Initially, trials were carried out using MAG welding to generate data in the form of temperature variation during welding and weld shape geometry as a function of different welding parameters. This data formed the input for numerical modelling. After obtaining temperature dependent material properties from the literature, two-dimensional, multi-block, structured, quadrilateral mesh was produced for CFD analysis. Wire feed rate, torch travel speed, welding current and voltage were considered variables.
After calibration of the model, weld pool dynamics were assessed for liquid and solid fractions with respect to time (Figure 1). Also, the model was compared with weld macros (Figure 2).
A laser based camera was used as a monitoring system to gather bead shape information. A representative weld bead shape recorded using the monitoring system is shown in Figure 3 while the recorded data compared with the macro is shown in Figure 4.