case Study 98 WIP Reduced by 35% in Manufacturing of Filter Units - Case Study 435 Wire/Ribbon Tape Automated Bonding - Case Study 19
A steel fabrication shop, whose main product was railway tanker wagons, received an order for aluminium alloy tankers and set itself up for both MIG and TIG welding. Production started, but the company was soon in deep trouble and approached TWI with the following cry for urgent assistance

'We have carried out welding procedure tests to BS 4870: Part 2:1982 (Approval testing of welding procedures) and all our welders have passed the tests in BS 4871:Part 2:1982 (Approval testing of welders working to approved welding procedures, parts of BS 4870 have since been superseded by more recent standards). Our first production welds are full of porosity and we have stopped all aluminium welding until the problem is solved'.

A visit by a TWI welding engineer soon revealed the cause of the trouble. Procedure testing and approval testing of the welders had been carried out in a training school where small quantities of materials were stored and handled under clean and dry conditions; Aluminium was the only metal being welded in the training school and the components were cleaned immediately before welding. The situation on the shop floor was, however, completely different: sheets of aluminium alloy were stacked horizontally in piles, with the top sheet covered by a layer of dust and dirt originating from an adjacent mild steel fabrication area where welding and grinding operations were carried out.

Cleaning edge preparations (degreasing and wire brushing) had apparently been carried out efficiently, but there was a delay of several hours before welding during which time the surfaces of the aluminium could have become contaminated.

The problem was solved by good housekeeping, the rules of which can be summarised as follows:

  1. Keep aluminium and steel fabrication separate - preferably in different workshops; at least in different areas.
  2. Store aluminium indoors in a dry, clean and well-ventilated area to avoid the surface becoming stained with a combination of dirt and condensation. If humid conditions cannot be avoided, it is important to remove porous outer wrappings and interleaving from the aluminium.
  3. Store plates on edge, spaced by strips of plastic or other inert material to allow good air circulation.
  4. After cutting to size and forming edge preparations by mechanical methods or by plasma cutting, degrease the prepared edges and adjacent surfaces with a commercial solvent by wiping, dipping, spraying or vapour degreasing. The most convenient method of degreasing for the majority of aluminium fabrications is local swabbing with a lint-free cloth impregnated with an organic solvent such as:

    • Acetone
    • Methyl alcohol
    • Petroleum ether 
    • White spirit
    • (Warning: all these solvents are highly flammable!)
  5. Degreasing, as well as the subsequent wire brushing should, whenever possible, be carried out before fit-up of the parts because of the difficulty of removing solvents from assembled joints.
  6. Wire brush the surface of the edge preparation for butt welds and the plate surfaces for fillet welds, including the region a short distance (5mm) beyond where the welds are to be deposited. Wire brushing may be carried out manually or with a motor driven wire brush with stainless steel bristles 0.15-0.40mm diameter. The bristles should be degreased periodically to avoid contaminating the aluminium surface. Excessive pressure should be avoided when using motor-driven brushes to prevent burnishing the surface - which can entrain aluminium oxide and give poor quality welds.
  7. If welding is not to be carried out within four hours of cleaning, it is advisable to prevent atmospheric contamination by covering the joint areas with strips of strong paper 50-75mm wide, attached by adhesive tape.

For more information please email: