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FAQ: Standards commonly used in the UK joining industry: Quality and Testing

   

EXCEPT ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Qualification and Certification: NDT

AWS B5.15: 2010
Specification for the qualification of radiographic interpreters

The requirements for the qualification of radiographic interpreters, including experience, knowledge, and skills unique to the interpretation of radiographic media and the determination of acceptance criteria for weldments and adjacent base metal, are defined.

BS EN 473: 2008
Nondestructive testing. Qualification and certification of NDT personnel. General principles
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9712:2012

BS EN 4179: 2017
Aerospace series. Qualification and certification of personnel for nondestructive testing

Minimum requirements for the qualification and approval of personnel involved in the use of nondestructive testing for materials, products, systems, subsystems and component inspection are specified. Training, experience and examination within the aerospace industry, in both manufacturing and service; individuals directly responsible for the technical adequacy of NDT methods used; and those providing technical training or supervision for NDT personnel are included. All NDT methods are covered.

BS EN ISO 9712: 2012
Nondestructive testing. Qualification and certification of NDT personnel

Supersedes BS EN 473:2008

Principles for the qualification and certification of personnel who perform industrial non-destructive testing (NDT) are established. The term 'industrial' implies the exclusion of medical applications. The certification covers proficiency in one or more of the following methods: acoustic emission testing; eddy current testing; leak testing (hydraulic pressure tests excluded); magnetic particle testing; penetrant testing; radiographic testing; ultrasonic testing; visual testing (direct unaided visual tests and visual tests carried out during the application of another NDT method are excluded).

BS ISO 11484: 2014
Steel products. Employer's qualification system for nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel

An employer's qualification system for nondestructive testing personnel inspecting the following steel products under the employer's responsibility is described: tubes and pipes (seamless and welded); flat products; long products; rails; bars; sections; rod and wire. The standard applies to NDT personnel performing predominantly automated inspection by means of eddy current, flux leakage, leak, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic and ultrasonic testing, and visual inspection.

ISO/TS 11774: 2011
Nondestructive testing. Performance-based qualification

ISO/TS 22809: 2007
Nondestructive testing. Discontinuities in specimens for use in qualification examinations

PD CEN/TR 14748: 2004
Nondestructive testing. Methodology for qualification of nondestructive tests

Basic principles, recommendations and general guidelines for carrying out qualification of nondestructive testing (NDT) are given. Methods for qualifying NDT procedures to determine whether they are capable of attaining their objectives and applies to all aspects of tests influencing their effectiveness are defined. The principles, qualification phases, steps and responsibilities are set out in detail and further information on the NDT qualification process is given in annexes.

PD CEN/TR 15589: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Code of practice for the approval of NDT personnel by recognised third party organisations under the provisions of Directive 97/23/EC

A methodology for approval of NDT personnel under the provisions of Directive 97/23/EC, Annex 1, section 3.1.3 is presented.

PD CEN/TR 16332: 2012
Nondestructive testing. Interpretation of EN ISO/IEC 17024 for NDT personnel certification application

The standard supports the application of EN ISO/IEC 17024 in the implementation of EN 473, providing guidance in sequence with the criteria of EN ISO/IEC 17024:2003, and making direct reference to EN 473 where no guidance is considered necessary because EN 473 provides the necessary detail. The guide is specifically for certification bodies implementing EN 473, and not for employers implementing EN 4179:2009 which includes, in Clause 2, a normative reference to EN ISO/IEC 17024:2003.

PD CEN ISO/TR 25107: 2006
Nondestructive testing. Guidelines for NDT training syllabuses.

Guidelines for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs are given. It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to nondestructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission, eddy current, leak, magnetic particle, penetrant, radiographic, ultrasonic and visual testing.

BS EN ISO 18490: 2015
Nondestructive Testing. Evaluation of vision acuity of NDT personnel

Specification of the acceptance level for near vision acuity by means of an eye chart and test procedures is detailed. Qualificatiomn requirements for those permitted to carry out the testing is also specified. Colour vision is not included.

Quality and Terminology

AWS G1.10M: 2016
Guide for evaluation of hot gas, hot gas extrusion and heated tool butt thermoplastic welds

BS 7910: 2013 + A1: 2015
Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures

Supersedes PD 6493:1991 and PD 6539:1994

Guidance for assessing the acceptability of flaws in all types of structures and components is provided. Although specifically aimed at welded fabrications in ferritic and austenitic steels and aluminium alloys, the procedures developed can be used for analysing flaws in welds in other materials and in non-welded applications. Types of defect and modes of failure are described. Detailed assessments for brittle fracture, fatigue, creep and other failure modes are given. Appendices cover: evaluation under stresses or loading; tubular joints in offshore structures; pressure vessels and pipelines; stress due to misalignment; flaw recharacterisation; leak-before-break assessment; reporting failure assessments; effects of weld strength mismatch on fracture behaviour; Charpy V-notch impact tests; reliability of data; fracture toughness determination; stress intensity factors; acceptability levels for flaws; proof testing and warm prestressing; reference stress; residual stress distributions; plasticity interaction effects under loading; fatigue life estimation; and high temperature crack growth assessments.

BS EN 462
Nondestructive testing. Image quality of radiographs
Part 1: 1994 (R2008) Image quality indicators (wire type). Determination of image quality value
Superseded by BS EN ISO 19232-1
Part 2: 1994 (R2008) Image quality indicators (step/hole type). Determination of image quality value
Superseded by BS EN ISO 19232-2
Part 3: 1997 (R2007) Image quality classes for ferrous metals
Superseded by BS EN ISO 19232-3
Part 4: 1995 (R2008) Experimental evaluation of image quality values and image quality tables
Superseded by BS EN ISO 19232-4
Part 5: 1996 (R2007) Image quality indicators (duplex wire type). Determination of image unsharpness value
Superseded by BS EN ISO 19232-5

BS EN 729
Quality requirements for welding. Fusion welding of metallic materials
Part 1: 1995 Guidelines for selection and use
Superseded by BS EN ISO 3834-1
Part 2: 1995 Comprehensive quality requirements
Superseded by BS EN ISO 3834-2
Part 3: 1995 Standard quality requirements
Superseded by BS EN ISO 3834-3
Part 4: 1995 Elementary quality requirements
Superseded by BS EN ISO 3834-4

BS EN 1330
Nondestructive testing. Terminology

Part 1: 2015 List of general terms

The standard comprises a trilingual (English, French and German) listing of terms used in non-destructive testing which come from other fields, such as the electrical, vacuum technology and metrology industries. The relevant standard number is given beside each term. A listing of relevant standards is included within the text.

Part 2: 1998 (R2008) Terms common to the non-destructive testing methods

Terms and definitions for non-destructive testing which are used in two or more testing methods are listed in this standard. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German. Some terms listed in this part of the standard will be defined more precisely in the subsequent parts, which deal with the specific test methods in more detail.

Part 3: 1997 (R2007) Terms used in industrial radiographic testing

Terms and definitions for radiographic testing are listed. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German.

Part 4: 2010 Terms used in ultrasonic testing

Terms and definitions for ultrasonic testing are listed. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German.

Part 5: 1998 Terms used in eddy current testing
Superseded by BS EN 12718: 2008

Part 7: 2005 Terms used in magnetic particle testing
Superseded by BS EN ISO 12707: 2016

Part 8: 1998 (R2003, 2008) Terms used in leak testing

Terms and definitions for leak testing are listed. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German.

Part 9: 2009 (+ 2015 draft) Terms used in acoustic emission

Terms and definitions for acoustic emission are listed. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German.

Part 10: 2003 (R2008) Terms used in visual testing

Terms used in visual testing are listed. There are fifty three terms and definitions and alphabetical cross indexes for each of the three languages.

Part 11: 2007 Terms used in X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials

This standard defines the most common terms used for X-ray powder diffraction methods.

BS EN 1712: 1997
Nondestructive examination of welds. Ultrasonic examination of welded joints. Acceptance levels
Superseded by BS EN ISO 11666: 2010

BS EN 4677
Aerospace series. Welded and brazed assemblies for aerospace construction. Joints of metallic materials by electron beam welding

Part 001: 2012 (+ 2014 draft) Quality of welded assemblies

Rules to be satisfied to ensure the quality of joints of metallic materials by electron beam welding (reference number 51 according to EN ISO 4063) are defined. The standard is applicable to the manufacturing of new parts or for repair under the responsibility of an approved manufacturer or supplier. Final responsibility lies with the design authority.

BS EN 4678: 2011(R2017)
Aerospace series. Weldments and brazements for aerospace structures. Joints of metallic materials by laser beam welding. Quality of weldments

Rules to be observed to ensure the quality of aerospace structures in metallic materials by (solid reference number 521 and gas reference number 522 and diode laser semiconductor 523 according to EN ISO 4063) laser beam welding, implemented automatically, semi-automatically or manually, are defined. The standard applies to the manufacturing of new parts or the repair of parts, these operations being under the responsibility of an approved design authority or repairer.

BS EN 12517
Nondestructive testing of welds
Part 1: 2006 Evaluation of welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys by radiography. Acceptance levels
Superseded by BS EN ISO 10675-1
Part 2: 2008 Evaluation of welded joints in aluminium and its alloys by radiography. Acceptance levels
Superseded by BS EN ISO 10675-2

BS EN 14728: 2005
Imperfections in thermoplastic welds

BS EN 15617: 2009
Nondestructive testing of welds. Time-of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD). Acceptance levels
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15626

BS EN 16018: 2011
Nondestructive testing. Terminology. Terms used in ultrasonic testing with phased arrays

Terms used in ultrasonic testing with phased arrays are defined in English, French and German.

BS EN 16296: 2012
Imperfections in thermoplastics welded joints. Quality levels

BS EN 16714
Nondestructive testing. Thermographic testing

Part 3: 2016 Terms and definitions

Terms and definitions for thermographic testing are established.

BS EN 25817: 1992
Arc welded joints in steel. Guidance on quality levels for imperfections
Superseded by BS EN ISO 5817

BS EN 26520: 1992
Classification of imperfections in metallic fusion welds, with explanations
Superseded by BS EN ISO 6520-1

BS EN 30042: 1994
Arc welded joints in aluminium and its weldable alloys. Guidance on quality levels for imperfections
Superseded by BS EN ISO 10042

BS EN ISO 3834
Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials

Part 1: 2005 Criteria for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements

Supersedes BS EN 729-1

A general outline of ISO 3834 and criteria to be taken into account for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials, among the three levels specified in ISO 3834-2 [3], ISO 3834-3 [4] and ISO 3834-4 [5] is given. It applies to manufacturing, both in workshops and at field installation sites.

Part 2: 2005 Comprehensive quality requirements

Supersedes BS EN 729-2

This part of ISO 3834 defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

Part 3: 2005 Standard quality requirements

Supersedes BS EN 729-3

This part of ISO 3834 defines standard quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

Part 4: 2005 Elementary quality requirements

Supersedes BS EN 729-4

This part of ISO 3834 defines elementary quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

Part 5: 2015 Documents with which it is necessary to conform to claim conformity to the quality requirements of ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 or ISO 3834-4

Part 6: 2007 Guidelines on implementing BS ISO 3834-1

(PD CEN ISO/TR 3834-6: 2007)

BS EN ISO 5817: 2014
Welding. Fusion welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded). Quality levels for imperfections

Supersedes BS EN 25817

This standard specifies quality levels of imperfections (excluding for beam welding) in fusion-welded joints in all types of steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys, using a range of arc welding processes and oxy-fuel gas welding (steel only). It applies to material thicknesses above 0.5 mm. It contains a simplified selection of designations given in ISO 6520-1: 1998. Imperfections are assessed in terms of relevant designations, wall or plate nominal thickness and three levels of limits on production quality.

BS EN ISO 6520
Welding and allied processes. Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials

Part 1: 2007 Fusion welding

Precise classifications and descriptions of weld imperfections, including explanations and illustrations where appropriate, are detailed. The content and numbering system from ISO 6520: 1982 have been retained as far as possible, though additional imperfections have been included , and the terms on Undercut have been renumbered. New numbers have been introduced for microshrinkage in order to make a distinction between macroscopic and microscopic phenomena, and information on cracking after welding is included.

Part 2: 2013 Welding with pressure

Ppossible geometric imperfections in welds in metallic materials made by welding with pressure are classified by a uniform designation of type, shape and dimensions. Metallurgical deviations and imperfections caused by non-welding factors are not included. The imperfections are classified in six groups covering cracks, cavities, lack of fusion, imperfect shape and other imperfections. The main welding with pressure processes and their variants are covered. There is an informative annex listing relevant imperfections against the various welding processes.

BS EN ISO 9013: 2017
Thermal cutting. Classification of thermal cuts. Geometrical product specification and quality tolerances

Quality classification and dimensional tolerance requirements for oxyfuel, plasma and laser cut metals between 3 and 300 mm thick are presented. Factors used for the classification of quality are perpendicular tolerance, angularity tolerance, ten point height of irregularities, drag and melting of top edge. Tables give limit deviations for normal tolerances. Symbols and codes for marking required quality and tolerances on technical drawings and documents are shown.

BS EN ISO 10042: 2005 (+ draft 2017)
Welding. Arc welded joints in aluminium and its alloys. Quality levels for imperfections

Supersedes BS EN 30042

Quality levels are specified for imperfections in arc welded joints in aluminium and its alloys. It applies to material thicknesses above 0,5 mm and covers full penetration butt welds and all fillet welds. The principles of the standard may also be applied to partial penetration butt welds. Quality levels for beam welded joints are presented in ISO 13919-2. Three quality levels are given in order to permit application to a wide range of welded constructions and these are designated by symbols B, C and D. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement on the finished weld. The quality levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness for purpose of the product manufactured. The standard applies to: all types of weld, e.g. butt welds, fillet welds and branch connections; the following welding processes and their sub-processes as defined in ISO 4063: metal inert gas welding (MIG welding); gas metal arc welding; tungsten inert gas welding (TIG welding) (gas tungsten arc welding); plasma arc welding; manual, mechanised and automatic welding - in all welding positions.

BS EN ISO 10675
Nondestructive testing of welds. Acceptance levels for radiographic testing

Part 1: 2017 Steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys

Supersedes BS EN 12517-1: 2006

Acceptance levels for indications from imperfections in butt welds of steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys detected by radiographic testing are specified. These acceptance levels may be applied to other types of welds or materials by agreement.

Part 2: 2013 Aluminium and its alloys

Supersedes BS EN 12517-2:2008

Acceptance levels for indications from imperfections in aluminium butt welds detected by radiographic testing are specified. These acceptance levels may be applied to other types of welds or materials by agreement.

BS EN ISO 11666: 2010 (+ draft 2017)
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Acceptance levels

Supersedes BS EN 1712: 1997

Ultrasonic acceptance levels 2 and 3 for full penetration welded joints in ferritic steels, which correspond to ISO 5817 quality levels B and C, are specified. These acceptance levels are applicable to testing carried out in accordance with ISO 17640. The standard applies to the examination of full penetration ferritic steel welds, with thicknesses from 8 mm to 100 mm. The nominal frequency of probes used is between 2 MHz and 5 MHz, unless attenuation or requirements for higher resolution call for other frequencies.

BS EN ISO 12706: 2009
Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing. Vocabulary

Technical terms relating to penetrant testing are defined.

BS EN ISO 12707: 2016
Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. Vocabulary

Supersedes BS EN 1330-7: 2005

General terms specifically used in magnetic particle inspection are classified.

BS EN ISO 12718: 2008
Nondestructive testing. Eddy current testing. Vocabulary

Supersedes BS EN 1330-5: 1998

Terms and definitions for eddy current testing are listed. The listing is trilingual, with both terms and definitions being given in English, French and German.

BS EN ISO 12932: 2013
Welding. Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel alloys. Quality levels for imperfections

Quality levels of imperfections in laser-arc hybrid welded joints for all types of steel, nickel and its alloys are specified. It applies to material thickness >/=0,5 mm. Three quality levels - B, C and D - are given in order to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrication, with level B the highest requirement on the finished weld. Quality levels refer to production quality and not to fitness-for-purpose of the manufactured product.

BS EN ISO 13919
Welding. Electron and laser beam welded joints. Guidance on quality levels for imperfections

Part 1: 1997 (R2006) Steel

The standard should be used as a reference in the drafting of application codes and/or for other application standards. It gives guidance levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welded joints in steel. The three levels are given so as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications, and refer to production quality.

Part 2: 2001 (R2006) Aluminium and its weldable alloys

Used as a reference for drafting application codes and/or other application standards, this standard provides guidance on levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welding of all types of joint, with or without filler wire, in aluminium and its alloys of. The thickness range covered is equal to or above 1mm. A wide range of welded fabrications is covered through the three levels of imperfections.

BS EN ISO 14554
Quality requirements for welding. Resistance welding of metallic materials.

Part 1: 2013 Comprehensive quality requirements

Requirements for the demonstration of the capability of a manufacturer or a sub-contractor to produce welded constructions, fulfilling specified quality requirements, in one or more of the following: a contract between involved parties; an application standard; a regulatory requirement, are specified. The specification is independent of the type of welded construction to be manufactured; defines quality requirements for welding both in production plants and on site; provides guidance for describing the capability of a manufacturer to produce welded constructions to meet specified requirements; and can also be used as a basis for assessing the manufacturer in respect to his welding capability.

Part 2: 2013 Elementary quality requirements

Requirements for the demonstration of the capability of a manufacturer or a sub-contractor to produce welded constructions, fulfilling specified quality requirements, in one or more of the following: a contract between involved parties; an application standard; a regulatory requirement, are specified. The specification is independent of the type of welded construction to be manufactured; defines quality requirements for welding both in production plants and on site; provides guidance for describing the capability of a manufacturer to produce welded constructions to meet specified requirements; and can also be used as a basis for assessing the manufacturer in respect to his welding capability.

BS EN ISO 14731: 2006 (+ 2016 draft)
Welding coordination. Tasks and responsibilities

This International Standard identifies the quality-related responsibilities and tasks included in the coordination of welding-related activities. In any manufacturing organization, welding coordination can be undertaken by one or a number of persons. Welding coordination requirements can be specified by a manufacturer, a contract or an application standard.

BS EN ISO 15626: 2013
Nondestructive testing of welds. Time-of-flight diffraction technique. Acceptance levels

Supersedes BS EN 15617:2009

Acceptance levels for the time-of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD) of full penetration welds in ferritic steels from 6 mm up to 300 mm thickness, corresponding to the quality levels of ISO 5817, are specified. These acceptance levels are applicable to indications classified in accordance with ISO 10863.

BS EN ISO 17663: 2009
Welding. Quality requirements for heat treatment in connection with welding and allied processes

Supersedes PD CR ISO 17663:2001

Requirements for heat treatment in air or controlled atmospheres carried out in workshops and on site in connection with welding and forming are specified. It applies mainly to ferritic steels, but can be used for other materials as appropriate. Guidance is provided for manufacturers that perform heat treatment or produce heat treated products or components. The standard can also be used as a basis for assessing a manufacturer in respect to heat treatment capability.

BS EN ISO 18279: 2003
Brazing. Imperfections in brazed joints

This standard provides a classification of imperfections that can occur in brazed joints. Guidance is given on quality levels and limits on imperfections are suggested. The imperfections are divided into six groups, details being given in a table: cracks, cavities, solid inclusions, bonding imperfections, shape and size imperfections and miscellaneous imperfections. A distinction is also made in classifying external and internal imperfections. Information on evaluation is given in two annexes.

BS EN ISO 19232
Nondestructive testing. Image quality of radiographs

Part 1: 2013 Image quality indicators (wire type). Determination of image quality value

Supersedes BS EN 462-1

A device and a method for the determination of the image quality of radiographs using wire-type image quality indicators is specified.

Part 2: 2013 Image quality classes for ferrous metals

Supersedes BS EN 462-3

A device and a method for the determination of the image quality of radiographs using step/hole-type image quality indicators is specified.

Part 3: 2013 Image quality indicators (step/hole type). Determination of image quality value

Supersedes BS EN 462-2

The minimum image quality values required to ensure a uniform radiographic quality are specified. The standard applies to the two types of image quality indicator as detailed in ISO 19232-1 for wire-type IQI and ISO 19232-2 for step/hole-type IQI and for the two techniques described in ISO 5579. Values are also specified for the two classes of radiographic technique specified in ISO 5579.

Part 4: 2013 Experimental evaluation of image quality values and image quality tables

Supersedes BS EN 462-4

Instructions for the determination of image quality values and image quality tables are given.

Part 5: 2013 Image quality indicators (duplex wire type). Determination of image unsharpness value

Supersedes BS EN 462-5

A method of determining the total image unsharpness of radiographs and real-time radioscopic systems is specified.

BS EN ISO 23277: 2015
Nondestructive testing of welds. Penetrant testing of welds. Acceptance levels

Supersedes BS EN 1289:1998

Acceptance levels for indications from surface breaking imperfections in metallic welds detected by penetrant testing are specified. The acceptance levels can be used during manufacture or for in service inspection. Definitions are given of linear and non-linear indications. Effects of sensitivity, surface condition, process and technique on the shape and size of indication produced by a weld imperfection, and their relation to acceptance level are specified.

BS EN ISO 23278: 2015
Nondestructive testing of welds. Magnetic particle testing of welds. Acceptance levels

Supersedes BS EN 1281:1998

This standard specifies acceptance levels for indications from imperfections in ferromagnetic steel welds detected by magnetic particle testing, and applies to inspection during manufacture or in service. Definitions are given of linear and non-linear indications. Tables are presented of acceptance levels and of recommended testing parameters for the reliable detection of small imperfections. Grouped indications and the removal of imperfections are considered.

BS EN ISO 23279: 2010 (+ 2016 draft)
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Characterisation of indications in welds

Supersedes BS EN 1713:1998

The characterisation of embedded indications by classifying them as planar or non-planar is specified. The procedure is also suitable for indications that break the surface after removal of the weld reinforcement.

BS EN ISO 25239
Friction stir welding. Aluminium

Part 5: 2011 Quality and inspection requirements

A method for determining the capability of a manufacturer to use the friction stir welding (FSW) process for the production of products of the specified quality is specified. It specifies quality requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group. Aluminium includes aluminium alloys; friction spot welding is not covered.

BS ISO 10878: 2013
Nondestructive testing. Infrared thermography. Vocabulary

The standard presents a compilation of terms and definitions with the aim of providing a precise understanding or interpretation of infrared thermography and thermal/infrared non-destructive testing.

BS ISO 24497
Nondestructive testing. Metal magnetic memory

Part 1: 2007 Vocabulary

Terms and definitions for procedures in the sphere of nondestructive testing by the method of metal magnetic memory are specified.

PD 6493: 1991
Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in fusion welded structures
Superseded by BS 7910

PD 6539: 1994
Guide to methods for the assessment of the influence of crack growth on the significance of defects in components operating at high temperatures
Superseded by BS 7910

Testing

Destructive Testing

AWS B4.0: 2016
Standard methods for mechanical testing of welds

and AWS B4.0M:2000 (R2010) Metric units

Requirements for mechanical testing of welds and welded joints are given. The standard covers butt, fillet and stud welds, tested by bend tests, tension tests, fracture toughness tests, soundness tests, shear tests, nick-break tests, hardness tests, stud weld tests and selected weldability tests (controlled thermal severity, cruciform, implant, Lehigh restraint, Varestraint, oblique Y-groove tests). For each testing method, scope, applicable ANSI and ASTM document references, required apparatus, specimen preparation, procedure and report requirements are given.

AWS C3.2M/C3.2: 2008
Standard method for evaluating the strength of brazed joints

A standard test method is described for obtaining reliable shear strength values for brazed joints of different designs. In this revision test specimens to obtain brazed strength data in butt tension, stress rupture, creep strength and four-point bending are added to single lap shear specimens previously given. Aspects covered include: specimen preparation methods, brazing and postbrazing procedures; mechanical testing techniques and recording and presentation of data.

AWS C7.3: 2016
Process specification for electron beam welding

This standard addresses processing and quality control requirements for electron beam welding. The specification covers safety issues (electric shocks, materials, fumes and gases, X-radiation, visible radiation, vacuum, mechanical systems), requirements (equipment, materials, joint design, pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments), fabrication, inspection (nondestructive examination, discontinuity limits, destructive evaluation), equipment calibration and maintenance, approval of work, and delivery of work (identification, protective treatments and packaging).

AWS D8.9M: 2012 (SAE D8.9M)
Test methods for evaluating the resistance spot welding behaviour of automotive sheet steel materials

The document contains several standardised test methods for evaluating the resistance spot welding behaviour of coated and uncoated sheet steels in a laboratory. The following are determined: the effect of the interaction between a sheet steel's coating and the welding electrodes on electrode deterioration and weld size/quality over an extended number of welds; currents; mechanical properties of welds at different weld sizes and hold times; metallurgical and hardness properties of welds.

BS 709: 1983
Methods of destructive testing welded joints and weld metal in steel
Superseded by BS EN 1043-1, BS EN 1043-2, BS EN 1320, BS EN 1321, BS EN 875, BS EN 876, BS EN 895, BS EN 910, BS EN ISO 9018

BS 1723
Brazing
Part 3:1988 Methods for nondestructive and destructive testing
Superseded by BS EN 12797 and BS EN 12799

BS 3451: 1973
Methods of testing fusion welds in aluminium and aluminium alloys
Superseded by BS EN 895, BS EN 910, BS EN 1320 and BS EN 1321

BS 4206: 1967
Methods of testing fusion welds in copper and copper alloys
Superseded by BS EN 895, BS EN 910, BS EN 1320 and BS EN 1321

BS 7448
Fracture mechanics toughness tests
Part 2: 1997 Method for determination of KIc, critical CTOD and critical J values of welds in metallic materials
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15653: 2010

BS EN 875: 1995
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Impact tests. Test specimen location, notch orientation and examination
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9016: 2011; partially supersedes BS 709:1983

BS EN 876: 1995
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Longitudinal tensile test on weld metal in fusion welded joints
Superseded by BS EN ISO 5178: 2011; partially supersedes BS 709:1983

BS EN 895: 1995
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Transverse tensile test
Superseded by BS EN ISO 4136: 2011; partially supersedes BS 709:1983, BS 3451:1973 and BS 4206:1967

BS EN 910: 1996
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Bend tests
Superseded by BS EN ISO 5173: 2010; partially supersedes BS 709:1983, BS 3451:1973 and BS 4206:1967

BS EN 1043
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Hardness testing
Part 1: 1996 Hardness tests on arc welded joints
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9015-1: 2011; partially supersedes BS 709:1983

Part 2: 1997 Microhardness testing on welded joints
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9015-2: 2011; partially supersedes BS 709:1983

BS EN 1320: 1997 (R2006)
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Fracture tests
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9017; partially supersedes BS 709:1983, BS 3451:1973 and BS 4206:1967

BS EN 1321: 1997 (R2006)
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds
Superseded by BS EN ISO 17639: 2013; partially supersedes BS 709:1983, BS 3451:1973 and BS 4206:1967

BS EN 12797: 2000 (+ draft 2017)
Brazing. Destructive tests of brazed joints

With BS EN 12799 supersedes BS 1723-3:1988

This standard describes the principles, and test pieces and specimens, test procedures needed to perform destructive tests on brazed joints. The standard covers the general principles of destructive testing, shear tests, tensile tests, metallographic examination, hardness testing, peel tests, and bend tests. Details are given of the test results and information to be reported. Imperfections in brazed joints are described in Annex A.

BS EN 12814
Testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products

Parts 1-8

BS EN 13445
Unfired pressure vessels

Part 5: 2014 Inspection and testing

The inspection and testing of individual and serially produced pressure vessels made of steels in accordance with Part 2 is specified. Tables are presented of the extent of nondestructive testing (NDT) for various types of welds and of the various NDT methods and associated techniques, characterisation and acceptance criteria. The selection of NDT methods for detection of internal flaws in full penetration joints is presented. Destructive tests are also covered.

BS EN 15085
Railway applications. Welding of railway vehicles and components

Part 5: 2007 Inspection, testing and documentation

Inspections and testing to be executed on the welds; destructive and nondestructive tests to be performed; and necessary product conformity documentation are specified.

BS EN ISO 4136: 2012
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Transverse tensile test

Supersedes BS EN 895: 1995

The sizes of test specimen and the procedure for carrying out transverse tensile tests in order to determine the tensile strength and the location of fracture of a welded butt joint are specified. The standard applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with joints made by any fusion welding process.

BS EN ISO 5173: 2010 + A1: 2011
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Bend tests

Supersedes BS EN 910: 1996

A method for making transverse root, face and side bend tests on test specimens from butt welds, butt welds with cladding (subdivided into welds in clad plates and clad welds) and cladding without butt welds, in order to assess ductility and/or absence of imperfections on or near the surface of the test specimen is specified. Dimensions of the test specimen are given. Also specified is a method for making longitudinal root and face bend tests for use instead of transverse bend tests for heterogeneous assemblies when base materials and/or filler metal have a significant difference in their physical and mechanical properties in relation to bending. The standard applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with welded joints made by any fusion arc welding process.

BS EN ISO 5178: 2011
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Longitudinal tensile test on weld metal in fusion welded joints

Supersedes BS EN 876: 1995

The sizes of test specimens and the test procedure for carrying out longitudinal tensile tests on cylindrical test specimens in order to determine the mechanical properties of weld metal in a fusion welded joint are specified. The standard applies to metallic materials in all forms of product with joints made by any fusion welding process, having joint sizes that are sufficient to obtain cylindrical test specimens with dimensions in accordance with ISO 6892.

BS EN ISO 9015
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Hardness testing

Part 1: 2011 Hardness test on arc welded joints

Supersedes BS EN 1043-1: 1996

Hardness tests on transverse sections of arc welded joints of metallic materials are specified. The standard covers Vickers hardness tests in accordance with ISO 6507-1, normally with test loads of 49,03 N or 98,07 N (HV 5 or HV 10). The principles may also be applied to Brinell hardness testing (with appropriate testing loads of HB 2,5/15,625 or HB 1/2,5) in accordance with ISO 6506-1 and micro hardness testing in accordance with ISO 6507-1 and ISO 9015-2. Does not apply to test welds in austenitic stainless steels.

Part 2: 2016 Microhardness testing of welded joints

Supersedes BS EN 1043-2: 1997

The standard specifies microhardness tests on transverse sections of welded joints of metallic materials with high hardness gradients. It covers Vickers hardness tests in accordance with ISO/DIS 6507-1, normally with test loads of 0,98 N to less than 49 N (HV 0,1 to less than HV 5).

BS EN ISO 9016: 2012
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Impact tests. Test specimen location, notch orientation and examination

Supersedes BS EN 875: 1995

The standard specifies the method to be used when describing test specimen location and notch orientation for the testing and reporting of impact tests on welded butt joints, and is applicable to impact tests on metallic materials in all forms of product made by any fusion welding process. It is used in addition to ISO 148 and includes test specimen denomination and additional reporting requirements.

BS EN ISO 9017: 2013
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Fracture test

Supersedes BS EN 1320: 1997

The sizes of test pieces and procedures are specified for carrying out fracture tests to obtain information on the types, sizes and distribution of internal imperfections such as porosity, cracks, lack of penetration and solid inclusions. The standard applies to metals in all sorts of products welded by any fusion welding process with a thickness greater or equal to 2 mm.

BS EN ISO 9018: 2015
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Tensile test on cruciform and lapped joints

First edition partially superseded BS 709

This standard specifies the testpiece and specimen dimensions and the procedure for tensile testing to determine the tensile strength and fracture location of welded joints with transversely stressed fillet welds in welded cruciform and lap joints in metal plates and other solid sections. Test result evaluation is not covered. Requirements are given for test procedure including experimental conditions, specimen preparation, test method and information to appear in the test report. An example of a test report is given in an annex.

BS EN ISO 10447: 2015
Resistance welding. Peel and chisel testing of resistance spot and projection welds

The procedure and recommended tooling to be used for testing resistance spot and projection welds by means of peel and chisel tests is specified. It applies to welds made in two or more sheets in the thickness range of 0,5 mm to 3,0 mm. The aim of these tests is to determine: weld size and failure type when the tests are used as destructive tests, and verification of welds when the tests are used as non-destructive tests.

The previous edition of this standard included seam welds. The preferred method of peel testing seam welds (mechanised peel testing) is now covered in BS EN ISO 14270.

BS EN ISO 14270: 2016
Specimen dimensions and procedure for mechanised peel testing resistance spot, seam and embossed projection welds

This standard specifies specimen dimensions and a testing procedure for mechanised peel testing of single spot, seam and projection welds in overlapping sheets. It is applicable to any metallic material of thickness 0.5-3 mm, where the welds have a maximum diameter of 7 x sq. root of t (where t is the sheet thickness in mm). For near-maximum size welds, the peel force value can be underestimated using the recommended test specimen dimensions. Test specimen dimensions, test equipment, testing procedures and the information required in a test report are also included.

BS EN ISO 14271: 2011 (+ draft 2016)
Vickers hardness testing of resistance spot, projection and seam welds (low load and microhardness)

This standard describes the procedures for hardness testing of etched cross sections of resistance spot, projection and seam welds in order to determine Vickers hardness in the low load or microhardness range of the weld nugget, HAZ and parent metal. It is applicable to welds made in ferrous and non-ferrous metal sheets with a thickness of at least 0.5 mm. The standard covers recommended forces for testing resistance welds, test pieces, test equipment, testing procedures and positions of the indentations, and the information to be included in the test report.

BS EN ISO 14272: 2016
Specimen dimensions and procedure for cross tension testing resistance spot and embossed projection welds

This standard specifies the specimen dimensions and a testing procedure for the cross tension testing of spot and projection welds in overlapping sheets in any metallic material of thickness 0.5-3 mm where the welds have a maximum diameter of 7 x sq. root of t (where t is the sheet thickness in mm). The object of the test is to determine the tensile force that the test specimen can sustain. This standard covers test specimen dimensions, test equipment, testing procedures and the information required in a test report.

BS EN ISO 14273: 2016
Specimen dimensions and procedure for shear testing resistance spot, seam and embossed projection welds

This standard specifies the specimen dimensions and a testing procedure for shear testing of spot, seam and embossed projection welds in overlapping sheets in any metallic material of thickness 0.5-10 mm where the welds have a maximum diameter of 7 x sq. root of t (where t is the thickness in mm). For near-maximum size welds, the value of shear strength can be underestimated when using the recommended test specimen dimensions. The object of the test is to determine the tensile force that the test specimen can sustain. Test specimen dimensions, test equipment, testing procedures and the information required in a test report are also included.

BS EN ISO 14324: 2003
Resistance spot welding. Destructive tests of welds. Method for the fatigue testing of spot welded joints

This standard specifies test specimens and procedures for fatigue testing spot welds, at ambient conditions, under repeated tensile loading to produce either shear or cross tension loading of the spot weld, in steel sheet of thickness 0.5-6 mm. The standard covers requirements for test specimens (including shape and dimensions, test sheets and specimen fabrication), the testing machine, test methods (including test rig details, specimen clamping, procedure, test termination and fatigue limit data determination), analysis and presentation of test results and test report information.

BS EN ISO 14329: 2003
Resistance welding. Destructive tests of welds. Failure types and geometric measurements for resistance spot, seam and projection welds

This standard specifies definitions of the geometric measurements and fracture types to be used in relation to the destructive testing of resistance spot, seam and projection welds in which different loading configurations cause different stress distributions in the weld. The aim of establishing these definitions is to provide a common basis for their use in other related standards. Requirements are divided into two sections: terms and definitions and symbols, abbreviated terms and units. Illustrative figures are provided.

BS EN ISO 14923: 2003
Thermal spraying. Characterisation and testing of thermally sprayed coatings

Guidance on tests used for the characterisation of thermally sprayed coatings is given. Details regards the different types of coatings are not included. Tests listed are procedures and test criteria in general use - visual examination, surface roughness measurement and impression, crack detection, hardness, thickness, conductivity, metallographic examination, SEM, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, bond strength, hardness, wear, thermal shock and corrosion resistance.

BS EN ISO 15653: 2010 (+ 2016 draft)
Metallic materials. Method of test for the determination of quasistatic fracture toughess of welds

Supersedes BS 7448-2: 1997

Methods for determining fracture toughness in terms of K (stress intensity factor), d (crack tip opening displacement, CTOD) and J (experimental equivalent of the J-integral) are specified for welds in metallic materials. Fatigue precracked specimens are used which have been notched, after welding, in a specific target area in the weld. The methods are described to evaluate the suitability of a weld for notch placement within the target area, which is either within the weld metal or within the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The effectiveness of the fatigue crack in sampling these areas is evaluated where appropriate.

BS EN ISO 17639: 2013
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds

Supersedes BS EN 1321:1997

The methods of specimen preparation, test procedures and their main objectives are specified for the macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds. Defects and microstructural features that can be assessed by the different methods are tabulated.

BS EN ISO 17641
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Hot cracking tests for weldments. Arc welding processes

Part 1: 2004 (R2009) General

This standard summarises the fundamentals of hot cracking in weld metals and parent alloys. It briefly describes the tests available for assessing hot cracking in arc welding processes. Types of test are divided into self-restraint tests (EN ISO 17641-2) and externally loaded tests (EN 1S0 17641-3). These are further subdivided, self restraint tests covering the T-joint weld cracking, weld metal tensile and longitudinal bend tests and the externally loaded tests the hot tensile, Varestraint and Transvarestraint and controlled flat tensile tests. Applications for the tests are summarised in tabular form.

Part 2: 2015 Self-restraint tests

This standard specifies requirements for testpiece design and procedures to be followed to carry out self restraint hot cracking tests on weldments made by arc welding processes to measure the sensitivity of weld metals to three types of hot cracking: T-joint weld cracking test, weld metal tensile test and longitudinal bend test. Details are given of the specific requirements for each test, covering testpiece preparation, welding and examination and test report.

Part 3: 2005 Externally loaded tests

(PD CEN ISO/TR 17641-3)

This standard specifies backing plate sizes, test piece dimensions and procedures for carrying out externally loaded hot cracking tests by implant testing to obtain information on hot cracking sensitivity during welding. It applies primarily, but not exclusively, to carbon, manganese and low alloy steels. It states criteria for assessing the test characteristics and gives detailed requirements for the implant test, including materials, specimen dimensions and preparation, welding and test procedures, test piece examination and test report.

BS EN ISO 17642
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Cold cracking tests for weldments. Arc welding processes

Part 1: 2004 (R2009) General

This standard summarises the fundamentals of cold crack formation and the principles of cold cracking tests that can be used to determine the cold cracking sensitivity of welding consumables, parent materials and weld metal. Types of test are divided into self-restraint tests (EN ISO 17642-2) and externally loaded tests (EN ISO 17642-3). These are set out, with their applications, in tabular form, and further subdivided into self restraint tests covering the CTS, Y-groove (Tekken) and U-groove (Lehigh) tests and externally loaded tests covering the implant test.

Part 2: 2005 Self-restraint tests

This part specifies requirements for testpiece design and procedures to be followed to carry out self restraint tests to assess the cold cracking sensitivity of parent materials and welding consumables by the following tests: CTS (Controlled Thermal Severity) test, Tekken (Y-groove) or Lehigh (U-groove) test. The standard applies primarily to C-Mn and low alloy steels. Details are given of specific requirements for each test, covering testpiece preparation, welding, examination and test report.

Part 3: 2005 Externally loaded tests

This standard specifies backing plate sizes, test piece dimensions and procedures for carrying out externally loaded cold cracking tests by implant testing to obtain information on cold cracking sensitivity during welding. It applies primarily, but not exclusively, to carbon, manganese and low alloy steels. It states criteria for assessing the test characteristics and gives detailed requirements for the implant test, including materials, specimen dimensions and preparation, welding and test procedures, test piece examination and test report.

BS EN ISO 17653: 2012
Resistance welding. Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Torsion test of resistance spot welds

Specimen dimensions, testing equipment and the procedure for torsion testing of resistance spot welds with single sheet thicknesses ranging from 0.5 mm to 6.0 mm in steels are specified. The standard can be used for non-ferrous materials in certain circumstances.

BS EN ISO 17654: 2011
Resistance welding. Destructive tests of welds. Pressure test of resistance seam welds

The pressure test method to be applied to resistance seam welded specimens of different types of materials with single sheet thicknesses ranging from 0,3 mm to 3,2 mm is specified. The test determines the suitability of the material, welding equipment, welding parameters and of other factors on a tank, a vessel or a container for liquids or gases, which are manufactured by resistance seam welding.

BS EN ISO 18278
Resistance welding. Weldability

Part 1: 2015 Assessment of weldability for resistance spot, seam and projection welding of metallic materials

This standard gives recommendations for determining the generic weldability for resistance spot, seam and projection welding of metallic materials. These are applicable to uncoated and coated steels, stainless steels and nonferrous alloys such as aluminium, titanium, magnesium, nickel and their alloys, having a single thickness less than or equal to 5 mm. The procedures can be used for weldability comparison or investigation purposes, equipment response comparison or effects of welding parameters on weldability. Test conditions are specified.

Part 2: 2016 Alternative procedures for the assessment of sheet steels for spot welding

This standard specifies a test procedure to assess the weldability of uncoated and coated sheet steels of thicknesses up to 3 mm by determining the acceptable welding current range and electrode life using a multi-spot test under specific conditions. It applies only to a new type or batch of material. Requirements are given for test equipment, range of qualification, testpiece characteristics, preliminary adjustments, welding current range determination, electrode life estimation, specific conditions for steel sheet, customer qualification and test report.

Part 3: 2016 (Draft British Standard 16/30339325 DC)
Evaluation procedures for weldability in in spot weld bonding

Procedures for evaluating the weldability of resistance spot welded weld bonding by determining the welding current range of electrode life are described.

BS EN ISO 18592: 2009 (R2015)
Resistance welding. Destructive testing of welds. Method for the fatigue testing of multi-spot welded specimens

Test specimens and procedures for performing constant load amplitude fatigue tests on multi-spot-welded and multi-axial specimens in the thickness range from 0,5 mm to 5 mm at room temperature and a relative humidity of max. 80 % are specified. Larger thicknesses can be limited by mechanical properties such as yield strength and formability of the specimen material. The thickness range for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is generally below 3,0 mm. Greater thicknesses apply for aluminium alloys, for example.

BS ISO 7539
Corrosion of metals and alloys. Stress corrosion testing

Part 8: 2000 (R2005) Preparation and use of specimens to evaluate weldments

Procedures available for stress corrosion testing of welded specimens are specified and the additional factors which must be taken into account when conducting tests on welded specimens are examined. Recommendations are given for the choice of specimens and test procedures to determine the resistance of a metal to stress corrosion when it is welded.

BS ISO 22826: 2006
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Hardness testing of narrow joints welded by laser and electron beam (Vickers and Knoop hardness tests)

This standard specifies requirements for hardness testing of transverse sections of narrow laser and electron beam welded joints in metallic materials. It applies to Vickers and Knoop hardness tests done according to ISO 6507-1 and ISO 4545 respectively, with test forces 0.098 N to just under 98 N for Vickers tests and up to 9.8 N for Knoop tests, and outlines general hardness testing procedures and gives requirements for specimen preparation, test procedures, results and test report. Information is given on test force selection and on report format for two types of hardness test.

PD CEN ISO/TR 16060: 2014
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials. Etchants for macroscopic and microscopic examination

Supersedes PD 6604:1997)

A non-exhaustive list of etchants that can be used for the macroscopic and microscopic examination of welds in accordance with ISO 17639 for the following groups of materials: carbon steels and low-alloy steels; stainless steels; nickel and nickel alloys; titanium and titanium alloys; copper and copper alloys; and aluminium and aluminium alloys, is presented.

Nondestructive Testing

AWS B1.10M/B1.10: 2016
Guide for the nondestructive examination of welds

A guide to basic principles of NDT and test selection is presented. The problems and limitations of NDT are described as an introduction. Types of defects, their characteristics, common locations and their relationships with welding processes have a marked influence on the selection of inspection techniques. These include: visual inspection, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic, eddy current and leak testing.

AWS B1.11M/B1.11: 2015
Guide for the visual examination of welds

Guidance is given on visual inspection prerequisites (visual acuity, equipment, experience, training, procedures, certification, safety), fundamentals, weld surface conditions and examination equipment. Illustrations are provided of weld defects commonly encountered: scattered, aligned, elongated and piping porosity; incomplete fusion; incomplete joint penetration; undercut; underfill; overlap; laminations; longitudinal, throat, crater, toe and transverse cracks; slag inclusions; convexity; spatter; and surface oxidation.

AWS C3.5M/C3.5: 2016
Specification for induction brazing

Minimum joint fabrication and quality requirements are specified for induction brazing of steels, stainless steels, copper, copper alloys and other heat and corrosion resistant metals. Equipment, consumables, procedures (for surface preparation, joint gap, application of filler, flux and stop-off, brazing cycle and post brazing operations) and quality assurance (inspection and NDT) are covered.

AWS C3.6M/C3.6: 2016
Specification for furnace brazing

Minimum joint fabrication and quality requirements are specified for furnace brazing of steels, nickel, nickel alloys, copper, copper alloys and heat and corrosion resistant alloys. The specification allows standardisation of furnace brazing requirements for all applications where furnace brazed joints of assured quality are required. It provides criteria for classifying furnace brazed joints based on loading, the consequences of failure, and quality assurance criteria defining the limits of acceptability of each class. The specification defines acceptable furnace brazing equipment, materials and procedures, as well as the required inspection for each class of joint.

AWS C3.8M/C3.8: 2011
Recommended practice for ultrasonic inspection of brazed joints

This recommended practices presents minimum fabrication, equipment, and process procedure requirements for the ultrasonic inspection of brazed joints. Its purpose is to standardise brazed joint ultrasonic inspection requirements for equipment, procedures and documentation of such tests. Sections comprise: scope; applicable documents; requirements (ultrasonic testing and accessory equipment; reference standards; required procedures); acceptance criteria; and definition.

AWS C7.3: 2016
Process specification for electron beam welding

This standard addresses processing and quality control requirements for electron beam welding. The specification covers safety issues (electric shocks, materials, fumes and gases, X-radiation, visible radiation, vacuum, mechanical systems), requirements (equipment, materials, joint design, pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments), fabrication, inspection (nondestructive examination, discontinuity limits, destructive evaluation), equipment calibration and maintenance, approval of work, and delivery of work (identification, protective treatments and packaging).

BS 1723
Brazing
Part 3: 1988 Methods for nondestructive and destructive testing
Superseded by BS EN 12797 and BS EN 12799

BS 3923
Methods for ultrasonic examination of welds
Part 2: 1972 Automatic examination of fusion welded butt joints in ferritic steels
Withdrawn. This standard has been re-declared as obsolescent as it is significantly out of date; it is hoped that a future European Standard will cover this topic. The document will still be available for reference

BS 5289: 1976 (1983)
Code of practice. Visual inspection of fusion welded joints
Superseded by BS EN 970

BS 6443: 1984
Method for penetrant flaw detection
Superseded by BS EN 571-1

BS 9690
Nondestructive testing. Guided wave testing

Part 1: 2011 (R2016) General guidance and principles

The general and specific conditions of application and use of guided wave testing, which depend on the type of object tested, are described.

Part 2: 2011 (R2016) Basic requirements for guided wave testing of pipes, pipelines and structural tubulars

The basic requirements for screening pipes and similar tubular objects using the guided wave testing (GWT) method, including set-up, data collection and basic interpretation of the data are specified.

BS EN 444: 1994
Nondestructive testing. General principles for radiographic examination of metallic materials by X- and gamma-rays
Superseded by BS EN ISO 5579

BS EN 571
Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing
Part 1: 1997 (R2007) General principles
Superseded by BS EN ISO 3452-1; supersedes BS 6443:1984

BS EN 583
Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic examination
Part 1: 1999 (R2008) General principles
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16810
Part 2: 2001 (R2007) Sensitivity and range setting
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16811
Part 3: 1997 (R2007) Transmission technique
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16823
Part 4: 2002 (R2007) Examination for discontinuities perpendicular to the surface
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16826
Part 5: 2001 (R2008) Characterisation and sizing of discontinuities
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16827
Part 6: 2008 Time-of-flight diffraction technique as a method for detection and sizing of discontinuities
Superseded by BS EN ISO 16828; supersedes BS 7706:1993 and DD ENV 583-6:2000

BS EN 970: 1997
Nondestructive examination of fusion welds. Visual examination
Superseded by BS EN ISO 17637; supersedes BS 5289:1976 (1983)

BS EN 1290: 1998
Nondestructive examination of welds. Magnetic particle examination of welds
Superseded by BS EN ISO 17638

BS EN 1593: 1999 (R2008)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Bubble emission techniques

Procedures are described for the detection and location of leaks by the bubble emission techniques. The sensitivity depends on techniques and materials used. Two techniques are described: a) immersion technique (quantitative measurements can be made using this procedure with particular devices); b) liquid application technique. This standard can be used for equipment which can be evacuated or pressurised.

BS EN 1714: 1998
Non destructive testing of welded joints. Ultrasonic testing of welded joints
Superseded by BS EN ISO 17640; supersedes BS 3923-1: 1986

BS EN 1779: 1999 (R2008)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Criteria for method and technique selection

This standard describes criteria for the selection of the most suitable method and technique for the assessment of leak tightness by indication or measurement of a gas leakage. Annex A, normative, allows a comparison of standard test methods.

BS EN 12062: 1998
Nondestructive examination of welds. General rules for metallic materials
Superseded by BS EN ISO 17635

BS EN 12084: 2001
Nondestructive testing. Eddy current testing. General principles and guidelines
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15549

 

BS EN 12799: 2000 + Amd: 2004
Brazing. Nondestructive examination of brazed joints

With BS EN 12797 supersedes BS 1723-3:1988

This standard describes testing procedures and test pieces required for the nondestructive testing of brazed joints. The nondestructive examination methods described are: visual examination, ultrasonic examination, radiographic examination, penetrant detection, leak testing, proof testing and thermography. For each method, details are given of personnel qualifications, equipment, acceptance guidelines and test results and information to be reported. Imperfections in brazed joints are described in Annex A.

BS EN 13018: 2016
Nondestructive testing. Visual testing. General principles

This standard specifies the general principles for visual testing both directly and remotely when it is used to determine the compliance of a product with specified requirements (e.g. surface condition of the part, alignment of mating surfaces, shape of part).

BS EN 13068
Nondestructive testing. Radioscopic testing

Part 3: 2001 (R2008) General principles of radioscopic testing of metallic materials by x- and gamma rays

This standard specifies general rules for industrial X- and gamma-radioscopy for flaw detection in metallic materials, using radioscopic techniques. The aim is to permit repeatable results to be obtained economically.

BS EN 13100
Nondestructive testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products

Part 1: 2000 Visual examination
Part 2: 2004 X-ray radiographic testing
Part 3: 2004 Ultrasonic testing
Part 4: 2012 High-voltage testing

BS EN 13184: 2001 (R2007)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Pressure change method

The techniques for the determination of the leakage rates across the boundary of an isolated object, subjected to a pressure difference, are described. The techniques are based on the evaluation of the change of the mass of gas within the test object.

BS EN 13185: 2001 (R2007)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Tracer gas method

This standard describes the techniques to be applied for the detection of a leak, using a tracer gas and a tracer gas specific leak detector.

BS EN 13192: 2002 (R2007)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Calibration of reference leaks for gases

The standard specifies calibration of leaks used for the adjustment of leak detectors to determine leakage rate in everyday use by comparison with a standard leak in. The procedures are applicable to a helium leak to enable test gas to be selectively measured by a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). This enables leaks to become traceable to a primary standard as required by the ISO 9000 series of standards.

BS EN 13445
Unfired pressure vessels

Part 5: 2014 Inspection and testing

The inspection and testing of individual and serially produced pressure vessels made of steels in accordance with Part 2 is specified. Tables are presented of the extent of nondestructive testing (NDT) for various types of welds and of the various NDT methods and associated techniques, characterisation and acceptance criteria. The selection of NDT methods for detection of internal flaws in full penetration joints is presented. Destructive tests are also covered.

BS EN 13480
Metallic and industrial piping

Part 5: 2012 (+ A1 2013) Inspection and testing

Requirements for inspection and testing of industrial piping of the types listed in Part 1, as performed on individual spools or piping systems and supports, designed in accordance with Part 3 (see FAQ on welding process and procedures standards), are listed.

BS EN 13554: 2011
Nondestructive testing. Acoustic emission. General principles

Requirements for the acoustic emission testing of industrial structures, components and different materials under stress and for harsh environments are given. Guidelines for the preparation of application documents describing specific requirements are included.

BS EN 13925
Nondestructive testing. X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials

Part 1: 2003 (R2008) General principles

This standard specifies the general principles of X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials. This materials testing method has traditionally been referred to as X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), and is now applied to powders, bulk materials, thin film, and others. As the method can be used for various types of materials and to obtain a large variety of information, this standard reviews a large number of types of analysis but remains non-exhaustive.

Part 2: 2003 (R2008) Procedures

This standard specifies the basic procedures applied in the X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) method. Many of these procedures are common to most types of diffractometer used and types of analysis mentioned in EN 13925-1. In the interests of clarity and immediate usability more details are given for procedures using instruments with Bragg-Brentano geometry and application to phase identification. Aspects of specimen preparation and data quality assessment are included, but the standard remains non-exhaustive.

BS EN 14584: 2013
Nondestructive testing. Acoutic emission testing. Examination of metallic pressure equipment during proof testing. Planar location of AE sources

The method for conducting acoustic emission testing (AT) of metallic pressure equipment during acceptance pressure testing using a planar location method is specified. The standard may also be used for subsequent tests for requalification.

BS EN 14784
Nondestructive testing. Industrial computed radiography with storage phosphor imaging plates

Part 2: 2005 General principles for testing of metallic materials using X-rays and gamma rays

Fundamental techniques of computed radiography with the aim of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically are specified. The techniques are based on the fundamental theory of the subject and tests measurements. This document specifies the general rules for industrial computed X and gamma radiography for flaw detection purposes, using storage phosphor imaging plates (IP). It is based on the general principles for radiographic examination of metallic materials on the basis of films (EN 444 and ISO 5579). The basic set-up of radiation source, detector and the corresponding geometry shall be applied in agreement with EN 444 and ISO 5579 and the corresponding product standards as e.g. EN 1435 for welding and EN 12681 for foundry.

BS EN 15085
Railway applications. Welding of railway vehicles and components

Part 5: 2007 Inspection, testing and documentation.

Inspections and testing to be executed on the welds; destructive and nondestructive tests to be performed; and necessary product conformity documentation are specified.

BS EN 15305: 2008 Nondestructive testing. Test method for residual stress analysis by X-ray diffraction

The test method for the determination of macroscopic residual or applied stresses non-destructively by X-ray diffraction analysis in the near-surface region of a polycrystalline specimen or component is described.

BS EN 15495: 2007
Nondestructive testing. Acoustic emission. Examination of metallic pressure equipment during proof testing. Zone location of AE sources

The methods for conducting an acoustic emission (AE) examination of metallic pressure equipment during acceptance pressure testing using a zone location procedure are specified.

BS EN 16714
Nondestructive testing. Thermographic testing

Part 1: 2016 General principles

General principles for nondestructive thermographic testing are specified. The technique is used for the detection and localisation of discontinuities in different materials, e.g. composites, metals and coatings. Acceptance criteria are not part of the standard.

BS EN 61391
Ultrasonics. Pulse-echo scanners

Part 2: 2010 Measurement of maximum depth of penetration and local dynamic range

Terms are defined and methods specified for measuring the maximum depth of penetration and the local dynamic range of real-time ultrasound B-MODE scanners. The types of transducers used with these scanners include: mechanical probes; electronic phased arrays; linear arrays; curved arrays; two-dimensional arrays; and three-dimensional scanning probes based on a combination of the above types. All scanners considered are based on pulse-echo techniques. The test methodology is applicable for transducers operating in the 1 MHz to 15 MHz frequency range operating both in fundamental mode and in harmonic modes that extend to 15 MHz. The testing of harmonic modes above 15 MHz is not included.

BS EN ISO 3059: 2012
Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing. Viewing conditions

This standard describes the control of the viewing conditions for magnetic particle and penetrant testing and includes minimum requirements for illuminance and UV-A irradiance and their measurement. It is intended for use when the human eye is the primary detection aid.

BS EN ISO 3452
Non-destructive testing. Penetrant testing

Part 1: 2013 Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing. General principles

Supersedes BS EN 571-1: 1997

A method of penetration testing for detecting discontinuities open to the surface of material to be tested is defined. Aimed at metallic materials, the standard can be used for other material inert to the test media and not too porous (castings, forgings, welds, ceramics, etc.). Requirements for process and control testing are also included, but the standard is not intended for use for acceptance criteria.

Part 5: 2008 Penetrant testing at temperatures higher than 50°C

Testing requirements particular to applications at higher temperatures (over 50°C) and also the method for qualification of suitable testing products are specified. It applies only to materials qualified for the relevant temperature range used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Part 6: 2008 Penetrant testing at temperatures lower than 10°C

Testing requirements particular to applications at low temperatures (lower than + 10°C) as well as the method for qualification of suitable testing products are specified. It applies only to materials qualified for the relevant temperature range used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

BS EN ISO 5579: 2013
Nondestructive testing. Radiographic testing of metallic materials using film and X- or gamma rays. Basic rules

Supersedes BS EN 444: 1994

General rules for industrial X- and gamma-radiography for flaw detection purposes, using film techniques, applicable to the inspection of metallic products and materials are outlined. Acceptance criteria of the imperfections are not included.

BS EN ISO 8501
Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. Visual assessment of surface cleanliness

Part 3: 2007 Preparation grades of welds, edges and other areas with surface imperfections

Supersedes BS 7079-A3: 2002

The preparation grades of welds, edges and other areas, on steel surfaces with imperfections are described. Such imperfections can become visible before and/or after an abrasive blast-cleaning process. The preparation grades given are to make steel surfaces with imperfections, including welded and fabricated surfaces, suitable for the application of paints and related products.

BS EN ISO 9934
Nondestructive testing. Magnetic particle testing

Part 1: 2015 General principles

General principles for the magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials are specified, including surface preparation, magnetisation techniques, requirements and applications of the detection media and recording and interpretation of the results.

BS EN ISO 10863: 2011
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Use of time-of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD)

Supersedes DD CEN/TS 14751: 2004

 

The application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for the semi-, or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in metallic materials equal to and above 6 mm thickness is specified. The standard is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and parent material are low alloyed carbon steel. Where specified and appropriate, TOFD may also be used on other types of materials that exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter). Reference is made to EN 583-6 and guidance is given on the specific capabilities and limitations of TOFD for the detection, location, sizing and characterisation of discontinuities in fusion welded joints. TOFD may be used as a stand-alone method or in combination with other NDT methods or techniques, both for manufacturing inspection (pre-service) and for in-service inspection. Four examination levels are specified (A, B, C, D) corresponding to an increasing level of inspection reliability. Guidance on the selection of examination levels is provided. Assessment of indications for acceptance purposes is permitted. This assessment is based on the evaluation of transmitted, reflected and diffracted ultrasonic signals within a generated TOFD image. This document does not include acceptance levels for discontinuities.

BS EN ISO 10893
Nondestructive testing of steel tubes

Part 6: 2011 Radiographic testing of the weld seam of welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections

Supersedes BS EN 10246-10: 2000

Requirements are specified for film-based radiographic X-ray testing of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automated fusion arc welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. It may also be used for the testing of circular hollow sections.

Part 7: 2011 Digital radiographic testing of the weld seam of welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections

Requirements are specified for digital radiographic X-ray testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDA) of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automatic fusion arc welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. Acceptance levels and calibration procedures are given. The standard may also be used for the testing of circular hollow sections.

Part 11: 2011 Automated ultrasonic testing of the weld seam of welded steel tubes for the detection of longitudinal and/or transverse imperfections

Supersedes BS EN 10246-8, -9: 2000

Requirements are specified for the automated ultrasonic shear wave (generated by conventional or phased array technique) testing of the weld seam of submerged arc welded (SAW) or electric resistance and induction welded (EW) steel tubes. For SAW tubes, the test covers the detection of imperfections oriented predominantly parallel to or, by agreement, perpendicular to the weld seam or both. For EW tubes, the test covers the detection of imperfections oriented predominantly parallel to the weld seam. The standard can also be used for the testing of circular hollow sections.

BS EN ISO 13588: 2012
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Use of automated phased array technology

The application of phased array technology to semi- or fully automated ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of minimum thickness 6 mm is specified. It is applicable to full penetration welded joints of simple geometry in plates, pipes, and vessels, where both the weld and parent material are low alloyed carbon steel.

BS EN ISO 14923: 2003
Thermal spraying. Characterisation and testing of thermally sprayed coatings

Guidance on tests used for the characterisation of thermally sprayed coatings is given. Details regards the different types of coatings are not included. Tests listed are procedures and test criteria in general use - visual examination, surface roughness measurement and impression, crack detection, hardness, thickness, conductivity, metallographic examination, SEM, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, bond strength, hardness, wear, thermal shock and corrosion resistance.

BS EN ISO 15549: 2010
Nondestructive testing. Eddy current testing. General principles

Supersedes BS EN 12084: 2001

General principles to be applied to non-destructive eddy current examination of products and materials in order to ensure defined and repeatable performance are given. The standard includes guidelines for the preparation of application documents which describe the specific requirements for the application of the eddy current method to a particular type of product.

BS EN ISO 16810: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. General principles

Supersedes BS EN 583-1: 1999

General principles required for the ultrasonic examination of industrial products that allow the transmission of ultrasound are defined.

BS EN ISO 16811: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. Sensitivity and range setting

Supersedes BS EN 583-2: 2001

General rules for setting the time base range and sensitivity of a manually operated ultrasonic flaw detector with A-scan display are specified. The standard is applicable to the use of a single contact probe with either a single or twin transducers, but excludes the immersion technique and the use of more than one probe.

BS EN ISO 16823: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. Transmission technique

Supersedes BS EN 583-3: 1997

The principles of transmission techniques are specified. Transmission techniques are used for the detection of imperfections and the determination of attenuation in flat products, and for examinations where direct reflection is not possible, in materials with high attenuation and for thin products.

BS EN ISO 16826: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. Examination for discontinuities perpendicular to the surface

Supersedes BS EN 583-4: 2002

The principles of tandem- and LLT1-examination for detecting discontinuities perpendicular to the surface (planar discontinuities more than 15 mm from the surface) are given. Prepared for examining metallic materials from 40 mm to 500 mm thick with parallel or concentric surfaces, the standard can be used for other materials and thicknesses if special precautions are taken.

BS EN ISO 16827: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. Characterisation and sizing of discontinuities

Supersedes BS EN 583-5: 2001

The general principles and techniques for the characterisation and sizing of previously detected discontinuities in order to ensure their evaluation against applicable acceptance criteria is specified. Generlally the standard applies to discontinuities in those materials and applications covered by BS EN ISO 16810.

BS EN ISO 16828: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Ulrasonic testing. Time-of-flight diffraction technique as a method for detection and sizing of discontinuities

Supersedes BS EN 583-6: 2008

The general principles for the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for both detection and sizing of discontinuities in low alloyed carbon steel components are defined. It could also be used for other types of materials, provided the application of the TOFD technique is performed with necessary consideration of geometry, acoustical properties of the materials and the sensitivity of the examination. Although, generally, the standard applies to discontinuities in materials and applications covered by BS EN ISO 16810, it contains references to the application on welds.

BS EN ISO 17635: 2010 (+ 2015 draft)
Nondestructive testing of welds. General rules for metallic materials

Supersedes BS EN 12062: 1998

Guidelines for the choice of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for welds and evaluation of the results for quality control purposes, based on quality requirements, material, weld thickness, welding process, and extent of testing are presented. General rules and standards to be applied to the different types of testing, for either the methodology or the acceptance level for metallic materials are also specified.

BS EN ISO 17637: 2011 (+ 2015 draft)
Nondestructive testing of welds. Visual testing of fusion-welded joints

Supersedes BS EN 970:1997

The standard details the visual testing of fusion welds in metallic materials. It may also be applied to visual testing of the joint prior to welding. Test conditions, personnel qualification, and data recording are also specified.

BS EN ISO 17638: 2009 (+ 2015 draft)
Non-destructive testing of welds. Magnetic particle testing

Supersedes BS EN 1290:1998

Techniques for detection of surface imperfections in welds in ferromagnetic materials, including the heat affected zones, by means of magnetic particle testing are specified. The techniques are suitable for most welding processes and joint configurations. Variations in the basic techniques that will provide a higher or lower test sensitivity, are described in Annex A.

BS EN ISO 17640: 2010 (+ 2016 draft)
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Techniques, testing levels, and assessment

Supersedes BS EN 1714:1998

Techniques for the manual ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of thickness greater than or equal to 8 mm which exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter) at object temperatures from 0 °C to 60 °C are specified. It is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded joints where both the welded and parent material are ferritic.

BS EN ISO 17643:2015
Nondestructive testing of welds. Eddy current examination of welds by complex plane analysis

Supersedes BS EN 1711:2000

Techniques for the detection of surface breaking and near surface planar discontinuities, e.g. in weldments, heat affected zones, parent metal, using eddy current testing are defined. The standard covers ferrous and non-ferrous metals, all configurations of weld, coated and uncoated items during fabrication and in service, onshore and offshore.

BS EN ISO 18081: 2016
Nondestructive testing. Acoustic emission testing (AT). Leak detection by means of acoustic emission

General principles for leak detection by acoustic emission testing are specified. The phenomena of acoustic emission (AE) generation is described and the influence of the nature of fluids, gap shape, wave propagation and environment explained. Different application methods, instrumentation and the presentation of AE results are discussed and guidelines given for documentation. Examples of different applications are presented.

BS EN ISO 22825: 2012 (+ 2016 draft)
Nondestructive testing of welds. Ultrasonic testing. Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys

The approach to be followed when developing procedures for the ultrasonic testing of the following welds: welds in austenitic stainless steels; welds in nickel-based alloys; welds in duplex steels; dissimilar metal welds are specified. The purposes of the testing can be very different, e.g.: for the assessment of quality level (manufacturing); for the detection of specific indications induced in service. Acceptance levels are not included; requirements are applicable to both manual and mechanised testing.

BS ISO 24497
Nondestructive testing. Metal magnetic memory

Part 2: 2007 General requirements

General requirements for the application of the method of metal magnetic memory of components, units, equipment, and structures for various application purposes are specified.

Part 3: 2007 Inspection of welded joints

General requirements for the application of the metal magnetic memory inspection method as a nondestructive testing method for quality assurance of welded joints of pressurized components are specified. The method may be applied to welded joints in any type of products, pipelines, vessels, equipment, and metal constructions, as agreed with the purchaser.

DD CEN/TS 14751: 2004
Welding. Use of time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) for examination of welds
Superseded by BS EN ISO 10863:2011

DD CEN/TS 15053: 2005 (R2008)
Nondestructive testing. Recommendations for discontinuities-types in test specimens for examination

Discontinuities-types to be exhibited in test specimens for use in practical Non Destructive Testing examinations are considered and defined. According to EN 473:2000, Clause 7.1.3.3, the discontinuities contained in the test specimens may be natural, artificial or implanted. Acoustic Emission Testing, Infrared Thermography Testing and Leak Testing need not define discontinuity type, due to their specific approach (e.g. replaced in AT by artificial sources). The range of welded test specimens held by the examination centre may include the following characteristics: plate butt welds; pipes and tubes; joints; nozzle welds; and weld build-ups.

PD CEN/TR 15135: 2005
Welding. Design and nondestructive testing of welds

An information document providing guidance on the design and evaluation of various welded joint types and geometrical configurations subject to nondestructive testing (NDT). Test methods covered are: visual, ultrasonic, radiographic, magnetic particle and penetrant testing. Illustrations of the general NDT evaluation of welded joints are given in tabular form, indicating the suitability of the test methods for different types of welded joints. A second table shows the evaluation of more specific examples.

PD CEN/TR 16638: 2014
Nondestructive testing. Penetrant and magnetic particle testing using blue light

Penetrant and magnetic particle testing requirements, materials and viewing conditions when using fluorescent detection media excited by actinic blue light are specified. This ancilliary technique is not a substitute for the existing colour contrast and fluorescent techniques as given in EN ISO 3452 and EN ISO 9934.

Nondestructive Testing Equipment and Media

AWS A4.2M: 2006 (R2014)
Standard procedures for calibrating magnetic instruments to measure the delta ferrite content of austenitic and duplex ferritic-austenitic stainless steel weld metal

ISO 8249:2000 modified

Calibration procedures are specified for a number of commercial instruments that can then provide reproducible measurements of the ferrite content of austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Certain of these instruments can be further calibrated for measurements of the ferrite content of duplex ferritic-austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Calibration with primary standards (nonmagnetic coating thickness standards from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology) is the preferred method for appropriate instruments. Alternatively, these and other instruments can be calibrated with weld-metal-like secondary standards. Reproducibility of measurement after calibration is specified. Problems associated with accurate determination of ferrite content are described.

BS EN 584
Nondestructive testing. Industrial radiographic film
Part 1: 2006 Classification of film systems for industrial radiography
Superseded by BS EN ISO 11699-1: 2011
Part 2: 1997 Control of film processing by means of reference values
Superseded by BS EN ISO 11699-2: 2011

BS EN 1518: 1998 (R2003, 2008)
Nondestructive testing. Leak testing. Characterisation of mass spectrometer leak detectors

Terms and procedures are specified for the characterisation of mass spectrometer leak detectors (MSLD). It is not intended to give a complete set of specifications for an acceptance test but a description of procedures that can be used without particular calibration equipment. The methods described in this standard are applicable without restrictions to helium as the tracer gas. For other gases, additional precautions may be necessary.

BS EN 12223: 2000
Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic examination. Specification for calibration block No.1
Superseded by BS EN ISO 2400: 2012

BS EN 12543
Nondestructive testing. Characteristics of focal spots in industrial X-ray systems for use in nondestructive testing

Part 1: 1999 (R2008) Scanning method

The measurement of focal spot dimensions of industrial X-ray systems up to and including 500 kV tube voltage is specified. A method of direct mechanical scanning of focal spots above 0.1 mm with a highly collimated receiver is described.

Part 2: 2008 Pinhole camera radiographic method

A method for the measurement of focal spot dimensions above 0.2 mm of X-ray systems up to and including 500 kV tube voltage by means of the pinhole camera radiographic method is specified. The voltage applied for this measurement is restricted to 200 kV.

Part 3: 1999 (R2008) Slit camera radiographic method

A method for the measurement of focal spot dimensions above 0.1 mm of X-ray systems up to and including 500 kV tube voltage by means of the slit camera radiographic method is specified. The voltage applied for this measurement is restricted to 200 kV.

Part 4: 1999 (R2008) Edge method

The checking of focal spot dimensions above 0.5 mm of X-ray systems up to and including 500 kV tube voltage by means of radiographs of sharp edges is specified.

Part 5: 1999 (R2008) Measurement of the effective focal spot size of mini and micro focus X-ray tubes

A method for the measurement of focal spot dimensions within the range of 5 - 300 microns of X-ray systems up to and including 225 kV tube voltage by means of radiographs of sharp edges is specified.

BS EN 12544
Nondestructive testing. Measurement and evaluation of the X-ray tube voltage

Part 1: 1999 (R2008) Voltage divider method

A method for the direct and absolute measurement of the average high voltage of constant potential (DC) X-ray systems on the secondary side of the high voltage generator is specified.

Part 2: 2000 (R2008) Constancy check by the thick filter method

A constancy check of an X-ray system where mainly the X-ray voltage is checked and also the tube current and the constitution of the target, which can be changing due to tube ageing, is specified.

Part 3: 1999 (R2008) Spectrometric method

The test method for non-invasive measurement of X-ray tube voltages using the energy spectrum of X-rays is specified (10 kV to 500 kV).

BS EN 12668
Nondestructive testing. Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment

Part 1: 2010 Instruments

Methods and acceptance criteria for assessing the electrical performance of analogue and digital ultrasonic instruments for pulse operation using A-scan display, employed for manual ultrasonic nondestructive examination with single or twin transducer probes operating within the centre frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz are specified. Ultrasonic instruments for continuous waves are not included in this standard. The standard may partly apply to ultrasonic instruments in automatic systems but then other tests may be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

Part 2: 2010 Probes

This standard covers probes used for ultrasonic non-destructive examination in the following categories with centre frequencies in the range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, focusing and without focusing means: a) single or dual transducer contact probes generating compressional or shear waves ; b) immersion probes. Where material dependent ultrasonic values are specified in this standard they are based on steels having an ultrasonic sound velocity of (5 920 ± 50) m/s for longitudinal waves, and (3 255 ± 30) m/s for transverse waves.

Part 3: 2013 Combined equipment

This standard describes methods and acceptance criteria for verifying the performance of ultrasonic equipment (i.e. instrument and probe combined as defined in Parts 1 and 2 of the standard) by the use of appropriate standard calibration blocks. These methods are not intended to prove the suitability of the equipment for particular applications. Those described are suitable for the use by operators working under site or shop floor conditions and only apply to pulse echo equipment using A-scan presentation, with gain controls or attenuators calibrated in steps not greater than 2 dB, used essentially in contact testing. These methods are specifically intended for manual testing equipment. For automated testing different tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

BS EN 12679: 2000 (R2008)
Nondestructive testing. Determination of the size of industrial radiographic sources. Radiographic method

This standard specifies the determination of the size of gamma radiographic sources of 0,5 mm or greater, made from the radionuclides Iridium 192, Ytterbium 169, Selenium 75, or Cobalt 60, by a method of radiography with X-rays.

BS EN 13068
Nondestructive testing. Radioscopic testing

Part 1: 2000 (R2008) Quantitative measurement of imaging properties

The procedures in this standard can be applied to all radioscopic systems that can provide electronic signals to a display unit or automated image interpretation system, and can be analysed for well defined test specimen responses. The specifications of the imaging system regarding image properties can be derived from the results.

Part 2: 2000 (R2008) Check of long term stability of imaging devices

Guidance is given for the on-site checking of equipment for radioscopy where the image is presented on a display unit, including image processing where the radiation source may be X-rays or gamma rays. Rules for testing a radioscopic system are established to assure a constant level of inspection quality, based on input signals from defined image quality indicators.

BS EN 13477
Nondestructive testing. Acoustic emission. Equipment characterisation

Part 1: 2001 (R2007) Equipment description

The main components that constitute an acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system are described. The system comprises detection, signal conditioning, signal measurement, analysis and output of results.

Part 2: 2010 Verification of operating characteristic

Methods for routine verification of the performance of AE equipment comprising one or more sensing channels are specified.

BS EN 13625: 2002 (R2007)
Nondestructive testing. Leak test. Guide to the selection of instrumentation for the measurement of gas leakage

This standard specifies criteria for the selection of equipment for the leak detection methods described in EN 1779. The minimum requirements for the performance of the instruments used are also given as a guideline for personnel involved in testing. The definite selection of an instrument for a given test is within the responsibility of a qualified operator (at minimum level 2 qualification(EN 473)).

BS EN 13860
Nondestructive testing. Eddy current examination. Equipment characteristics and verification
Part 1: 2003 Instrument characteristics and verification
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15548-1: 2008
Part 2: 2003 Probe characteristics and verification
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15548-2: 2008
Part 3: 2003 System characteristics and verification
Superseded by BS EN ISO 15548-3: 2008

BS EN 13925
Nondestructive testing. X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials

Part 3: 2005 (R2009) Instruments

This document sets out the characteristics of instruments used for X-ray powder diffraction as a basis for their control and hence quality assurance of the measurements made by this technique. Performance testing indicators are given for diffractometer performance testing. Different types and makes of X-ray powder diffractometer vary considerably in their design and intended fields of application. This document attempts to cover as much of this range as possible by keeping to common principles. To make the standard more readily applicable, the Bragg-Brentano configuration is addressed in most detail because of its wide use. Additional considerations and adaptations may be necessary to cover some types of instruments or configuration and some fields of application. Some of these types of instrument are described in Annex B.

BS EN 13927: 2003 (R2008)
Nondestructive testing. Visual testing. Equipment

Equipment which is used in visual testing is classified according to the visual testing technique (direct or remote as described in EN 13018). Further outlines are given in an informative annex.

BS EN 14096
Nondestructive testing. Qualification of radiographic film digitisation systems

Part 1: 2003 (R2008) Definitions, quantitative measurement of image quality parameters, standard reference film and qualitative control

Radiographic film systems are used for industrial inspection by X- and gamma rays. To apply modern means of computer support for analysis, transmission and storage the information stored in the radiographic film should be converted into digital data (digitisation). This standard defines minimum requirements to ensure that the relevant information for evaluation of the digital data is preserved during the film digitisation process.

Part 2: 2003 (R2008) Minimum requirements

This standard specifies three film-digitisation quality classes for the requirements of nondestructive testing. The selected class depends on the radiation energy, penetrated material thickness and the quality level of the original radiographic film.

BS EN 14784
Nondestructive testing. Industrial computed radiography with storage phosphor imaging plates

Part 1: 2005 Classification of systems

Fundamental parameters of computed radiography systems are specified with the aim of enabling satisfactory and repeatable results to be obtained economically. The techniques are based both on fundamental theory and test measurements. This document specifies the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems and the measurement of the corresponding parameters for the system scanner and storage phosphor imaging plate (IP). It describes the classification of these systems in combination with specified metal screens for industrial radiography. It is intended to ensure that the quality of images - as far as this is influenced by the scanner-IP system - is in conformity with the requirements of Part 2 of this document. The document relates to the requirements of film radiography defined in EN 584-1 and ISO 11699-1.

BS EN 16392
Nondestructive testing. Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic phased array equipment
Part 2: 2014 Probes
Superseded by BS EN ISO 18563-2: 2017

Linear phased array probes used for ultrasonic non-destructive testing in contact technique (with or without a wedge) or in immersion technique, with centre frequencies in the range 0,5 MHz - 10 MHz, are covered in the standard. Characterisation tests that have to be done at the end of the fabrication of a phased array probe are specified. Both methodology and acceptance criteria are defined.

BS EN 16714
Nondestructive testing. Thermographic testing

Part 2: 2016 Equipment

Properties and requirements of infrared cameras for nondestructive thermography are described. Examples of excitation sources are given.

BS EN 25580: 1992 (R2008)
Specification for minimum requirements for industrial radiographic illuminators for nondestructive testing

This standard specifies the minimum requirements for industrial illuminators used for viewing radiographs.

BS EN 61391
Ultrasonics. Pulse-echo scanners

Part 1: 2006 (+ 2015 draft) Techniques for calibrating spatial measurement systems and measurement of system point-spread function response

Methods of calibrating the spatial measurement facilities and point-spread function of ultrasonic imaging equipment in the ultrasonic frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz are described. The standard is relevant for ultrasonic scanners based on the pulse-echo principle, namely mechanical sector scanners; electronic phased-array sector scanners; electronic linear-array scanners; electronic curved-array sector scanners; water-bath scanners based on any of the above four scanning mechanisms; and 3D-volume reconstruction systems.

Part 2: 2010 Measurement of maximum depth of penetration and local dynamic range

Terms are defined and methods specified for measuring the maximum depth of penetration and the local dynamic range of real-time ultrasound B-MODE scanners.

BS EN ISO 2400: 2012
Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic testing. Specification for calibration block No. 1

Supersedes BS EN 12223:2000

Requirements for the dimensions, materials and manufacture of a steel block for calibrating ultrasonic test equipment used in manual testing are specified.

BS EN ISO 3452
Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing

Part 2: 2013 Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing. Testing of penetrant materials

Technical requirements and test procedures for penetrant materials for their type testing and batch testing are specified for the temperature range 10°C to 50°C.

Part 3: 2013 Nondestructive testing. Penetrant testing. Reference test blocks

Two types of reference blocks are described - Type 1 which are used to determine the sensitivity levels of both fluorescent and colour contrast penetrant product families, and Type 2, which are used for routine assessment of the performance of both fluorescent and colour contrast penetrant testing. The reference blocks are to be used in accordance with BS EN ISO 3452-1.

Part 4: 1999 (R2003, R2008) Equipment

This standard specifies the characteristics of equipment used in penetrant testing. The characteristics of equipment required for carrying out penetrant testing depend on the number of tests to be made and on the size of the components to be tested. Two types of equipment are included in this standard: a) equipment suitable for carrying out in situ penetrant testing techniques; b) fixed installations.

BS EN ISO 7963: 2010
Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic testing. Specification for calibration block number 2

Supersedes BS EN 27963:1992

The dimensions, material, manufacture and methods of use for calibration block No. 2 for calibrating and checking ultrasonic testing equipment are defined.

BS EN ISO 9934
Nondestructive testing. Magnetic particle testing

Part 2: 2015 Detection media

The significant properties of magnetic particle testing products (including magnetic ink, powder, carrier liquid, contrast aid paints) and the methods for checking their properties are specified.

Part 3: 2015 Equipment

Three types of equipment for magnetic particle testing are described - portable or transportable equipment, fixed installations, and specialized testing systems for testing components on a continuous basis, comprising a series of processing stations placed in sequence to form a process line. Equipment for magnetizing, demagnetizing, illumination, metering and monitoring are also described. The properties to be provided by the equipment supplier, minimum requirements for application and the method of measuring certain parameters are specified. Where appropriate, measuring and calibration requirements and in-service checks are also specified.

BS EN ISO 11699
Nondestructive testing. Industrial radiographic film

Supersedes BS EN 584-1:2006

Part 1: 2011 Classification of film systems for industrial radiography

The performance of film systems is established. The standard classifies film systems in combination with specified lead screens for industrial radiography (nondestructive testing) and is intended to assure that the image quality of radiographs as far as this is influenced by the film system is in conformity with the requirements of current European Standards. Films used with fluorescent intensifying screens are not included. The measurement of film systems is restricted to a selected radiation quality to simplify the procedure. The properties of films will change with radiation energy but not the ranking of film system quality.

Part 2: 2013 Control of film processing by means of reference values

A procedure for the control of film processing systems is described.

BS EN ISO 15548
Nondestructive testing. Equipment for eddy current examination

Part 1: 2013 Instrument characteristics and verification

Supersedes BS EN 13860-1:2003

The functional characteristics of a general-purpose eddy current instrument are identified and methods for their measurement and verification are provided.

Part 2: 2013 Probe characteristics and verification

Supersedes BS EN 13860-2:2003

The functional characteristics of a probe and its interconnecting elements are identified and methods for their measurement and verification are provided.

Part 3: 2008 System characteristics and verification

Supersedes BS EN 1386031:2003

The functional characteristics of a general-purpose eddy current system are identified and methods for their measurement and verification are provided.

BS EN ISO 16946: 2015
Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic testing. Specification for step wedge calibration block

Dimensions, materials and manufacture of a steel step wedge block for the calibration of ultrasonic testing equipment are specified.

BS EN ISO 18563
Nondestructive testing. Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic phased array equipment

Part 1: 2015 Instruments

The functional characteristics of a multi-channel ultrasonic phased array (PA) instrument used for PA probes (0.5-10 MHz frequency range) are identified and methods for their measurement and verification are provided.

Part 3: 2015 Combined systems

Ultrasonic testing systems using linear phased array probes (0.5-10 MHz), in contact (with or without wedge) or in immersion, are defined. Acceptance criteria and methods for performance verification of the combined equipment - instrument, probe, cables - are presented. The standard is aimed at verifying the correct system operation before testing.

BS ISO 3058: 1998
Nondestructive testing. Aids to visual inspection. Selection of low power magnifiers

This standard specifies the characteristics of the following types of low-power magnifiers and gives recommendations for their selection for the inspection of surfaces. Single-element magnifiers of magnification typically up to × 4 (Type A); multi-element magnifiers of magnification typically up to × 10 (Type B); twin-system magnifiers of magnification typically up to × 15 (Type C), categorized as follows: a) binocular, normally with a long working distance (Type C.1), b) bi-ocular1), including those refined with stops or other attachments, for quasi-stereoscopic vision (Type C.2); concave-mirror magnifiers with front-surface reflectors in powers typically up to × 6 (Type D).

BS ISO 12715: 2013 (Draft BSI 12/30246414 DC)

Nondestructive testing. Ultrasonic testing. Reference blocks and test procedures for the characterisation of contact probe sound beams

Two metal reference blocks, the hemicylindrical-stepped (HS) block and the side-drilled-hole (SDH) block, are specified. Procedures are established for measuring the sound beam profiles generated by probes in contact with the test object. The probes include straight beam, angle beam (refracted compressional and refracted shear wave), focused beam and dual element probes. The diameter or the side dimension of the probe shall be no greater than 25 mm. The methodology of the standard provides guidelines for probes to be used for different metals including forged or rolled steel, aluminium or titanium alloy products. The frequency range of the probe used extends from 1 MHz to 15 MHz. No acceptance criteria is specified, but the technical basis for criteria that may be defined by users is established.

BS ISO 24497
Nondestructive testing. Metal magnetic memory

Part 2: 2007 General requirements

General requirements for the application of the method of metal magnetic memory of components, units, equipment, and structures for various application purposes are specified.

ISO 16371-1: 2011
Nondestructive testing. Industrial computed radiography with storage phosphor imaging plates. Classification of system

PD 6513: 1985 (R2002, R2008, R2014)
Magnetic particle flaw detection. A guide to the principles and practice of applying magnetic particle flaw detection in accordance with BS 6072

The standard covers the selection of test equipment and consumables for flaw detection, specimen preparation, surface treatment and magnetisation.

PD CEN/TR 15134: 2005
Nondestructive testing. Automated ultrasonic examination. Selection and applications of systems

Stationary and mobile automatic ultrasonic test systems are discussed, as used for pre-service testing (testing during manufacture) and in-service testing (testing after manufacture, including regular safety assurance testing). The information in this Technical Report covers all tests and testing on all component parts or complete manufactured systems for either correctness of geometry, material properties (quality or defects) and fabrication methodology (e.g. welds).

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