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  • FAQ: Standards commonly used in the UK joining industry: Joining and Surfacing Processes and Procedures

FAQ: Standards commonly used in the UK joining industry: Joining and Surfacing Processes and Procedures

   

Brazing and Soldering

AWS B2.2/B2.2M: 2010
Specification for brazing procedure and performance qualification

Requirements for the qualification of brazing procedure specifications, brazers, and brazing operators for manual, mechanised, and automatic brazing are specified. The brazing processes covered are torch (flame), furnace, induction, resistance, dip, and infrared. Parent metals, brazing filler metals, brazing fluxes, brazing atmospheres, and brazing joint clearances are also included.

AWS B2.3/B2.3M: 2012
Specification for soldering procedure and performance qualification

Requirements for qualification of soldering procedure specifications, solderers, and soldering operators for manual, mechanised, and automatic soldering are specified. The soldering processes covered are torch (flame), furnace, resistance, dip, infrared and induction. Parent metals, soldering filler metals, soldering fluxes, soldering atmospheres, and soldering joint clearances are also included.

AWS C3.4M/C3.4: 2016
Specification for torch brazing

This specification provides minimum fabrication, equipment, material, process procedure requirements, and defect limits for the torch (flame) brazing of steels, copper alloys, and heat and corrosion resistant alloys. Topics include: classification of brazed joints (Class A, B or C, or unspecified); applicable documents; process requirements (equipment; filler materials; fluxes; cleaning; joint clearance; accessibility; application of filler metal, flux and stop-off; brazing cycle; safety and health; post brazing operations; qualification); quality assurance and NDT provisions; and definitions.

AWS C3.5M/C3.5: 2016
Specification for induction brazing

Minimum joint fabrication and quality requirements are specified for induction brazing of steels, stainless steels, copper, copper alloys and other heat and corrosion resistant metals. Equipment, consumables, procedures (for surface preparation, joint gap, application of filler, flux and stop-off, brazing cycle and post brazing operations) and quality assurance (inspection and NDT) are covered.

AWS C3.6M/C3.6: 2016
Specification for furnace brazing

Minimum joint fabrication and quality requirements are specified for furnace brazing of steels, nickel, nickel alloys, copper, copper alloys and heat and corrosion resistant alloys. The specification allows standardisation of furnace brazing requirements for all applications where furnace brazed joints of assured quality are required. It provides criteria for classifying furnace brazed joints based on loading, the consequences of failure, and quality assurance criteria defining the limits of acceptability of each class. The specification defines acceptable furnace brazing equipment, materials and procedures, as well as the required inspection for each class of joint.

AWS C3.7/C3.7M: 2011
Specification for aluminum brazing

Requirements for the brazing of aluminium and aluminium alloys are presented. Requirements cover: equipment (furnaces, atmosphere and temperature control, operating procedures; for flame, induction, molten flux bath, and furnace brazing), materials (filler metals, fluxes, cleaning materials, braze stop-off), procedures (preparation, assembly, brazing), and quality control (inspection procedures, nondestructive testing).

AWS C3.9M/C3.9: 2009
Specification for resistance brazing

The minimum fabrication, equipment, material, and process procedure requirements, as well as discontinuity limits for the resistance brazing of steels, copper, copper alloys, heat- and corrosion-resistant alloys, and other materials that can be adequately resistance brazed (the resistance brazing of aluminium alloys is addressed in AWS C3.7M/C3.7, Specification for Aluminum Brazing) are specified. Also provided are criteria for classifying resistance brazed joints based on loading and the consequences of failure and quality assurance criteria defining the limits of acceptability in each class, and defines acceptable resistance brazing equipment, materials, and procedures, as well as the required inspection for each class of joint.

AWS C3.11M/C3.11: 2011
Specification for torch soldering

The minimum process and quality requirements for the torch soldering of ceramics, precious metals, and refractory metals, as well as the alloys of copper, iron, nickel, aluminum, magnesium, tin, lead, and zinc, are specified.

AWS D10.13/D10.13M: 2001
Recommended practices for the brazing of copper tubing and fittings for medical gas systems

Guidance is provided for implementation of the requirements of US Standard NFPA 99C (gas and vacuum systems). Aspects covered include standards for the preparation and cleanliness of materials and equipment, recommended filler materials and their melting properties, process procedures (purging, joint heating, filler metal application), and test and inspection procedures (visual inspection, nondestructive and pressure testing).

BS 1723
Brazing
Part 1: 1986 Specification for brazing
Superseded by BS EN 14324
Part 2: 1986 Guide to brazing
Superseded by BS EN 14324

BS EN 4632
Aerospace series. Welded and brazed assemblies for aerospace constructions. Weldability and brazeability of materials

Part 001: 2008 General requirements

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for metallic materials used in aerospace construction, for processes and techniques involving welding and brazing but excluding soldering are defined, plus rules to be observed to determine the degree of weldability and brazeability.

Part 002: 2008 Homogeneous assemblies [of] aluminium and aluminium alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for aluminium and aluminium alloy materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 003: 2010 Welding and brazing of homogeneous assemblies of unalloyed and low alloy steels

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for unalloyed and low alloy steel materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 004: 2012 Welding and brazing of homogeneous assemblies of high alloyed steels

The weldability and brazeability of high alloy steels used in the aerospace industry is specified.

Part 005: 2009 Homogeneous assemblies of heat resisting Ni or Co base alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for nickel or cobalt based alloy materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 006: 2013 Homogenous assemblies of titanium alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for titanium alloys materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined. The standard is applicable without restriction for the manufacturing of new parts or for repair.

BS EN 14324: 2004 (R2009)
Brazing. Guidance on the application of brazed joints

Supersedes BS 1723 Parts 1 and 2

This British Standard gives guidance on the application of brazing and the manufacture of brazed joints. It provides an introduction to brazing and a basis for understanding and using brazing in different applications but does not deal with detailed specific product information. It covers joint design and assembly, material aspects for both parent material and filler materials, process and process variables, pre- and post-braze treatment and inspection. There are informative annexes on examples of brazed assemblies and joint design and further annexes on characteristics of filler materials and on brazing methods.

BS EN 61192
Workmanship requirements for soldered electronic assemblies

Part 1: 2003 General

Identical to IEC 61192-1

This British Standard specifies general requirements for the manufacture, handling and workmanship of soldered electronic assemblies on printed boards and similar laminates attached to the surface(s) of organic substrates. It covers requirements for applying the standard, pre-process activities, component preparation, mounting structure and printed board preparation, surface-mount solder paste deposition, non-conductive adhesive deposition and curing, surface-mounted component placement, through-hole component insertion, placement of terminals and press-fit pins, reflow soldering, immersion soldering, individual point soldering, cleaning, electrical testing, rework and repair, conformal coatings, packaging, shipping and training.

Part 2: 2003 Surface mount assemblies

Identical to IEC 61192-2

This British Standard specifies general requirements for the manufacture, handling and workmanship of soldered, surface-mounted electronic assemblies and multichip modules on organic substrates, printed boards and similar laminates attached to the surface(s) of inorganic substrates. It covers requirements for applying the standard, component preparation, solder paste deposition, non-conductive adhesive deposition, temporary masking, component placement, post placement rework, adhesive curing, soldering, cleaning, hand placement and soldering and electrical testing.

Part 3: 2003 Through hole mount assemblies

Identical to IEC 61192-3

General requirements for workmanship in through-hole mount soldered assemblies on organic substrates, on printed boards, and on similar laminates attached to the surface(s) of inorganic substrates are given. It applies to assemblies that are totally through-hole or mixed assemblies including surface mounting or other related assembly technologies, e.g. terminals, wires.

Part 4: 2003 Terminal assemblies

Identical to IEC 61192-4

General requirements for workmanship in terminal soldered assemblies on organic substrates, on printed boards, and on similar laminates attached to the surface(s) of inorganic substrates are given. It applies to assemblies that are totally terminals or mixed assemblies including surface mounting or other related assembly technologies, e.g. through-hole, wires.

Part 5: 2007 Rework, modification and repair of soldered electronic assemblies

Information and requirements applicable to modification, rework and repair procedures for soldered electronic assemblies are presented. Specific processes used to manufacture soldered electronic assemblies where components are attached to printed boards and to the relevant parts of resulting products are covered, as well as activities that can form part of the work in assembling mixed technology products.

Spraying and Surfacing

AWS D14.7/D14.7M: 2005
Recommended practices for surfacing and reconditioning of industrial mill rolls

This standard provides guidance, based upon experience, for preparing, building up and overlaying by welding, post weld heat treating, finish machining, inspecting, and record-keeping of new and reconditioned industrial mill rolls.

BS EN 13507: 2010 (+ 2016 draft)
Thermal spraying. Pre-treatment of surfaces of metallic parts and components for thermal spraying

Surface preparation for thermal spraying is specified. The standard applies to production of new parts as well as the repair of worn parts.

BS EN 14616: 2004
Thermal spraying. Recommendations for thermal spraying
Superseded by BS EN ISO 12679: 2015

BS EN 15311: 2007
Thermal spraying. Components with thermally sprayed coatings. Technical supply conditions
Superseded by BS EN ISO 12670: 2015

BS EN 15340: 2007
Thermal spraying. Determination of shear load resistance of thermally sprayed coatings

The procedure for determining shear load resistance of thermally sprayed coatings, provided that a minimum thickness is given is specified. Also the shear load resistance and designation of the fracture's structure on the test specimen, which occurs when the shear adhesive or adhesive/ cohesive or cohesive strength of the coating or the coating system will be exceeded, are defined.

BS EN 15648: 2009
Thermal spraying. Component related procedure specification

The requirements for qualification of a spray procedure specification are defined. Conditions for applying the procedure qualification and its qualification for a range of components are indicated. These components should be similar to the tested component in shape, physical and chemical behaviour, and in properties. This is especially valid in the case of a client's requirement for a qualification. It can also be applied in the case of a company's internal quality requirements. Applicable to the manufacture of new parts and repairs of components made of metallic and non-metallic materials.

BS EN ISO 12670: 2015
Thermal spraying. Components with thermally sprayed coatings. Technical supply conditions

Supersedes BS EN 15311: 2007 and BS ISO 12670: 2011

Technical supply conditions when using thermally sprayed coatings for manufacturing or repair of components are specified.

BS EN ISO 12679: 2015
Thermal spraying. Recommendations for thermal spraying

Supersedes BS EN 14616: 2004 and BS ISO 12679: 2011

General guidelines for the workmanlike production of metallic, metal-ceramic, oxide-ceramic and plastic coatings, by means of thermal spraying on metallic and non-metallic parent materials are presented. Recommendations for an appropriate and practical spray set-up, fault-free manufacturing, monitoring, quality assurance and for nondestructive and destructive tests on components and accompanying specimens are provided. Details about negative effects which can occur and advice on how to prevent such effects are given.

BS EN ISO 14920: 2015
Thermal spraying. Spraying and fusion of self-fluxing alloys

The procedure for thermal spraying of self-fluxing alloys that are simultaneously or subsequently fused to create a homogeneous, diffusion bonded coating, is defined.

BS EN ISO 14921: 2010
Thermal spraying. Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components

The standard refers to procedures for the application of thermal sprayed coatings as defined in EN 657, either for the reclamation of worn or non-conforming parts, or to enhance the surface properties of components for specific purposes.

BS ISO 27307:2015
Thermal spraying. Evaluation of adhesion/cohesion of thermal sprayed ceramic coatings by transverse scratch testing

The test is suitable for thermally sprayed ceramic coatings from 50 to over 1000 microns in thickness, and are suitable for coatings applied by other processes, such as aerosol deposition and cold spray.

Welding Processes and Welded Products

AWS C1.1M/C1.1: 2012
Recommended practices for resistance welding

Recommendations covering data and procedures for setting up resistance welding equipment to manufacture components, welding ferrous and non ferrous metals and assessing weld quality are given. There are sections for resistance spot and seam welding, projection welding, flash welding, upset welding and weld bonding. Another section deals with equipment monitoring and maintenance. Guidance on health and safety is also given.

AWS C1.4M/C1.4: 2009
Specification for resistance welding of carbon and low alloy steels

This standard describes the minimum shear strength and weld button diameter requirements for carbon steel and low alloy steel sheet resistance and projection welds. The specification addresses welding procedure and equipment requirements, materials preparation, and production requirements (visual inspection, weld inspection) for acceptable welds in coated and uncoated low carbon, medium carbon and low alloy, high strength steels. Health and safety aspects are also considered.

AWS C5.1: 1973
Recommended practices for plasma arc welding
Withdrawn

AWS C5.4: 1993
Recommended practices for stud welding
Withdrawn

AWS C5.5/C5.5M: 2003
Recommended practices for gas tungsten arc [TIG] welding

A summary of gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding development precedes an in-depth coverage of materials; joint design; shielding gases-mixtures for various metals; arc voltage; welding speeds; tungsten electrodes (current ranges, preparation etc); filler metal (composition, quality, identification and feeding). Typical welding procedure is tabled for GTA welding of carbon and stainless steels. The roles of the welder and welding engineer, and quality control are mentioned. Typical equipment for manual, semi-automatic and automatic GTA welding process applications are detailed. A brief summary of safe practice is included.

AWS C5.6: 1989 (R2004)
Recommended practices for gas metal arc welding
Withdrawn

AWS C5.7: 2000 (R2006)
Recommended practices for electrogas welding

This guide sets standard practices for electrogas welding (EGW) of low-carbon pressure vessel and structural steels. The welding process is described, including welding with a solid or flux cored electrode and with a consumable guide. Topics covered include: equipment; electrodes; shielding gas; applications; metallurgical considerations; selection of welding conditions; inspection and repair; training; qualification of process, equipment, procedures and operators; troubleshooting; and safety.

AWS C6.1: 1989 (R2009)
Recommended practices for friction welding

Recommendations are given for friction welding procedures and equipment. Topics include: process fundamentals and requirements; equipment descriptions; joint design basics and material compatibilities (with mention of Al, cast iron, ceramics, Nb, Cu, Ni sintered iron, Ag, carbon steels, maraging steels, tool steels, and stainless steels, Ti, W, U, V,Zr and alloys of Al, Cu, Ni, Ti and Zr). Suggested qualification procedures and inspection methods, a review of present applications, and typical data on mechanical properties and defects of welded joints are included.

AWS C6.2/C6.2M: 2006
Specification for friction welding of metals

This specification provides for the qualification of friction welding machines, procedures, and training of welding operators. Qualification of the welding procedure specification (WPS) includes the material specifications involved, weld joint design, destructive and nondestructive examination requirements, as well as guidelines for different categories of quality assurance. Qualification of welding equipment includes weld parameter control and weld reproducibility. Welding operators require training in the proper operation of friction welding equipment. The requirements for requalification of the WPS and equipment are also given.

AWS C7.1M/C7.1: 2013
Recommended practices for electron beam welding and allied processes

Recommendations for the electron beam welding of a wide range of metals and thicknesses are presented. Topics covered include: safety, particularly X-ray hazards; fundamentals of the process; equipment; metallurgy (carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, nickel and cobalt alloys and copper, aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys and refractory metals); process procedures; joint design; process parameters; inspection and nondestructive testing; maintenance procedures; and qualification of operators and procedures.

AWS C7.2M: 2010
Recommended practices for laser beam welding, cutting and allied processes

This standard presents recommended practices for laser welding, laser cutting and laser drilling. Prescribed items include process definitions, safety considerations, equipment descriptions (CO2 lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, laser systems, fixtures), process control and monitoring, laser welding processes, laser welding metallurgy, laser cutting and laser drilling processes, record keeping, inspection and testing, specifications for laser welding, equipment maintenance, and personnel training.

AWS C7.3: 2016
Process specification for electron beam welding

Applicable specifications, safety requirements, fabrication, quality examination, equipment calibration and maintenance, approval and delivery of work are detailed.

AWS C7.4/C7.4M: 2008
Process specification and operator qualification for laser beam welding

Applicable specifications, safety requirements, fabrication, quality examination, equipment calibration and maintenance, approval of work, and delivery of work are detailed.

AWS D1.1/D1.1M: 2015
Structural welding code. Steel

The code covers requirements for welding low alloy steel and carbon steel structures including buildings, bridges and tubular constructions. It excludes pressure vessels and piping. Areas covered are: design of welded joints including joint preparations; qualification of procedures and welders; radiographic and ultrasonic testing; strengthening and repair of existing structures; construction of new statically loaded, dynamically loaded and tubular structures; allowable stresses; workmanship; weld quality requirements. "Commentary on Structural Welding Code - Steel" is appended. Other appendices include a glossary, mandatory requirements and examples of approved forms.

AWS D1.2/D1.2M: 2014
Structural welding code. Aluminum

This code covers the welding requirements for any type of structure made from aluminium structural alloys (except for pressure vessels and fluid-carrying pipelines). Aspects included are: design of welded connections (including two types of structures, statically loaded and cyclically loaded structures), qualification (including test methods, qualification of personnel and performance qualification), fabrication, inspection (including radiographic and ultrasonic testing), stud welding (including arc stud welding and capacitor discharge stud welding), and strengthening and repair of existing structures. Processes covered are GMA, TIG, plasma arc and stud welding. A commentary on the code is included.

AWS D1.3/D1.3M: 2008
Structural welding code. Sheet steel

This standard covers MMA, GMA (MIG/MAG), FCA, TIG and submerged arc welding of structural sheet steels or strip steels (including hot-rolled, cold-rolled, hot-dip zinc-coated and HSLA steels), up to 4.8 mm thickness, welded to other structural steel sheets or to supporting structural steel members. Requirements specified include: general requirements (parent materials, processes, weld metal, consumables); welded joint design (butt welds, spot (puddle) welds, seam welds, fillet welds); procedure qualification; welder qualification; fabrication and inspection. Appendices give: sample qualification forms; guidelines for technical enquiries for the AWS Structural Welding Committee; a glossary; gauge numbers and equivalent thicknesses; guidance on safety; and a commentary on the Code.

AWS D1.4/D1.4M: 2011
Structural welding code. Reinforcing steel

This code covers the requirements for welding reinforcing steel to reinforcing steel and reinforcing steel to carbon or low-alloy structural steel. It contains rules for the regulations of welding reinforcing steel and provides suitable acceptance criteria for such welds. The prescribed welding processes are MMA, GMA and FCA. The code addresses allowable stresses, structural details, workmanship, filler metal requirements, tack welds, welding of coated metals, electrodes, welder qualifications, and inspection techniques. Safety issues are considered.

AWS D1.5M/D1.5: 2015
Bridge welding code

The welding requirements for AASHTO welded highway bridges made from carbon and low alloy constructional steels are specified. A body of rules for the regulation of welding in steel construction is presented.

AWS D1.6/D1.6M: 2007
Structural welding code. Stainless steel

This code covers the requirements for welding stainless steel components subject to design stress. It covers welding procedure specifications (WPS's), the design of welded connections (drawings, allowable stresses, weld lengths, plug and slot welds), prequalified WPS's (processes, base metals, filler metals, fluxes and gases, weld sizes, non-tubular and tubular joints), WPS qualification requirements, fabrication, inspection (radiographic testing of butt welds in butt joints, ultrasonic testing of butt welds), and stud welding. Details are given of pre-approved welding processes including MMA, submerged arc, FCA, GMA, and TIG welding.

AWS D1.7/D1.7M: 2010
Guide for strengthening and repairing existing structures. Supplement

The guide provides information, direction and guidance on weld repairs, weld strengthening, and other procedures necessary to correct challenging issues faced whilst dealing with existing structures.

AWS D1.8/D1.8M: 2016
Structural welding code. Seismic supplement

This standard applies to welded joints in Seismic Load Resisting systems in accordance with the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) Seismic Provisions and provides additional controls on detailing, materials, workmanship, testing and inspection for welded steel structures built in earthquake zones. Guidance on interpretation and application is given.

AWS D1.9/D1.9M: 2015
Structural welding code. Titanium

The requirements for design and welding of any type of titanium structure are specified (excluding titanium pressure vessels and fluid-carrying pipe lines). A body of rules for the regulation of welding in titanium construction is detailed. A commentary on the code is also included.

AWS D3.5: 1993 (R2000)
Guide for steel hull welding

Requirements are presented for the design, fabrication and testing of welds in the hulls of steel ships. Topics include: parent and filler material selection; process capabilities; joint preparation; distortion, heat treatment and mechanical stress relief; procedure and personnel qualification; inspection and NDT; principle types of weld defects; stray current protection and other safety aspects; and procedure for mechanical testing of materials.

AWS D3.6M: 2010
Specification for underwater welding

Fabrication and quality assurance procedures are specified for underwater welding by the MMA, GMA, TIG, plasma and flux cored arc processes. Both dry welding (habitat, chamber and one-atmosphere welding) and wet welding are covered. Details are given of: joint preparation; acceptable fillet and butt weld profiles; welding position; procedure qualification; test pipes; test plates; location and types of test specimens for mechanical tests; bend test specimens and jigs; welder qualification; visual weld inspection; radiography; ultrasonic testing.

AWS D3.7: 2004
Guide for aluminum hull welding

Recommendations are made concerning welded aluminium for marine applications, especially ship hulls. Aspects covered include: properties of parent materials (particularly the 5000 and 6000 series); selection of filler material; preparation for welding; joint designs; equipment and procedures for GMA, TIG and stud welding; process parameters; process qualification; nondestructive testing of welds; repair welding; safety.

AWS D8.1M: 2013
Specification for automotive welding quality. Resistance spot welding of steel

This document contains both visual and measurable acceptance criteria for resistance spot welds in steels. The information may be used as an aid by designers, resistance welding equipment manufacturers, welded product producers, and others involved in the automotive industry and resistance spot welding of steels.

AWS D8.8M: 2014
Specification for automotive welding quality. Arc welding of steel

This specification provides the minimum quality requirements for arc welding of various types of automotive and light truck components. Arc and hybrid arc welding of coated and uncoated steels are covered.

AWS D8.14M 2008
Specification for automotive weld quality - arc welding of aluminum

Minimum standards for the arc welding of aluminium components associated with the body and supporting structural members such as frames, space frames, cradles, and suspensions are specified.

AWS D9.1/D9.1M: 2012
Sheet metal welding code

Qualification, workmanship and inspection requirements for arc welding and braze welding are specified, applying to the fabrication, manufacture and erection of non-structural sheet metal components and systems. The code applies to MMA, GMA (MIG/MAG), FCA, TIG, plasma and carbon arc welding, and TIG, GMA (MIG/MAG) and carbon arc brazing. Topics include: procedure qualification (tests, limitations, plate thickness); butt, lap and T-joints; visual inspection; and qualification of welders and workmanship. Appendices detail: recommended fillers (for steels, Al alloys, Cu alloys); terms and definitions; USA gauge, thickness and SI units, procedure specifications; test record sheets; joint designs; welding and braze welding practices; and safety and health.

AWS D10.4: 1986 (R2000)
Recommended practices for welding austenitic chromium nickel stainless steel piping and tubing

Arc welding of austenitic stainless steel pipe is described. Weldability of the main grades is summarised, including 304, 304H, 304L, 305, 309, 309S, 310, 310S, 316, 316H, 316L, 317, 321, 321H, 347, 347H, 348, 348H, HF, HH, HK, HT, HE, HI, HU, HN, CF3, CF8, CF8C, CF8M, CF3M, CH8, CPK20, CH20 and high carbon versions. The weld metal ferrite content is discussed, covering measurement of ferrite number (FN), effects of ferrite level on cracking and corrosion properties, and the control of ferrite level by welding conditions and composition. Procedures for MMA, TIG, GMA and submerged arc welding are described. Aspects covered include selection of filler metals, joint design, use of inserts, pipe purging, arc ignition, welding position, weld size and profile, welding current and speed, arc extinction, cleaning of welds and repair. Problems associated with austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed, including cracking, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion (SCC), concentration cell corrosion, sigma phase and low temperature embrittlement. Nondestructive test methods for inspection of such welds are described.

AWS D10.6/D10.6M: 2000
Recommended practices for gas tungsten arc welding of titanium piping and tubing

Recommendations for the TIG welding of titanium piping and tubing, applicable to the process conditions, weld quality and health and safety factors, are given. Process clauses deal with the selection of power sources, electrodes, titanium alloy grades, filler materials, joint design and preparation, types of gas shielding used, welding parameters and heat treatment. Tests to establish weld quality are discussed. Guidance on basic health and safety and a list of relevant safety publications, together with an annex on safety considerations, are given. The standard procedure for handling inquiries by the appropriate AWS Technical Committee is appended.

AWS D10.7M/D10.7: 2008
Guide for gas shielded arc welding of aluminum and aluminum alloy pipe

This standard covers the selection and application of procedures for TIG (AC or electrode negative DC) and MIG welding of aluminium and aluminium alloy tubes and pipes. The weldability of these materials is reviewed. Selection of filler metal, equipment (nozzles, tungsten electrodes), shielding gases, welding procedure, process parameters, joint preparations and backing techniques is discussed and recommendations are made.

AWS D10.8: 1996
Recommended practices for welding of chromium molybdenum steel piping and tubing

Recommendations are made for welding chromium molybdenum steel piping to itself, to dissimilar chromium molybdenum steels, to austenitic stainless steels and to carbon and carbon molybdenum steels. These cover filler materials, joint design and preparation, preheating, post weld heat treatment, and repair and maintenance welding.

AWS D10.11M/D10.11: 2007
Guide for for root pass welding of pipe without backing

Recommended practices are given for welding the root pass of metal pipe butt joints with an open root or a consumable insert. Topics discussed include: cleanliness; preparations for (gas) purging; purging prior to welding; tack welding; welding using TIG without consumable inserts (joint design, root opening, purge containment, TIG electrode type, arc initiation, welding technique); welding using TIG with consumable inserts; welding with GMA and MMA processes; intermediate layers; welding aluminium alloys; welding equipment (TIG torches, gas nozzles and lenses, power supplies, machine and automatic equipment); and safety and health (fumes, UV and IR radiation, electrical, fire and explosive hazards).

AWS D10.12M/D10.12: 2000
Guide for welding mild steel pipe

This standard covers recommended practices and procedures to cover welding of such piping systems as low pressure heating, air conditioning, refrigeration and water supply as well as some gas and chemical systems. General notes on pipe steels, preheating, fit up, clamps, fittings, etc. are followed by detailed coverage of welding processes, procedures and conditions. Processes described are downhill MMA welding with E6010 electrodes, uphill MMA welding with E6010 or E6011 electrodes, MMA welding with E7018 electrodes, oxyacetylene welding, TIG welding and GMA (MIG/MAG) welding of pipe girth welds. Appendices give required filler metal weight for joints in pipe of a given wall thickness, details of the nick break test and notes on health and safety.

AWS D11.2: 1989 (R2006)
Guide for welding iron castings

Procedures for welding and surfacing of cast iron are presented, covering grey, white, malleable, ductile and compacted graphite grades. The metallurgy and weldability of cast irons are described. Procedures for cutting, joint preparation and preheating are recommended. Details are given of the principles, equipment, consumables, techniques and parameters for welding by the oxyfuel, MMA, GMA, FCA, TIG and submerged arc processes, for braze welding, surfacing by gas and arc processes, and for thermal spraying. Qualification of welding procedures, quality control, health and safety considerations, and applications of cast iron welding and surfacing (illustrated by 19 examples) are also discussed.

AWS D14.1/D14.1M: 2005
Specification for welding of industrial and mill cranes and other material handling equipment

This standard applies to the welding of principal structural weldments and primary welds in manufacture of cranes and other overhead materials handling machinery and equipment and to strengthening or repair of such equipment. It includes specifications for materials (parent metals, fillers), allowable stresses (static, fatigue), design (joint preparation, weld dimensions), workmanship, heat treatment, qualification of procedures and welders, quality and inspection, and repair. Processes covered are MMA, submerged arc, GMA, FCA, electroslag and electrogas welding.

AWS D14.3/D14.3M: 2010
Specification for welding earthmoving, construction and agricultural equipment

Requirements for the manufacture of structural welds in earthmoving and construction equipment are given; these reflect best practice in industry. Topics include: manufacturers' responsibilities; basic details of welds, parent metals, processes and consumables; welding procedure qualification requirements and details of prequalified procedures (joint preparations and parameters); welder qualification; quality and workmanship requirements; inspection; and repair.

AWS D14.4/D14.4M: 2012
Specification for welded joints in machinery and equipment

The specification establishes common acceptance criteria for classifying and applying carbon and low-alloy steel welded joints used in the manufacture of machines and equipment. It also covers weld joint design, workmanship, quality control requirements and procedures, welding operator and welding procedure qualification, weld joint inspection and repair of weld defects and heat treatment.

AWS D14.5/D14.5M: 2009
Specification for welding of presses and press components

This specification is aimed at establishing minimum acceptable requirements for weld joint design and the fabrication by welding of presses and press components. The specification covers the classification of welded joints and materials (steels), welding processes and consumables, weld joint design, design stresses, workmanship, procedure qualifications, welder qualifications, welding operator qualifications, tack welding qualifications, inspection, modification or repair, and post-weld treatments.

AWS D14.6/D14.6M: 2012
Specification for welding of rotating elements of equipment

This specification establishes minimum acceptable requirements for weld joint detail and fabrication by welding of rotating elements in new equipment. It also applies to the modification or repair by welding or rotating elements in existing equipment. Equipment types include fans, pumps, compressors etc. Topics covered include: parent metals; welding processes; filler materials; welding procedure and performance qualification (responsibility for welding, weld orientation, test positions for butt and fillet welds, tensile, bend and notch toughness tests); procedure qualification; performance and personnel qualification; welding process variables; fabrication requirements including weld preparation, assembly and profiles, peening, preheating and post weld heat treatment; inspection and quality control; modification and repair.

AWS D15.1/D15.1M: 2012
Railroad welding. Specification for cars and locomotives

Minimum standards are laid down for the manufacture and maintenance of railway equipment. The first part covers general requirements for welding in the railway industry and the second part covers specific requirements for welding of parent metals less than 3.2 mm (0.125 in) in thickness. Topics of concern include: joint design, structural requirements, consumables, technique and workmanship, welding procedures, procedure qualification, welder qualification and inspection. Appendices cover types of parent metals and fillers, report forms, safety, use of aluminium alloys, etc.

AWS D15.2/D15.2M: 2013
Recommended practices for the welding of rails and related rail components for use by rail vehicles

Recommendations are made for the joining, repair, maintenance and inspection of rail welds and related components such as switch points, frogs and spacer blocks. Welding procedures are described for carbon steel rail, premium steel rail and austenitic manganese steel components both generally and for specific cases e.g. repair of battered rail ends and wheel burns, switch point repairs and welding of frogs and crossings. Recommended practices are given for the use of thermit welding and flash butt welding.

AWS D17.1/D17.1M: 2010
Specification for fusion welding for aerospace applications

General welding requirements for welding aircraft and space hardware are specified. Principal joining methods are arc welding and energy beam processes applied to alloys of Al, Ni, Fe, Co, Mg and Ti. Aspects covered include welding design, procedure and personnel qualification, inspection and acceptance criteria, and repair procedures. Detail specified for welding includes: selection, identification, storage and use of welding consumables; equipment calibration; surface and joint preparation; tack welding and start/stop procedures; interpass cleaning; and in-process correction of deviations or defects. An annex provides guidelines for the design, analysis and fabrication of common types of welded joint.

AWS D17.2/D17.2M: 2013
Specification for resistance welding for aerospace applications

Replaces MIL-W-6858D and AMS-W-6858A

This specification covers resistance spot and resistance seam welding of aluminium, magnesium, iron, nickel, cobalt and titanium based alloys. It includes requirements for machine and procedure qualification, production witness samples, and inspection and acceptance criteria for aerospace hardware.

AWS D17.3/D17.3M: 2016
Specification for friction spot welding of aluminum alloys for aerospace applications

General requirements for the friction stir welding of aluminum alloys for aerospace applications are specified. It includes weldment design, qualification of personnel and procedures, fabrication, and inspection.

AWS D18.1/D18.1M: 2009
Specification for welding of austenitic stainless steel tube and pipe systems in sanitary (hygienic) applications

This specification gives the requirements for welds in tubular systems in dairies and other food processing plants. The requirements are given for TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel tube and pipe. Details are given of procedure qualification, performance qualification, fabrication, visual examination requirements, acceptance criteria, and documentation requirements.

AWS D18.3/D18.3M: 2015
Specification for welding of tanks, vessels, and other equipment in sanitary (hygienic) applications

The specification applies to fabrication of tanks, vessels and other equipment used for hygiene applications (e.g. the food industry); materials welded include unalloyed steels, stainless steels and nickel alloys in sheet, plate or bar form, or as pipe and tubing attached to a vessel. Content includes procedure and performance qualification protocols and tabulates the welding and test variables for most arc welding and energy beam welding processes. Visual examination techniques for welds are given and pass/fail weld profiles are illustrated. Guidance on surface finish of the weld and adjacent zone is appended.

AWS G2.1M/G2.1: 2012
Guide for the joining of wrought nickel based alloys

This document covers the welding requirements and recommendations for solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys and precipitation hardenable nickel based alloys. Processes covered include: MMA welding, TIG welding, GMA (MIG/MAG) welding, flux cored arc welding, submerged arc welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, brazing, resistance welding (spot, seam and projection), plasma arc welding and electroslag welding. Aspects covered include parent metal compositions, effects of heat treatment, effects of welding on performance in service (corrosion, elevated temperature, low temperature), weldability, filler selection, joint preparation, welding parameters, post weld thermal and mechanical treatments, repair welding procedures, NDT, quality control, and health and safety.

AWS G2.3M/G2.3: 2012
Guide for the joining of solid solution austenitic stainless steels

A description of wrought solid solution austenitic stainless steels and the processes and procedures that can be used for the joining of these materials is presented. Welding processes and welding parameters, qualifications, inspection and repair methods, cleaning, and safety considerations are specified. Practical information has been included in the form of figures, tables, and graphs to aid in the determination of capabilities and limitations in the joining of austenitic stainless steels.

AWS G2.4/G2.4M: 2014
Guide for the fusion welding of titanium and titanium alloys

The standard provides instructional guidance for the welding of titanium and titanium alloys. This guide explains processes, equipment, materials, workshop practices, joint preparation, welding technique, tests, and the repair of defects.

AWS G2.5/G2.5: 2012
Guide for the fusion welding of zirconium and zirconium alloys

The standard gives guidance on the welding of zirconium and zirconium alloys. Processes, equipment, materials, workshop practices, joint preparation, welding techniques, tests, and the repair of defects are explained.

BS 1140: 1993 (R2007, 2012)
Specification for resistance spot welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steel

The requirements for resistance spot welding of sheets and plates of low carbon steel, both uncoated and coated with hot-dip- or electrolytic zinc, terne plate or aluminium in specified ranges of combined thickness are given. Topics covered include: parent metal preparation; surface and edge condition; weld positioning; electrode material, dimensions and cooling; weld testing and test requirements including shear, cross-torsion and torsion tests and metallurgical sections; routine weld assessment specifying methods, test requirements and numbers; routine component inspection and provision of test facilities. Recommendations for welding equipment and conditions and welding procedure requirements are also given.

BS 1821: 1982
Specification for Class 1 oxyacetylene welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids
Withdrawn (Oct.2006) as it is no longer industry practice to use gas welding for pipework. No replacement

BS 2630: 1982 (1991)
Specification for resistance projection welding of uncoated low carbon steel sheet and strip using embossed projections
Superseded by BS EN 28167 and BS EN ISO 16432

BS 2633: 1987 (R2006, 2011, 2016)
Specification for Class I arc welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids

This standard supersedes BS 2633: 1973 and specifies requirements and documentation for shop and site class 1 manual, semiautomatic, mechanised and automatic arc welding of ferritic steel seamless, longitudinally or helically welded pipes intended to carry fluids. Processes included are MIG, MAG, TIG, MMA, submerged arc and FCA welding. Materials covered are mild, CMn, CrMo, CrMoV and Ni steels. Areas covered include: weld metals, shielding gases, equipment, backing techniques, joint preparation, surface preparation, assembly, preheating, PWHT, transition joints between dissimilar steels, fittings, NDT, repair, and approval of welders and procedures.

BS 2640: 1982
Specification for Class II oxyacetylene welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids
Withdrawn (Oct.2006) as it is no longer industry practice to use gas welding for pipework. No replacement

BS 2971: 1991 (R2006, 2011)
Specification for Class II arc welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids

Requirements are specified for shop and site class II arc welding of joints in carbon steel pipework intended to carry fluids. Manual, automatic and semi-automatic processes or combinations are covered, and the production of gas welded root runs made without a backing ring is catered for. Subjects covered include: equipment, consumables, fit up, heat treatment, joint preparation, inspection requirements and operating conditions. Various joint types and preparations are described, including pipe ends, gusseted bends, branches and small bore connections, sleeve joints, socket welding and flanges.

BS 2996: 1958
Specification for the projection welding of low carbon wrought steel studs, basses, bolts, nuts and annular rings
Superseded by BS 7670: Part 2

BS 3019
TIG welding
Part 1: 1984 Specification for TIG welding of aluminium, magnesium and their alloys
Superseded by BS EN 1011-4

BS 3571
MIG welding
Part 1: 1985 Specification for MIG welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys
Superseded by BS EN 1011-4

BS 4515
Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore

Part 1: 2009 (R2013) Carbon and carbon manganese steels

This standard covers the manual, semi-automatic or mechanised arc welding, testing and acceptance of butt joints, branch connections, fillet welds and socket joints in mild steel, carbon manganese steel and low alloy steel pipelines (excluding longitudinal welds) of external diameter at least 21.3 mm and minimum thickness 3.2 mm and yield strength not exceeding 500 N/sq mm. Aspects covered include: selection, storage and handling of electrodes, filler wire, flux and shielding gases; approval of welding processes; testing joints for procedure approval; qualification of welders; preparation of surfaces for welding; alignment; tack welds; preheating; post weld heat treatment; nondestructive testing (radiography, ultrasonics, magnetic particle); defect acceptance criteria; repair.

Part 2: 1999 (R2006, 2011, 2016) Duplex stainless steel pipelines

Requirements for the welding of solution annealed duplex austenitic ferritic stainless steel pipelines with Cr content of 21% - 26% are specified, with design in accordance with BS 8010. The standard applies to on land and offshore transmission pipelines for gases, liquids or slurries with a minimum OD of 21mm and a minimum [wall] thickness of 3mm. The specification covers equipment; welding processes and consumables; testing, qualification and approval of welding procedures and welders; inspection and testing of welds; and acceptance and rectification of welds. It contains three annexes: a sample welding procedure specification; a method for determining ferrite content in weldments; and a method for pitting corrosion testing of weldments.

BS 4570: 1985
Specification for fusion welding of steel castings
Superseded by BS EN 1011-8; this standard has been declared obsolescent as it is still used by some areas of UK industry, but insufficient support for the preparation of an up-to-date revision is available.

BS 4677: 1984 (R2006, 2011, 2016)
Specification for arc welding of austenitic stainless steel pipework for carrying fluids

This standard supersedes the edition of 1971. It covers shop and on site arc welding of joints in austenitic stainless steel pipes, by MMA, MAG, MIG, TIG, FCA and submerged arc welding using manual, semiautomatic, mechanised or automatic methods. Aspects included are selection of filler materials, shielding gases, backing methods and equipment; design and joint preparation; preparation of pipe, procedures for welding and post weld heat treatment; visual inspection and NDT; defect acceptance levels; parent metals (pipes and fittings); joints between dissimilar metals; repair; qualification of procedures and operators.

BS 5135: 1984
Specification for arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels
Superseded by BS EN 1011-1 and BS EN 1011-2

BS 5500: 1997
Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels
Superseded by PD 5500

BS 6265: 1982
Specification for resistance seam welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steel
Superseded by BS ISO 16433

BS 7475: 1991
Specification for fusion welding of austenitic stainless steels
Superseded by BS EN 1011-3

BS 7670
Steel nuts and bolts for resistance projection welding

Part 2: 1997 (R2006, 2011, 2016) Specification for welding of weld nuts and weld bolts

Supersedes BS 2996:1958

The standard refers specifically to projection welding of nuts and bolts singly to uncoated and coated sheet steel from 0.5 mm to 5.0mm thick. Annexes to the specification give recommendations on appropriate welding equipment and typical welding conditions.

BS EN 1011
Welding. Recommendations for welding of metallic materials

Part 1: 2009 General guidance for arc welding

With Part 2 replaces BS 5135:1984; equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-1

Guidance is given on the arc welding of cast, wrought, extruded and forged metallic materials. Welding processes covered are: MMA with covered electrode; flux cored wire with or without inert or active gas shield; submerged arc; MIG; MAG; metal cored wire with inert or active gas shield; TIG; plasma. Topics mentioned include: consumables; equipment; butt and fillet welds; joint preparation; assembly; preheat and interpass temperatures; tack welds; run-on and run-off plates; arcing; inter-run cleaning and treatment; heat input; procedures; traceability; quality, inspection and testing; remedial action; and post-weld operations. More detailed guidance will be provided in other parts of the standard.

Part 2: 2001 Arc welding of ferritic steels

With Part 1 replaces BS 5135:1984; equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-2

This standard gives guidance for manual, semi-mechanised and automatic arc welding of ferritic steels, excluding ferritic stainless steels. Prescribed items include parent metals, handling of welding consumables (filler materials), joint design (butt welds, fillet welds), welds in holes or slots, the preparation of joint faces, the alignment of butt welds before welding, preheating, tack welds, welding procedures, identification, inspection and testing, correction of non-conforming welds and distortion, and post weld heat treatment. Measures for avoiding hydrogen induced cracking, the influence of welding conditions on the temperature/time cycles occurring during welding and methods for avoiding solidification cracking and lamellar tearing are included in the annexes.

Part 3: 2000 (R2007) Arc welding of stainless steels

Supersedes BS 7475:1991; Equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-3

This standard gives recommendations for the fusion welding of stainless steels. Requirements are given for parent metals, storage and handling, welding consumables (filler materials), fabrication (surface preparation, welding, weld backing), quality requirements of welds, methods for minimising distortion, and post-weld cleaning (brushing, blasting, grinding, pickling and electropolishing). Specific details for austenitic, austenitic ferritic, ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are given in the annexes.

Part 4: 2000 (R2007) Arc welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys

Supersedes BS 3019-1:1984 and BS 3571-1:1985; Equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-4

This standard gives recommendations for the manual, mechanised and automatic fusion welding of wrought and cast aluminium alloys. The standard covers parent metals, storage and handling, factors affecting properties of welded structures and assemblies, fusion welding processes (MIG, TIG, plasma welding), welding consumables (filler metals, shielding gases and gas backing), equipment, joint types (full penetration and partial penetration butt joints), backing materials, branch connections, gouging, joint preparation, joint alignment, preheating, control of interpass temperatures, and temperature measurement.

Part 5: 2003 (R2009) Welding of clad steel

Equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-5

This standard gives recommendations for welding clad steels, by appropriate arc welding processes, and electroslag welding. It applies to all clad steels regardless of fabrication type, in addition to any relevant application standard, and covers welding of cladding deposits and, where existing, of the transition zone(s). It does not apply to non-ferrous claddings and their alloys or to joint design, test methods or acceptance levels or to corrosion resistance. It covers materials (clad steels, parent material, cladding), welding consumables, procedures and fabrication, welding conditions and post weld cleaning.

Part 6: 2005 Laser beam welding

Equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-6

General guidance for laser beam welding and associated processes (cutting, drilling, surface treatment and cladding) in all forms of product (e.g. cast, wrought, extruded, forged) is given.

Part 7: 2004 (R2009) Electron beam welding

Equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-7

This British Standard gives recommendations for the electron beam welding (process no. 51 of EN ISO 4063) of weldable metallic materials according to grouping system CR ISO 15608. It excludes data on permissible stresses, testing or evaluation of weld seams. It sets out recommendations on quality requirements, parent metals and consumables storage handling, welding facilities, personnel qualification, procedure specification and test, joint preparation and design, evacuation holes, tack welds and cosmetic passes, heat treatment and documentation. Two informative annexes give information on weldability, one annex deals with imperfections causes and prevention and a further annexe gives examples of circular joint preparation.

Part 8: 2004 (R2014; + 2016 draft) Welding of cast irons

Partially supersedes BS 4570:1985; equivalent to ISO/TR 17671-8

Requirements for the fusion welding of unalloyed and low alloy cast iron castings produced in accordance with EN 1561, EN 1562 and EN 1563 are given. The standard does not cover the joint welding of cast iron castings to other materials.

BS EN 1708
Welding. Basic welded joint details in steel

Part 1: 2010 Pressurised components

Commonly accepted welded connections in pressure systems are explained. The standard contains examples of connections welded by: manual metal arc welding with covered electrode; submerged arc welding; gas shielded metal arc welding; tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG); and plasma arc welding. Welded joint details in steel are covered, but these can be applied to other metallic materials.

Part 2: 2000 (R2005) Non-internal pressurised components

Commonly accepted, sound, welded connections in pressurised welded components, not internal, are explained. The requirements of carrying capacity, fitness for purpose, fatigue and stress corrosion should be considered if necessary. The standard contains examples of connections welded by: manual metal arc welding with covered electrode; self-shielded, inert gas shielded and active gas shielded tubular cored arc welding; MIG welding; MAG welding; tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG); and submerged arc welding. Other processes by agreement.

Part 3: 2012 Clad, buttered and lined pressurised components

Established examples on how to construct claddings, linings and dissimilar joints and complex connections relevant to the welding technology and with regard to pressurized components (e.g. vessels, boilers and piping) are specified.

BS EN 4632
Aerospace series. Welded and brazed assemblies for aerospace constructions. Weldability and brazeability of materials

Part 001: 2008 General requirements

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for metallic materials used in aerospace construction, for processes and techniques involving welding and brazing but excluding soldering are defined, plus rules to be observed to determine the degree of weldability and brazeability.

Part 002: 2008 Homogeneous assemblies [of] aluminium and aluminium alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for aluminium and aluminium alloy materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 003: 2010 Welding and brazing of homogeneous assemblies of unalloyed and low alloy steels

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for unalloyed and low alloy steel materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 004: 2012 Welding and brazing of homogeneous assemblies of high alloyed steels

The weldability and brazeability of high alloy steels used in the aerospace industry is specified. It applies both to the manufacturing of new parts and repair.

Part 005: 2009 Homogeneous assemblies of heat resisting Ni or Co base alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for nickel or cobalt based alloy materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined.

Part 006: 2013 Homogenous assemblies of titanium alloys

Degrees of weldability and brazeability for titanium alloys materials or families of materials used in the aerospace industry are defined. The standard is applicable without restriction for the manufacturing of new parts or for repair.

BS EN 12732: 2013 + A1:Sept.2014
Gas infrastructure. Welding steel pipework. Functional requirements

Requirements for the production and testing of welded joints for the installation and modification of onshore steel pipelines and pipework used in gas infrastructure are specified. The standard includes in-service pipelines and all pressure ranges for the carriage of processed, non-toxic and non-corrosive natural gas (according to EN ISO 13686) and for the carriage of unconventional gases such as injected biomethane. It applies to unalloyed steel or low alloy carbon steel pipelines; where the pipeline is not located within commercial or industrial premises as an integral part of the industrial process on those premises except for any pipelines and facilities delivering gas to the premises; where the pipework is not located within a household (according to EN 1775); and for design temperatures between -40 and +120 deg.C.

BS EN 13445
Unfired pressure vessels

Part 1: 2014 + A1 General

General information and defines the terms, definitions, symbols and units used throughout EN 13445 are given in Part 1. Exclusions from applicability and normative references are also covered.

Part 2: 2014 Materials

Requirements for the selection, inspection, testing and marking of metallic materials for the fabrication of unfired pressure vessels and supports covered by EN 13345-1:2002 are specified. Normative references, terms, definitions and symbols are given. The requirements for materials in pressure and non pressure bearing parts are specified. The normative Annex B covers the requirements for prevention of brittle fracture and includes welds. Design reference temperatures and impact test temperatures for various thicknesses in the as-welded (AW) condition and following post weld heat treatment (PWHT) are presented. Reference thicknesses for various construction details, whether AW or after PWHT, are illustrated.

Part 3: 2014 + A2 Design

The requirements for the design of unfired pressure vessels covered by Part 1:2002 and constructed with steels in accordance with Part 2:2002 are presented. Basic design criteria are given including design of welded joints and calculation of weld joint coefficients. Detailed consideration of various types of joints are presented. The fatigue strength requirements of welded components are detailed. The normative Annex A gives the design requirements for pressure bearing welds and includes: a figure of the joint; design requirements based mainly on geometry; list of applicable testing groups referred to in Part 5:2002; fatigue class; recommendations for prevention of lamellar tearing and corrosion.

Part 4: 2014 + A1 Fabrication

This document specifies requirements for the manufacture of unfired pressure vessels and their parts, including their connections to non-pressure parts. Requirements are given for material traceability, manufacturing tolerances, welding, production tests, forming, heat treatment, repairs and finishing operations. General welding specifications are given e.g. procedure, qualification of operators, joint preparation. Production testing of welds, forming of pressure parts, post weld heat treatment and repair of weld defects are detailed.

Part 5: 2014 Inspection and testing (See FAQ on quality and testing standards)

Part 6: 2014 Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from spheroidal graphite cast iron

Requirements for the design, materials, manufacturing and testing of pressure vessels and pressure vessel parts for use with a maximum allowable pressure equal or less than 50 bar and shell wall thicknesses not exceeding 60 mm, constructed of spheroidal graphite cast iron, are specified.

Part 7: 2002 Guidance on the use of the conformity procedures

(PD CR 13445-7)

This Technical Report gives guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures for unfired pressure vessels as covered by Article 1, Section 2.1.1 of the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED). The PED requires all pressure equipment falling within its scope to have its design and manufacture assessed for conformity in accordance with a series of conformity assessment procedures given in Article 10 of the PED. These procedures are described in detail in Annex III of the PED to which reference must be made in order to ensure compliance.

Part 8: 2014 + A1 Additional requirements for pressure vessels of aluminium and aluminium alloys

Requirements for unfired pressure vessels and their parts made of aluminium and aluminium alloys are specified.

Part 9: 2011 Conformance of the EN 13445 series to ISO 16528

(PD CEN/TR 13445-9)

The conformance of the EN 13445 series to ISO 16528-1 Boilers and pressure vessels. Part 1: Performance requirements is detailed. The Technical Report applies to vessels of steel construction.

Part 10: 2015 Additional requirements for pressure vessels of nickel and nickel alloys

Requirements for unfired pressure vessels and their parts made of nickel and nickel alloys are specified, in addition to the general requirements contained in Parts 1-5. Materials, design, manufacture, inspection and testing are detailed.

Part 101: 2015 Example of application

Each step regarding material choice, calculation and design, fabrication, inspection and testing of a sample unfired pressure vessel is described.

Part 102: 2015 Example of application of vertical vessel with bracket supports

The design, manufacturing, inspection and testing of a steel vessel submitted to pressure cycles are detailed, using the EN 13445 series for "Unfired pressure vessels", to guide the user in sequential decision making. Some alternative choices are included.

BS EN 13480
Metallic and industrial piping

Parts 1-5 together supersede BS 806

Part 1: 2012 General

Requirements for metallic industrial piping systems and supports (above-ground, ducted or buried), including safety systems are specified, with a view to their safe operation. The standard does NOT cover pipelines and accessories; waterway piping (penstocks, etc.); vehicle piping; nuclear piping in contact with radioactivity; well control piping; blast furnace piping; enclosures for high voltage equipment; transmission pressure piping; permanent piping for shipping, aerospace and mobile offshore structure use; internal pipes in medical devices; and internal piping in boilers and pressure vessels.

Part 2: 2012 + A2 Materials

Metallic materials (including metallic clad materials) for industrial piping and supports, as listed in Part 1, are specified. The standard is limited to steels with sufficient ductility at present. Part 2 is not applicable to materials in the creep range.

Part 3: 2012 (+ 2016 draft) Design and calculation

The design and calculation of industrial metallic piping systems, including supports, is detailed.

Part 4: 2012 + A2 Fabrication and installation

Requirements for the fabrication and installation of piping systems and supports, designed to Part 3, are listed.

Part 5: 2012 + A1 (+ 2013 draft) Inspection and testing

(See FAQ on quality and NDT standards)

Part 6: 2012 + A1 Additional requirements for buried piping

This document specifies requirements for industrial piping either totally buried or partly buried and partly run in sleeves or similar protection.

Part 7: 2002 Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures

(PD TR 13480-7)

This Technical Report gives guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures for industrial piping and pipelines as covered by Article 1, Section 2.1.1 of the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED). The PED requires all pressure equipment falling within its scope to have its design and manufacture assessed for conformity in accordance with a series of conformity assessment procedures given in Article 10 of the PED. These procedures are described in detail in Annex III of the PED to which reference must be made in order to ensure compliance.

Part 8: 2012 + A2 Additional requirements for aluminium and aluminium alloy piping

Requirements for industrial piping systems made of aluminium and aluminium alloys are specified.

BS EN 14163: 2001
Petroleum and natural gas industries. Pipeline transportation systems. Welding of pipelines

The requirements for producing and inspecting girth (circumferential), branch and fillet welds in the pipelines of transportation systems in the petroleum and natural gas industries which meet the requirements of ISO 13623 are specified. It covers welding procedure testing and approval, operator approval, production welding, nondestructive examination including acceptance criteria, repair and removal of defects, and documentation. A series of informative annexes deals with specialist aspects. Information on terms, definitions, references and symbols is also given.

BS EN 14587: 2007
Railway applications. Track. Flash butt welding of rails

Part 1: 2007 (+ 2016 draft) New R220, R260, R260Mn and R350HT grade rails in a fixed plant.

Requirements of a welding process; procedure approval for a fixed plant; approval of other rail profiles or grade; approval of the welding contractor; and weld production following approval are specified.

Part 2: 2009 New R220, R260, R260Mn and R350HT grade rails by mobile welding machines at sites other than a fixed plant

Requirements for the approval of a welding process by a MFBW machine (static but temporary) at sites other than fixed plant, as well as the welding contractor together with the requirements for subsequent welding production are specified. The standard covers new Vignole R220, R260, R260Mn and R350HT grade rails of 46 kg/m and above, as contained in EN 13674-1, and applies to the welding of rails into welded strings.

Part 3: 2012 Welding in association with crossing construction

Requirements for the approval of a welding process in a fixed plant, together with the requirements for subsequent welding production are specified. The standard applies to new Vignole rails welded by flash butt welding to crossing components in a fixed plant which are intended for use on railway infrastructures.

BS EN 14730
Railway applications. Track. Aluminothermic welding of rails

Part 1: 2006 + A1 Approval of welding processes

This standard defines the laboratory tests and requirements for approval of an aluminothermic welding process using welds produced in workshop conditions. It applies to the joining of new Vignole rails as described in EN 13674-1 of the same profile and steel grade. Compliance with the standard's requirements does not of itself ensure the suitability of a welding process for specific conditions of track and traffic. The standard does not cover welds made between different rail sections, differently worn rails and different rail grades.

Part 2: 2006 Qualification of aluminothermic welders, approval of contractors and acceptance of welds

(See FAQ on qualification and approval standards)

BS EN 15085
Railway applications. Welding of railway vehicles and components

Part 1: 2007 + A1 General

General recommendations and definitions for welding railway vehicles and associated component are given. The standard applies to all assemblies, sub-assemblies or parts welded by any welding process, either manual, partly mechanised, fully mechanised or automatic welding as defined in EN ISO 4063.

Part 2: 2007 Quality requirements and certification of welding manufacturer

Certification levels and requirements for welding manufacturers are defined and the procedure for the recognition of welding manufacturers is described.

Part 3: 2007 Design requirements

Design and classification rules applicable to the manufacture and maintenance of railway vehicles and their parts are specified

Part 4: 2007 Production requirements

The production requirements (i.e. preparation and execution) of the welding work are described.

Part 5: 2007 Inspection, testing and documentation

(See FAQ on quality and testing standards)

BS EN 15594: 2009
Railway applications. Track. Restoration of rails by electric arc welding

Approval systems for consumables and procedures used in rail repair welding are described. The standard includes the quality-related tasks and responsibilities of personnel involved in the electric arc repair welding of rails and applies to plain rail, and switches and crossings manufactured from new Vignole railway rails R200, R220, R260, R260Mn, R260Cr and R350HT grade rails of 46 kg/m and above as contained in EN 13674-1 and EN 13674-2. Permitted welding processes are limited to electric arc, manual metal arc and flux cored arc welding for application in situ, at line side or at out of track locations. The flash welded leg ends of austenitic manganese steel crossings are included, except when located within 500 mm of manganese crossings.

BS EN 28167: 1992 (R2007, 2010)
Specification for projections for resistance welding

Together with BS ISO 16432, supersedes BS 2630

The characteristics and dimensions of projections for resistance welding of hot-rolled or cold-rolled uncoated mild steel are defined. Appendices cover the relationship between sheet thickness and projection diameter, and tools for forming projections.

BS EN 29692: 1994
Specification for metal arc welding with covered electrode, gas shielded metal arc welding and gas welding. Joint preparations for steel
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9692-1

BS EN ISO 9692
Welding and allied processes. Joint preparation

Part 1: 2013 Manual metal arc welding, gas shielded metal arc welding, gas welding, TIG welding and electron beam welding of steels

With Part 2 supersedes BS EN 29692

This standard recommends types of joint preparation for manual metal-arc (MMA) welding, gas-shielded metal-arc (MIG/MAG) welding, gas welding, TIG welding and beam welding (electron and laser) suitable for all kinds of steel. It applies to joint preparation for full penetration welds. Recommendations are given in a series of tables covering preparation for butt welds, welded from one side and from both sides and similarly for fillet welds. The information set out includes material thickness, type of preparation, welding symbol, dimensions and process.

Part 2: 1998 (R2004, 2009) Submerged arc welding of steels

With Part 1 supersedes BS EN 29692

This part applies to joint preparation for submerged arc welding with one wire electrode on steel. It applies to fully penetrated welds. Tables are presented showing the recommended types of joint preparation for butt welds welded from one or both sides according to dimensions and joint configuration.

Part 3: 2016 Metal inert gas welding and tungsten inert gas welding of aluminium and its alloys

This standard specifies joint preparation and finishing for MIG and TIG welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys. Tables are presented that give workpiece thicknesses, designations, symbols, illustrations, cross sections, specifications for the angle, gap and thickness of root face, and recommended welding process for butt welds welded from one side and from both sides and for T-joints.

Part 4: 2003 (R2008) Clad steels

This standard gives recommendations for types of joint preparation for the welding of clad steels. It specifies, in tabular form, preparation details and dimensions for clad steels welded from both sides with and without cladding removal, welded from one side and welded incorporating a backing, insert or cover strip. Reference is made to information on welding clad steels.

BS EN ISO 11970: 2016
Specification and approval of welding procedures for production welding of steel castings

The means by which a welding procedure specification (WPS) for production welding of steel castings is specified and the conditions for the execution of welding procedure approval tests and the limits of validity of an approved welding procedure for all practical welding operations within the range of essential variables are defined.

BS EN ISO 14373: 2015
Resistance welding. Procedure for spot welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steels

Requirements for resistance spot welding in the fabrication of assemblies of uncoated and metallic coated low carbon steel, comprising two or three sheets of metal, where the maximum single sheet thickness of components to be welded is within the range 0,4 mm to 3 mm are specified. Materials included are uncoated steels; hot-dip zinc or iron-zinc alloy (galvannealed) coated steel; electrolytic zinc, zinc-iron, or zinc-nickel coated steel; aluminium coated steel; and zinc-aluminium coated steel.

BS EN ISO 14555: 2014
Welding. Arc stud welding of metallic materials

Arc stud welding of metallic materials subject to static and dynamic loading is specified. The standard covers welding knowledge (processes, parent materials, studs, stud/parent combinations, defects, process equipment, process parameters), quality requirements, welding procedure specification (WPS), welding procedure approval, approval testing of welders and testing (nondestructive and destructive) of production welds.

BS EN ISO 16432: 2007 + A1
Resistance welding. Procedure for projection welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steels using embossed projection(s)

Implementation of EN ISO 16432 by amendment to BS ISO 16432:2006
Together with BS EN 28167, supersedes BS 2630

Requirements are specified for embossed resistance projection welding in the fabrication of assemblies of uncoated and metallic coated low carbon steel comprising two thicknesses of metal, where the maximum single sheet thickness of components to be welded is within the range 0.4 - 3 mm. The standard covers uncoated steels; hot dip zinc or iron zinc alloy (galvannealed) coated steel; electrolytic zinc, zinc iron or zinc nickel coated steel; aluminium coated steel; and zinc aluminium coated steel.

BS EN ISO 16433: 2007 + A1
Resistance welding. Procedure for seam welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steels

Implementation of EN ISO 16433 by amendment to BS ISO 16433:2005
Supersedes BS 6265

Requirements are specified for resistance seam welding in the fabrication of assemblies of uncoated and metallic coated low carbon steel comprising two thicknesses of metal, where the maximum single sheet thickness of components to be welded is within the range 0.4 - 3 mm. The standard covers uncoated steels; hot dip zinc or iron zinc alloy (galvannealed) coated steel; electrolytic zinc, zinc iron or zinc nickel coated steel; aluminium coated steel; and zinc aluminium coated steel.

BS EN ISO 17652
Welding. Test for shop primers in relation to welding and allied processes

Part 1: 2003 General requirements

This standard specifies standardised conditions for an assessment of the weldability of shop primers on steel materials. The standard is intended to be used by suppliers in the development of new primers, in production as part of a quality control scheme and in declaring the properties of primers. It can also by used by suppliers and customers as a reference in contracts for deliveries and as a basis for acceptance testing by customers. It gives guidance on application and on health, safety and the environment.

Part 2: 2003 Welding properties of shop primers

This standard specifies two tests to assess the influence of shop primers on the weldability of mild steel plate. The rating test provides a method for assessing the relative weldability of a primer of specified thickness by making a weld and evaluating the severity of the resulting porosity. The weldability test gives a method for evaluating the weldability of welding consumables and shop primer combinations using various arc welding processes to produce a standard size fillet weld which enables assessment and comparison of the resultant weld quality.

Part 3: 2003 Thermal cutting

See Allied Processes (Cutting, Gouging, Heating)

Part 4: 2003 Emission of fumes and gases

(See FAQ on health and safety standards)

BS EN ISO 17660
Welding. Welding of reinforcing steel

Part 1: 2006 Load bearing welded joints

Applicable to the welding of weldable reinforcing steel and stainless reinforcing steel of load-bearing joints, in workshops or on site. Requirements for materials, design and execution of welded joints, welding personnel, quality requirements, examination and testing are specified. It also covers welded joints between reinforcing steel bars and other steel components, such as connection devices and insert anchors, including prefabricated assemblies. The standard is not applicable to factory production of welding fabric and lattice girders using multiple spot welding machines or multiple projection welding machines. Requirements are only applicable to static loaded structures.

Part 2: 2006 Non-load bearing welded joints

Applicable to the welding of weldable reinforcing steel and stainless reinforcing steel of non load-bearing welded joints, in workshops or on site. It specifies requirements for materials, design and execution of welded joints, welding personnel, quality requirements, examination and testing.

BS EN ISO 18594: 2007 (R2010)
Resistance spot, projection and seam welding. Method for determining the transition resistance on aluminium and steel material

The procedure and the experimental set-up for determining the transition resistance of a single sheet or two overlapping sheets of aluminium or steel, with or without surface treatment, and with or without surface coating are specified.

BS EN ISO 18595: 2007 (R2010)
Resistance welding. Spot welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys. Weldability, welding and testing

Requirements for resistance spot welding in the fabrication of assemblies of aluminium sheet, extrusions (both work- and age-hardening alloys) and/or cast material comprising two or three thicknesses of metal, where the maximum single (sheet) thickness of components to be welded is within the range 0,6 mm to 6 mm are specified.

BS EN ISO 25239
Friction stir welding. Aluminium

Part 2: 2011 Design of weld joints

Design requirements for friction stir weld joints are specified. The term, aluminium, includes aluminium alloys. Friction stir spot welding is not covered.

BS EN ISO 28319: 2010 (+ 2016 draft)
Dentistry. Laser welding

Requirements and test methods for laser welding, in the dental laboratory, of materials suitable for use in metallic restorations and appliances, are specified.

BS ISO 14347: 2008
Fatigue. Design procedure for welded hollow section joints. Recommendations

Recommendations for the design and analysis of unstiffened, welded, nodal joints in braced structures composed of hollow sections of circular or square shape (with or without rectangular chord) under fatigue loading are given. The standard applies to both hot-finished and cold-formed steel structural hollow sections that fulfil specified quality requirements, and joints consisting of circular hollow sections (CHS) or rectangular hollow sections (RHS) as used in uniplanar or multiplanar trusses or girders, such as T-, Y-, X-, K-, XX-, and KK.

BS ISO 21307: 2011
Plastics pipes and fittings. Butt fusion jointing procedures for polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings used in the construction of gas and water distribution systems

Butt fusion jointing procedures for pipes and fittings, wall thicknesses up to and including 70 mm, intended for gas and water distribution systems are established. Pipes are made from PE 80 and PE 100 materials with a melt flow rate at 190 °C/5 kg of between 0,3 g/10 min and 1,7 g/10 min, and equipment complies with ISO 12176-1 and is installed in accordance with ISO/TS 10839.

ISO 13847: 2013
Petroleum and natural gas industries. Pipeline transportation systems. Welding of pipelines

Requirements for producing and inspecting girth, branch and fillet welds in the pipeline part of carbon and low alloy steel pipeline transportation systems fabricated to ISO 13623 are specified. Application is restricted to pipes with a diameter of 20 mm and larger and wall thickness of 3 mm or more, and a specified minimum yield strength of 555 MPa or less. It is also applicable to welding items such as spools, risers, launchers/receivers, fittings, flanges and 'pups' to pipeline valves into pipelines. Manual metal arc welding [shielded metal arc welding], gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding with or without shielding gas, and submerged arc welding are covered.

PD 5500: 2015 + A1 (+ A2 draft)
Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels

This published document specifies requirements for the design, construction, inspection, testing and certification of unfired fusion welded pressure vessels manufactured from aluminium, and carbon, ferritic alloy and austenitic steels. Topics covered include: design of vessel shells, ends, flanges, tubes and pipes etc. and design against corrosion and wear; manufacture and workmanship in steel and aluminium; inspection and testing of aluminium and steel, including choice of NDT methods to assess weld flaws. Appendices cover design according to loading, recommended practices for use of the steels, welded connections, fatigue failure, design for varying pressures and stresses, post weld heat treatment etc. Enquiry cases are issued periodically and are filed in a separate section, as adjuncts to the standard until the text is amended to incorporate them.

PD CEN ISO/TR 14745: 2015
Welding. Post-weld heat treatment parameters for steels

Recommendations for post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of steels with advice for holding temperatures and holding times for different materials and material thicknesses are provided. The recommendations are limited to stress relieving for non-alloy steels (groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 11) and to tempering for Cr-Mo-(Ni) steels (groups 5 and 6) and martensitic stainless steels (group 7.2), and are independent of type of product or location. They do not supersede any guidance given in material supplier specifications, e. g. thermo-mechanically treated fine-grain steels, and do not specify when PWHT is required.

PD CEN ISO/TR 15608:2013
Welding. Guidelines for a metallic materials grouping system

A uniform system for grouping materials for welding, forming, heat treating and nondestructive testing purposes is presented. The grouping systems cover steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys, titanium and its alloys, zirconium and its alloys, and cast irons.

PD CEN/TS 16892: 2015
Plastics. Welding of thermoplastics. Specification of welding procedures

The specification gives guidance on the minimum content for hot gas, extrusion, heated tool, solvent and electrofusion welding procedures. It applies to sheet, pipe, fittings and lining membrane products and semi-finished products.

PD CEN ISO/TR 17844: 2004
Welding. Comparison of standardised methods for the avoidance of cold cracks

This Published Document implements the equivalent European and International Technical Reports (CEN ISO/TR 17844:2004 and ISO/TR 17844:2004) in the UK and gives further methods for avoiding cold cracking for manual, semi-mechanised, mechanised and automatic arc welding of ferritic steels, excluding ferritic stainless steels, in all product forms. Methods selected were: CE and CET, CEN, and PCM, using the following main input parameters: steel composition, welding heat input, joint geometry and material thickness, weld hydrogen level, preheat and data format. Detailed requirements are given for each method and a comparison made of the different techniques.

PD CEN ISO/TR 20172: 2009
Welding. Grouping systems for materials. European materials

A European grouping system for materials for welding purposes, classified in accordance with the grouping system of ISO/TR 15608, is established. The standard is also relevant to other purposes such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing. Grouping systems for the following materials are included: steel; aluminium and its alloys; copper and its alloys; cast irons.

PD CEN ISO/TR 20173: 2009
Welding. Grouping systems for materials. American materials

An American grouping system for materials for welding purposes, classified in accordance with the grouping system of ISO/TR 15608, is established. The standard is also relevant to other purposes such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing. Grouping systems for the following materials are included: steel; aluminium and its alloys; nickel and its alloys; copper and its alloys; titanium and its alloys; zirconium and its alloys; cast irons.

PD ISO/TR 10809
Cast irons

Part 2: 2011 Welding

This part of ISO/TR 10809 gives design engineers knowledge as to whether or not it is possible to weld the many types and grades of cast iron standardised in a number of international cast iron material standards. How each type of cast iron material can be welded and with the most appropriate technique, for production (including finishing and joint welding) and repair welding are considered.

PD ISO/TR 18491: 2015
Welding and allied processes. Guidelines for measurement of welding energies

Guidelines for the measurement of parameters for calculating arc energies required for arc welding are presented.

London Underground Ltd

LUL G3209: 2014
Welding track

Issue A1 (Supersedes LUL TE-HBS-0009)

A handbook covering all current welding practices used on London Underground for joining and repairing of running and conductor rails.

LUL T0431: 2012
Flash butt welding of rails

Issue A1

Requirements for flash butt welded rail joints for installation in the LU infrastructure are specified. The standard covers welding contractor approval; welding procedure and equipment approval; rail profile and steel grade approval; production welding; weld testing, acceptance criteria, identification and recording.

LUL T0432: 2014
Installation, inspection and reporting of alumino-thermic welding - Issue A3; Written Notice 11/12/2014, 12/05/2014

The training and certification of welding personnel; process approval; weld installation, inspection and recording are specified for use with 95RBH and 56E1 (113A) rail profiles (BS 11 and EN 13674-1 respectively), with rail steel grades R220 and R260 (EN 13674-1).

LUL T0433: 2016
Conductor rail arc welding. Issue A2

Joining conductor rails to conductor rails and conductor rail ramps by on-site arc-welding process is specified.

Network Rail

NR NR/L2/TRK/0032: 2010
Joining of rails by aluminothermic welding

Issue 5. Compliance date:4 June 2011; contains NR/BS/LI/305

NR NR/L2/TRK/0132: 2010
Maintenance arc welding of rails, switches and crossings

Issue 6. Compliance date:4 June 2011; contains NR/BS/LI/305

Allied Processes (Cutting, Gouging, Heating)

AWS C4.2/C4.2M: 2009
Recommended practices for safe oxyfuel gas cutting torch operation

The oxyfuel gas cutting process is described and the latest procedures and safety requirements, using terminology and practices compatible with ISO documents, are presented. Torch and nozzle configurations are illustrated, and examples of production-cut surfaces are given.

AWS C4.4/C4.4M: 2007
Recommended practice for heat shaping and straightening with oxyfuel gas heating torches

Recommendations are presented for the use of an oxyfuel flame in order to apply heat locally when shaping metal either to form a product or to correct distorted or damaged parts. The theory behind the technique is explained. Causes of distortion are described. Guidance on the safe use of equipment and gases (oxygen, acetylene, methylacetylene-propadiene (MPS), polypropylene, propane), including pressure regulators, hoses and fittings, torches and heating heads is presented. Start-up and shut-down procedures are described. General heating patterns and heating techniques are described and procedures for several specific tasks are shown.

AWS C4.6M: 2006 (R2012)
Thermal cutting. Classification of thermal cuts. Geometric product specification and quality tolerances

U.S. national adoption of ISO 9013:2002. The specification includes three national annexes (Criteria for Describing Oxygen-Cut Surfaces with a photograph of a Surface Roughness Guide, a list of reference documents available for individuals involved with Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting, and a guide for the preparation of technical inquiries to AWS) as well as a list of published AWS documents on Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting.

AWS C5.2: 2001 (Historical)
Recommended practices for plasma arc cutting and gouging
Recommendations are presented covering the use of plasma cutting equipment and procedures. Following introductions to the general plasma cutting process and individual processes, plasma cutting methods of operation are outlined including manual, mechanised and deep water plasma cutting and plasma arc gouging. Equipment, consumables and gases are described. System installations, optimisation of cut quality and cost considerations are covered. Health and safety aspects are also discussed.

AWS C5.3: 2000 (R2011)
Recommended practices for air carbon arc gouging and cutting

Air carbon arc cutting is described and recommendations are presented concerning: consumables; torches; techniques for gouging, cutting, washing and bevelling; equipment selection; process variables; advantages; limitations; applications; and safety. A trouble-shooting guide to the process is given.

AWS C7.2M: 2010
Recommended practices for laser beam welding, cutting and allied processes

This standard presents recommended practices for laser welding, laser cutting and laser drilling. Prescribed items include process definitions, safety considerations, equipment descriptions (CO2 lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, laser systems, fixtures), process control and monitoring, laser welding processes, laser welding metallurgy, laser cutting and laser drilling processes, record keeping, inspection and testing, specifications for laser welding, equipment maintenance, and personnel training.

AWS D10.10/D10.10M: 1999 (R2009)
Recommended practices for local heating of welds in piping and tubing

Guidance is given on the application of heat to welds in pipes and tubes where the component cannot be placed in an oven or a furnace. Topics covered are: reference documents; purposes for local heating; terminology; local 360 degree band heating; local spot PWHT; temperature measurement; insulation; thermal cycles; responses to deviations; service environment considerations; quality assurance; and health and safety. Heating methods included are: induction heating; electric resistance heating; flame heating; exothermic heating; gas-flame generated heating; and radiant heating by quartz lamps.

BS EN ISO 17652
Welding. Test for shop primers in relation to welding and allied processes

Part 3: 2003 Thermal cutting

This standard specifies a test method for determining the influence of a shop primer on the maximum usable speed for thermal cutting. Details of experimental procedure are given, including preparation of test pieces from hot rolled steel plate (grade S275, EN10025), cutting data and acceptance criteria. Tests for cutting test plate both with and without shop primer are specified and cutting test parameters for oxygen-fuel, laser and plasma cutting are listed. Requirements for assessment and reporting of results are given.

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