TWI Frequently asked questions
Health and Safety
ANSI/FM 4950: 2007
Evaluating welding pads, welding blankets and welding curtains for hot work operations
Performance requirements for welding blankets, welding pads, and welding curtains used as a means of preventing the ignition of combustibles during welding, cutting, and other hot works operations are specified.
AWS D16.1M/D16.1: 2004 (R2016)
Specification for robotic arc welding safety
Guidelines are given for safety requirements with respect to the design, manufacture, maintenance and operation of GMA (MIG/MAG) and FCA welding robot systems and ancillary equipment. Aspects covered include: robot system manufacture; weld fixture requirements; system requirements and user requirements.
AWS F1.1: 2006
Method for sampling airborne particulates generated by welding and allied processes
A method for sampling fumes generated during welding and allied processes is presented. Details of the breathing zone test used to measure the exposure of an individual welder to air contaminants are given. Factors affecting fume concentrations and exposure are outlined. Sampling equipment, conditioning and technique; the calculation for determining total fume concentration; and the calibration of sampling pumps are included.
AWS F1.2: 2013
Laboratory method for measuring fume generation rates and total fume emission in welding and allied processes
A recommended laboratory test method is specified for collecting fume samples and determining composition and quantity of fume generated during welding. Directions are given for: amount of sample to be taken; filter specifications; sample handling and storage; calibration procedure for test equipment; and calculations. Specifications are given for a fume box test chamber, suitable for either automatic, semiautomatic or manual arc welding processes.
AWS F1.3M: 2006
A sampling strategy guide for evaluating contaminants in the welding environment
This guide provides advice on contaminants that may be present in the welding environment, and presents a strategy for collecting valid samples from the welder's breathing zone. Recommendations for fume analysis for various elements found in AWS filler metal specifications are presented in a table. A checklist to use in observing the workplace is provided in Annex B.
AWS F2.3M: 2011
Specification for use and performance of transparent welding curtains and screens
Gives details of reasonable methods for the testing, selection and safe use of transparent welding curtains and screens. The curtains and screens are designed to allow outside viewers a safe view of the operation and operator, at some distance from the welding arc or operation.
AWS F3.2M/F3.2: 2001
Ventilation guide for welding fume
Various types of ventilation systems, including general supply and exhaust, for the control of welding fumes are explained. Health hazard information on fume particles, and the principles of systems design and selection are included. Drawings illustrate ventilation techniques.
AWS F4.1: 2007
Safe practices for the preparation of containers and piping for welding and cutting
Safe practices for cleaning and preparing containers and piping for welding or cutting. Various methods for cleaning (water, steam, hot chemical, mechanical), and techniques to be used for their proper preparation, such as inerting, are described.
AWS Z49.1: 2012
Safety in welding, cutting and allied processes
All aspects of health and safety in the welding environment are covered, with emphasis on oxyfuel and arc welding processes; resistance welding is also included. Information on protection of personnel and the general area, ventilation, fire prevention and protection, confined spaces, precautionary information and a large bibliography is presented.
BS 679: 1989
Specification for filters, cover lenses and backing lenses for use during welding and similar operations
Superseded by BS EN 166; BS EN 167; BS EN 168 and BS EN 169
BS 1542: 1982
Specification for equipment for eye, face, neck protection against non-ionizing radiation arising during welding and similar operations
Superseded by BS EN 175
BS 4676: 2005
Protective clothing. Footwear and gaiters for use in molten metal foundries. Requirements and test methods
Superseded by BS EN ISO 20349: 2010
BS EN 166: 2002
Personal eye protection. Specifications
Supersedes BS 679:1989 and BS EN 166:1996
The standard applies to all types of personal eye protectors against hazards in industrial laboratories, educational establishments and DIY activities. The general considerations of designation, classification, basic requirements and their allocation, marking and user information are covered. It includes scale numbers for filters, and examples for ocular marking.
BS EN 169: 2002
Personal eye protection. Filters for welding and related techniques. Transmittance requirements and recommended use
Supersedes BS 679:1989
Scale numbers and transmittance requirements are specified for filters intended to protect operators doing work involving welding, braze welding, arc gouging and cutting. An annex gives guidance on selection and use of filters.
BS EN 175: 1997
Personal protection. Equipment for eye and face protection during welding and allied processes
Supersedes BS 1542:1982
This standard specifies safety requirements, dimensions and test methods for personal protective equipment used to protect the operators' eyes and faces against optical radiation and other risks or hazards associated with welding and cutting. Equipment prescribed includes face and hand shields, goggles, harnesses and headbands. Requirements for equipment for protection against high-speed particles and molten metals are specified.
BS EN 379: 2003 + A1: 2009
Personal eye protection. Automatic welding filters
Requirements for automatic welding filters which switch their luminous transmittance to a lower predetermined value when a welding arc is ignited (referred to as welding filters with switchable scale numbers) are specified. It also specifies requirements for automatic welding filters which switch their luminous transmittance to a lower value, where the lower value of luminous transmittance is set automatically in dependence on the illuminance generated by the welding arc (referred to as welding filters with automatic scale number setting).
BS EN 1598: 2011
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Transparent welding curtains, strips and screens for arc welding processes
Superseded by BS EN ISO 25980
BS EN 12254: 2010
Screens for laser working places. Safety requirements and testing
The functional requirements and product labelling for temporary and permanent passive guards for protection against laser radiation are specified. The standard includes test methods for functional performance and details user documentation to be supplied with the product.
BS EN 12477: 2001
Protective gloves for welders
Requirements and test methods for protective gloves for the hand and wrist in manual metal welding, cutting and allied processes are given in the specification.
BS EN 50444: 2008
Basic standard for the evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from equipment for arc welding and allied processes
Equipment for arc welding and allied processes designed for use in industrial or domestic environments, including welding power sources, wire feeders and ancillary equipment, e.g. torches, liquid cooling systems and arc striking and stabilising devices, are covered by this standard. Procedures for assessment of electromagnetic fields produced by arc welding equipment are specified and standardised operating conditions and test set-ups are explained.
BS EN 50445: 2008
Product family standard to demonstrate compliance of equipment for resistance welding, arc welding and allied processes with the basic restrictions related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
Equipment for resistance welding, arc welding and allied processes designed for use in industrial or domestic environments, including welding power sources, wire feeders and ancillary equipment, e.g. torches, liquid cooling systems and arc striking and stabilising devices, are covered.
BS EN 60825
Safety of laser products
Part 1: 2014 Equipment classification, requirements and users' guide
Identical to IEC 60825-1
Minimum requirements for laser product safety are presented. Divided into three sections - general and annexes, manufacturing requirements and users' guide - the standard can apply to a single laser with or without a separate power supply or to one or more lasers in a complex optical, electrical or mechanical system. Equipment is exempt from the requirements if it is under the AEL of Class 1 in all operational, maintenance, service and failure conditions, and if it does not contain an embedded laser or embedded light emitting diode (LED).
BS EN ISO 10882
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone
Part 1: 2011 Sampling of airborne particles
A sampling method for welding fume and airborne particles generated by welding-related operations to evaluate personal exposure in the operator's breathing zone is specified. Details of relevant standards are provided. The standard also specifies a procedure for making gravimetric measurements of personal exposure to airborne particles generated by welding and allied processes (welding fume) and other airborne particles generated by welding-related operations. References to suitable methods of chemical analysis, specified in other standards, to determine personal exposure to specific chemical agents present in welding fume and other airborne particles generated by welding-related operations are given.
Part 2: 2000 (R2005) Sampling of gases
Guidance for the determination of personal exposure to gases and vapours which are produced by welding operations is given.
BS EN ISO 11611: 2015
Protective clothing for use in welding and allied processes
Supersedes BS EN 470-1:1995
Minimum basic safety requirements and test methods for protective clothing, including hoods (head), aprons, sleeves and gaiters (feet) for body protection, to be worn during welding and allied processes with comparable risks are specified. The standard does not cover requirements for hand protection
BS EN ISO 15011
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases generated by arc welding
Part 1: 2009 (+ 2015 draft) Determination of emission rate and sampling for analysis of particulate fume
Supersedes BS 7384:1991
A laboratory method for determining the emission rate and sampling for analysis of particulate fume using a fume box technique is described. Techniques for analysing fumes emitted by the consumable during welding are suggested. Experimental requirements (test equipment, test pieces, consumables and process procedures) are detailed.
Part 2: 2009 Determination of emission rates of gases, except ozone
Procedures are specified for the determination of emission rates of gases generated by arc welding, using a fume box technique. Details are given of: test principle; direct and indirect methods for determining gas concentrations; the fume box; sampling and filtration methods; and analysis equipment and methods for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Informative annexes give details of organic gases and analysis methods, examples of possible fume box arrangements and the structure of a test report.
Part 3: 2009 Determination of ozone emiossion rate during arc welding
A method for measuring the emission rate of ozone during arc welding using a hood technique is specified.
Part 4: 2006 + A1: 2009 Fume data sheets
Part 5: 2011 Identification of thermal-degradation products generated when welding or cutting through products composed wholly or partly of organic materials using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Procedures for obtaining information about thermal degradation products generated when welding, cutting through, preheating and straightening products composed wholly or partly of organic substances, e.g. shop primers, paints, adhesives, waxes, sealants, pressing lubricant, oils, etc are specified. The standard is aimed primarily at test laboratories performing such procedures.
Part 6: 2012 (PD CEN ISO/TS 15011-6) Procedure for quantitative determination of fume and gases from resistance spot welding
Guidance on the determination of emission rates of fume and gases generated by spot welding of uncoated and coated steel sheets, expressed as the quantity of pollutants per spot weld is provided. The test principle is described and methods for sampling and analysis are considered.
BS EN ISO 15012
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Equipment for capture and separation of welding fume
Part 1: 2013 Requirements for testing and marking of separation efficiency
Safety requirements concerning the separation of welding fumes are specified and a method for determining the particle separation efficiency of welding fume separation equipment is described.
Part 2: 2008 Determination of the minimum air volume flow rate of captor hoods and nozzles
A method for establishing the minimum air volume flow rate required for captor hoods and nozzles to effectively capture fume and gases from welding and allied processes is specified.
Part 3: 2016 (Draft British Standard 16/30332741 DC)
A methodology for measuring the capture efficiency of on-torch extraction systems is presented; the selection of test parameters is left to the user.
Part 4: 2016 Design requirements
Equipment requirements for the capture and separation of welding fumes to fulfil the safety functions in accordance with EN ISO 15012 are specified. The equipment can be a LEV or enclosure. Capture elements, pipes, filter units and air movers are covered, not the basic safety aspects for the device (electrical, mechanical and pneumatic hazards).
BS EN ISO 15615: 2013
Gas welding equipment. Acetylene manifold systems for welding, cutting and allied processes. Safety requirements in high pressure devices
General specifications, requirements and tests of devices located on the high pressure side of acetylene manifold systems, as defined in EN ISO 14114, are detailed. (High pressure piping, flexible hoses and the regulator are not covered.)
BS EN ISO 17652
Welding. Test for shop primers in relation to welding and allied processes
Part 4: 2003 Emission of fumes and gases
The rating of shop primers regarding their influence on the emission of fume and gases during welding is specified. Details of the emission test are given including preparation of test pieces from mild steel plate (S275 of EN 10025), welding parameters, and measurement of the fume and gas emission. Assessment of results to enable conformity with national health and safety regulations and test report information are specified.
BS EN ISO 20349: 2010 (+ 2014 draft Part 2)
Personal protective equipment. Footwear protecting against thermal risks and molten metal splashes as found in foundries and welding. Requirements and test method
Supersedes BS 4676:2005
Requirements and test methods for footwear protecting users against thermal risks and molten iron or aluminium metal splashes, such as those encountered in foundries, welding and allied process, are specified.
BS EN ISO 25980: 2014
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Transparent welding curtains, strips and screens for arc welding processes
Supersedes BS EN 1598:2011
This standard specifies safety requirements for transparent welding curtains, strips and screens to be used for separating areas where arc welding processes are conducted from their surroundings. They are designed to protect people from hazardous radiant emissions from welding arcs and spatter. Prescribed items are transmittance, reflectance, UV-stability, resistance to ignition, marking, and information for users.
ISO 17846: 2004
Welding and allied processes. Health and safety. Wordless precautionary labels for equipment and consumables used in arc welding and cutting.
The format and symbols for wordless precautionary labels placed by manufacturers on their equipment and consumables used in arc welding, plasma arc cutting, and thermal/flame cutting processes are specified.
NFPA 51B: 2014
Standard for fire prevention during welding, cutting and other hot work
The standard covers fire prevention precautions including personal protective clothing, permissible and nonpermissible areas, hot work permit, and fire watch, and also provides criteria concerning responsibility for safety in hot work operations with regard to management, permit authorizing individuals (PAIs), hot work operators, fire watch, and contractors.
PD ISO/TR 13392: 2014
Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Arc welding fume components
The principal and key components of fume emitted from a number of arc welding processes/consumable type combinations are presented in a table.
PD CEN/TR 15068:2009
Gas welding equipment. Measurement of noise emitted by blowpipe for welding, cutting, heating, brazing and soldering. Measurement method
A test method for measuring the noise emitted by manual blowpipes according to EN ISO 5172 used for welding, cutting and allied processes is specified. The test method is used only for comparative purposes.
PD ISO/TR 18786: 2014
Health and safety in welding. Guidelines for risk assessment of welding fabrication activities
Guidance is provided for the assessment of the health and safety aspects of welding fabrication of metallic materials, including on-site and repair work. It applies to welding and allied processes (joint preparation and grinding) which are covered by the following - arc welding (process no.1), gas welding (process no.3) and cutting and gounging (process no.8, excluding 84 laser welding) - in accordance with ISO 4063. Lists of hazards, harms, and damages with reference to assessment procedures and a guide for possible preventive actions are included.
Welding Blankets - UK/EU
No specific BS EN, BS EN ISO standard. Of use may be
Fire tests on building materials and structures
Part 4: 1970 Non-combustibility test for materials.
A test method for determining whether building materials are non-combustible within the meaning of the definition is specified. Materials used in the construction and finishing of buildings or structures are classified as non-combustible or combustible according to their behaviour in the non-combustibility test.
BS 7944: 1999 (R2011, R2016) Type 1 heavy duty fire blankets and type 2 heavy duty heat protective blankets
Practical performance tests of the effectiveness of protective blankets in the two principal applications, extinction of small fires and resistance to heat transmission and penetration by hot objects or sparks are given. Heavy duty blankets are classified into two types; Type 1 a fire blanket able to smother two types of fire and provide heat protection and type 2 a heat protective blanket that can prevent injury or damage by heat and molten metal splashes. Heat protective blankets conforming to the thermal performance requirements are suitable for industrial use to prevent damage or injury to equipment or persons by resisting penetration of molten metal or sparks, however they may not be effective at extinguishing a fire. Fire blankets conforming to both types of performance test are considered suitable for industrial or fire service use to provide protection from sparks, molten metal or plastics droplets during emergency cutting operations, etc. Welding is not mentioned.
BS EN 13501-1: 2007 +A1: 2009
Fire classification of construction products and building elements - Part 1: Classification using data from reaction to fire tests
The reaction to fire classification procedure for all construction products, including products incorporated within building elements, is provided.
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