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Dissimilar Materials Joining by Friction Welding

Project Code: 22965

Industrial Need

Joining of dissimilar metals is a strategic need and a key challenge for many areas of industry. Successful dissimilar materials joining can be limited by many factors including thermal incompatibility, weld stability issues, chemical interactions, weld quality issues and others.

Friction welding is, in general, one of the more successful approaches that can be applied in this area, due mainly to its solid phase nature (which limits overall heat input), and the hot forging action of the process (which helps to expel the hottest material as weld flash in many cases). In very challenging applications an interlayer material can often be included in the friction welded joint, to prevent the formation of undesirable intermetallics, and thus provide an effective joint.

Project Outline

Joining of dissimilar metals is a strategic need and a key challenge for many areas of industry. Successful dissimilar materials joining can be limited by many factors including thermal incompatibility, weld stability issues, chemical interactions, weld quality issues and others. Friction welding is, in general, one of the more successful approaches that can be applied in this area, due mainly to its solid phase nature (which limits overall heat input), and the hot forging action of the process (which helps to expel the hottest material as weld flash in many cases). The primary remaining challenge in dissimilar friction welding is the potential for the generation of brittle compounds/phases within the weld, most commonly intermetallics. In very challenging applications an interlayer material can often be included in the friction welded joint, to prevent the formation of undesirable intermetallics, and thus provide an effective joint. This project will explore the use of interlayer materials for challenging dissimilar applications that are known to be of significant interest to industry.

Known industrial requirements in this area include:

  • Aluminium to galvanised steel – Aerospace, Automotive, Medical, Oil and Gas, Power
  • Titanium to aluminium – Aerospace, Construction and Engineering

Objectives

The objectives of this work are:

  • To develop procedures for effective rotary friction welding of dissimilar joints including titanium to aluminium, and aluminium to galvanised steel
  • To explore, if necessary, the use of suitable interlayer materials for these combinations and to characterise the benefits of including such materials in comparison to direct friction welding
  • To assess the repeatability of the welding procedures developed in each case

Relevant Industry Sectors

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