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  • FAQ: Standards commonly used in the UK joining industry: Adhesives and Plastics Products (other than Pipes)

Standards commonly used in the UK joining industry: Adhesives and Plastics Products (other than Pipes)

   

Adhesives

BS 5350: Group C
Adhesively bonded joints: mechanical tests

Part C1: 1986 (R2011, R2016) Determination of cleavage strength of adhesive bonds

A method is described for the assessment of the cleavage strength of adhesive bonded butt joints between rigid adherends under specified conditions. Test apparatus, test pieces, test procedure and reporting of results are covered.

Part C3
Withdrawn
See BS EN 26922: 1993

Part C5: 2002 (R2014) Determination of bond strength in longitudinal shear

A method of assessing the strength of an adhesive is described in which the shear strength of lap joints between rigid rectangular adherends is determined. It is applicable to all types of adhesive but should not be used for tests on joints between identical pieces of wood. Test equipment, adherend material type dimensions and preparation, bonding procedure, testing and reporting of results are covered.

See also BS EN 1465: 1995

Part C6: 1990 (R2012) Determination of bond strength in direct tension in sandwich panels

A procedure is described for the determination of the bond strength of a flat composite sandwich panel when subjected to a tensile force. It is intended to give comparative and quality control data, not design data. Test equipment, test pieces, conditioning and testing atmosphere, test procedure and reporting of results are included.

Part C7: 1990 (R2011, R2016) Determination of creep and resistance to sustained application of force

Test methods are described in which force is applied to an adhesive bond to determine displacement under constant force, creep and time to failure. Test apparatus, test procedure and reporting of results are included.

Part C9: 1990 Floating roller peel test
Withdrawn
Replaced by BS EN 1464: 1995
See also BS EN 2243 Part 2: 1991 and ISO 4578: 1990

Part C12: 1994 180 degree peel test for flexible-to-flexible bonded assemblies (T-peel test)
Withdrawn
Superseded by BS EN 14173:2002, which has now been superseded by BS EN ISO 11339

Part C13: 1990 (R2011, R2016) Climbing drum peel test

A test procedure is described for the determination, under specified conditions, of the resistance of adhesive bonded joints to perpendicular peel stresses on the adhesive layer. It is suitable for use on skin to core bonds in sandwich panels and may be used to obtain comparative or quality control data but not design data. Test equipment, test pieces, conditioning and testing atmosphere, test procedure and reporting of results are covered.

Part C14: 1979 (R2011, R2016) 90 degree peel test for a rigid-to-rigid assembly

A test procedure is described for the determination, under specified conditions, of the peel resistance of a bonded assembly of adherends having similar moduli of rigidity. It is limited to testing of materials of sufficient flexibility to bend around a former of radius 75 mm without cracking. Test apparatus, test pieces, test procedure and reporting of results are covered.

Part C15: 1990 (R2011, R2016) Determination of bond strength in compressive shear

A procedure is described for the determination of the bond strength of a double lap joint between rigid adherends under compressive loading. It is applicable under a wide range of atmospheric conditions and yields data suitable for comparative or quality control use but not design data. Test apparatus, test pieces, test procedure, conditioning and testing atmosphere and reporting of results are included.

BS 7991: 2001 (R2012)
Determination of the mode I adhesive fracture energy G IC of structural adhesives using double cantilever beam (DCB) and tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) specimens

The standard provides an LEFM (linear-elastic fracture-mechanics) based test method for determining the fracture resistance of structural adhesive joints under applied mode I tensile loading conditions. Specimens used are double cantilever beam (DCB) and tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB). A website address for obtaining test report spreadsheets free of charge is given in the foreword.

BS EN 923: 2015
Adhesives: Terms and definitions

A European standard giving an alphabetical list of terms used in both the adhesives industry and industries using adhesives. Each term has a definition

BS EN 1464: 2010
Adhesives - Determination of peel resistance of high-strength adhesive bonds - floating roller method

Replaces BS EN 1464:1995 and BS EN 1967:2002

A floating roller test method is specified for the determination of the peel resistance of high strength adhesive bonds between one rigid adherend and one flexible adherend when tested under specified conditions of preparation and testing. The test apparatus, test pieces, testing conditions and procedure, and reporting of results are covered.

BS EN 1465: 2009
Adhesives - Determination of tensile lap shear strength of rigid-to-rigid bonded assemblies

A method is specified of determining the tensile lap shear strength of rigid-to-rigid bonded assemblies when tested on a standard test piece and under specified conditions of preparation and testing.

BS EN 1966: 2009
Structural adhesives. Characterisation of a surface by measuring adhesion by means of the three point bending method

A test method to determine ability of a cured adhesive (possibly with a primer) to adhere to a substrate which has had a certain surface finish or with a specific surface preparation by using the three point bending method is specified.

BS EN 2243
Aerospace series. Structural adhesives. Test methods

Part 1: 2006 Single lap shear

Test methods are established for defining the strength of suitable structural adhesives in metal to metal single lap shear, at ambient and other temperatures.

Part 2: 2005 Peel metal-metal

Test sample dimensions and the test method for determining metal to metal peel test adhesive strength for aluminium alloys at ambient and other temperatures are specified for adhesives with a peel strength of more than 30N per 25mm.

Part 3: 2005 Peeling test - metal honeycomb core

A peeling strength test method for structural adhesives on aluminium alloy to a honeycomb core is specified at ambient and other temperatures.

Part 4: 2005 Metal honeycomb core - flatwise tensile test

Flatwise tensile test methods for the determination of the strength of structural adhesives on metal - honeycomb structures in aluminium alloys at ambient and other temperatures are specified.

Part 5: 2005 Ageing tests

Ageing tests are specified for determining the resistance of adhesive bonded joints against environmental influences.

Part 6: 2005 Determination of shear stress and shear strain

General requirements are defined for the determination of shear stress and shear strain behaviour of structural adhesives by testing in tension metal to metal lap joints, at ambient and other temperatures. The method can be used to investigate the influence of environmental exposure on structural adhesives.

BS EN 2334: 1997
Chromic-sulphuric acid pickle of aluminium and aluminium alloys

A procedure is specified for the acid chromate pickling treatment of aluminium and aluminium alloys except those containing more than 2%Si or 5%Cu. It is for surface pretreatment of parts prior to adhesive bonding or application of primer.

BS EN 14173:2002
Structural adhesives. T-peel test for flexible-to-flexible bonded assemblies
Superseded by BS EN ISO 11339
Supersedes BS 5350 Part C12: 1994

BS EN 14258: 2004
Structural adhesives. Mechanical behaviour of bonded joints subjected to short and long term exposure at specified conditions of temperature

The characterisation of adhesively bonded joints at different temperatures and after exposure under standard conditions of time and temperature is specified.

BS EN 14444: 2005
Structural adhesives. Qualitative assessment of durability of bonded assemblies. Wedge rupture test

Mechanical forces and important environmental influences on an adhesively bonded joint at a metal polymer interface are simulated qualitatively. The specification can also be used as a method to check the surface preparation of substrates, with a limited detection level. Applicable, at present, to the bonding of aluminium and titanium alloys using thermosetting structural adhesives and primers.

BS EN 14680: 2015
Adhesives for non-pressure thermoplastics piping systems. Specifications

Requirements and test methods for adhesives used for joining PVC-U, PVC-C, ABS and PVC + SAN thermoplastic piping for non-pressure use, such as waste disposal, are specified. Piping application is not part of the standard.

BS EN 14869
Structural adhesives. Determination of shear behaviour of structural bonds

Part 1: 2011 Torsion test method using butt bonded hollow cylinders.

Supersedes BS ISO 11003-1: 2001

A shear test for the characterisation of adhesives in a bond is specified.

Part 2: 2011 Thick adherends shear test

Supersedes BS ISO 11003-2: 2001

A test method is specified for determining the shear behaviour of an adhesive in a single lap joint bonded assembly when subjected to a tensile force.

BS EN 15190: 2007
Structural adhesives. Test methods for assessing long term durability of bonded metallic structures

This standard specifies test procedures for determining the long-term durability of an adhesive system subjected to environmental and fatigue loads. The procedures are based upon measurement of the crack growth rate and the resistance to crack propagation through the adhesive layer in double cantilever beam type specimens under an applied mode I opening cycling loading.

BS EN 15274: 2015
General purpose adhesives for structural assembly. Requirements and test methods

Adhesives for the manufacture and assembly of load-bearing, structural elements as used in civil engineering and building construction are detailed. With some exceptions, it embraces all combinations of bonded materials, used to create or repair load-bearing elements. Individual adhesives and special purpose kits comprising various combinations of adhesive types and components, test methods and methods of assessment are included.

BS EN 15275: 2015
Structural adhesives. Characterisation of anaerobic adhesives for co-axial metallic assembly in building and civil engineering structures

Requirements and test methods for the characterisation of anaerobic adhesives intended for the general assembly of co-axial metallic elements in building and civil engineering structures including fasteners- threaded and otherwise, pipes and tubes are specified. Single adhesives and systems (kits) comprising adhesives, activators and/or primers for both internal and external construction elements are included.

BS EN 15336: 2007
Adhesives. Determination of the time to rupture of bonded joints under static load

A procedure for the determination of the time to failure of a bonded joint, using a specimen which is statically loaded under specified conditions, is described. This method can only be used for comparing adhesives, and the results cannot be used for design purposes.

BS EN 15870: 2009
Adhesives. Determination of tensile strength of butt joints

Supersedes BS EN 26922:1993

A method for determining bond strength of a butt joint under tensile force is specified. The method requires rigid adherends and can be applied to all types of adhesives, at both ambient and other temperatures and environmental conditions.

BS EN 26922: 1993
Adhesives. Determination of tensile strength of butt joints
Superseded by BS EN 15870: 2009

BS EN 28510
Adhesives. Peel test for a flexible-bonded-to-rigid test specimen assembly

BS EN 28510-1: 2014 90 degree peel

A 90 degree peel test is specified for the determination, under specific conditions, of the peel resistance of a bonded assembly of two adherends where at least one of them is flexible. Apparatus and procedure are detailed.

BS EN 28510-2: 1993
180 degree peel
Superseded by BS EN ISO 8510-2: 2010

BS EN 29142: 1993
Guide to selection of standard laboratory ageing conditions for testing bonded joints
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9142: 2003

BS EN 29653: 1994
Adhesives. Test method for shear impact strength of adhesive bonds
Superseded by BS EN ISO 9653: 2000

BS EN ISO 8510-2: 2010
Adhesives. Peel test for a flexible-bonded-to-rigid test specimen assembly. 180 degree peel

Supersedes BS EN 28510-2: 1993

A 180 degree peel test is specified for the determination, under specific conditions, of the peel resistance of a bonded assembly of two adherends where one of them is flexible. Apparatus and procedure are detailed.

BS EN ISO 9142: 2004 (R2007)
Adhesives. Guide to selection of standard laboratory ageing conditions for testing bonded joints

Laboratory ageing conditions are described under which adhesive joints may be exposed to environmental influences (climatic or chemical) for the purpose of assessing the effects of the exposure conditions on certain properties. Exposure to accelerated ageing under single- or multiple-variable and cyclic conditions of temperature and/or humidity is described in informative annexes to the Standard including immersion in boiling water, immersion in salt solution, salt spray exposure and exposure to light.

BS EN ISO 9311
Adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems

Part 1: 2006 Determination of film properties

Three test procedures to determine the spreadability and film properties of solvent containing adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems are specified. One method concerns non-thixotropic adhesives and the other two concern thixotropic adhesives.

Part 2: 2011 Determination of shear strength

A method to characterise adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems by measuring the shear strength of a bonded joint using a test specimen prepared as described is described.

Part 3: 2005 Test method for the determination of resistance to internal pressure

A method for the assessment of the internal pressure resistance of assemblies made with adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems is specified.

BS EN ISO 9653: 2000
Adhesives. Test method for shear strength adhesive bonds

A method is specified for the determination of the comparative impact value of adhesive bonds in shear, when tests on standard specimens (wood/wood, metal/metal, plastic/plastics, and combinations), and using specified conditions of preparation, conditioning and testing.

BS EN ISO 9664: 1995
Adhesives. Test methods for fatigue properties of structural adhesives in tensile shear

A method for estimating the fatigue strength of adhesives in shear by tension loading, using standardised specimens under specified conditions, with the aim of characterising structural adhesives on a given metallic substrate is specified. The fatigue properties are a function of the specimen geometry therefore the results do not correspond to intrinsic properties of the adhesive and cannot be used for design purposes.

BS EN ISO 10365: 1995
Adhesives. Designation of main failure patterns

Nomenclature is specified for the main types of failure pattern of bonded assemblies and the appearance of each is illustrated.

BS EN ISO 11339: 2010 (R2015)
Structural adhesives. T-peel test for flexible-to-flexible bonded assemblies

Supersedes BS EN 14173

The standard specifies a T-peel test to measure the peeling force of a T-shaped bonded assembly comprising two flexible adherends to determine the peel strength.

BS EN ISO 11343: 2006
Adhesives. Determination of dynamic resistance to cleavage of high strength adhesive bonds under impact conditions. Wedge impact method

A dynamic impact wedge method for the determination of cleavage resistance under impact loading of high strength adhesive bonds between two metallic adherends, when tested under specified conditions of preparation and testing is specified.

BS EN ISO 13445: 2006
Adhesives. Determination of shear strength of adhesive bonds between rigid substrates by the block-shear method

A method for the determination of the shear strength of adhesives used to bond materials with elastic moduli higher than the elastic modulus of the adhesive is specified.

BS ISO 4587: 2003
Adhesives. Determination of tensile lap-shear of rigid-to-rigid bonded assemblies

Conditions for specimen preparation and testing to determine the tensile lap-shear strength of a bonded assembly are specified.

BS ISO 11003
Adhesives. Determination of shear behaviour of structural adhesives
Part 1: 2001 Torsion test method using butt bonded hollow cylinders
Superseded by BS EN 14869-1: 2011
Part 2: 2001 Tensile test method using thick adherends
Superseded by BS EN 14869-2: 2011

BS ISO 14615: 1998
Adhesives. Durability of structural adhesive joints. Exposure to humidity and temperature under load

The equipment and the test procedure used to evaluate the durability of adhesive bonded joints exposed simultaneously to heat, humidity and load are specified.

BS ISO 15509: 2001 (R2007)
Adhesives. Determination of the bond strength of engineering plastic joints

This standard describes a test method for measuring shear and/or tensile strength of adhesively bonded plastic/plastic specimens of a specific design, allowing a combination of shear and tensile behaviour of the bond to be determined.

BS ISO 16525
Adhesives. Test methods for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives

Part 1: 2014 General test methods

General test methods for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives used in wiring, die attach of semiconductors, and surface assembly of printed circuit boards are specified.

Part 2: 2014 Determination of electrical characteristics for use in electronic assemblies

Test methods for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives used in wiring, die attach, and surface assembly of printed circuit boards of electronic devices are specified. Test methods focus on volume and interfacial contact resistivity.

Part 3: 2014 Determination of heat-transfer properties

Test methods for heat-transfer properties such as effective thermal conductivity and thermal resistance by a steady-state comparative longitudinal heat-flow method (SCHF method) using cartridge-type specimen for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives used in wiring, die attach, and surface assembly are specified.

Part 4: 2014 Determination of shear strength and electrical resistance using rigid-to-rigid bonded assemblies

Test methods using miniature specimens to determine shear strength and electrical resistance of a bonded joint that consists of isotropic electrically conductive adhesives and rigid adherends in specified conditions are described.

Part 5: 2014 Determination of shear fatigue

Test methods using miniature specimens to measure shear fatigue of a glued joint that consists of isotropic electrically conductive adhesives and rigid adherends in specified conditions are described.

Part 6: 2014 Determination of pendulum-type shear impact

Pendulum-type test methods for impact strength of isotropic electrically conductive adhesives used in mounting components products on substrates are specified.

Part 7: 2014 Environmental test methods

Environmental test methods (cold, dry heat, damp heat and change of temperature) for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives used in the surface assembly of printed circuit boards of electronic devices are specified.

Part 8: 2012 Electrochemical-migration test methods

Test methods for confirming the occurrence of electrochemical migration in electrically isotropic conductive adhesives at high-temperature and humidity are specified. Electrical resistance is also determined.

Part 9: 2014 Determination of high-speed signal-transmission characteristics

Test methods to investigate the high-speed signal-transmission characteristics in the bonded portions of an isotropic electrically conductive adhesive, which joins the terminals of a surface mounted device (SMD) and the land grid patterns of a printed circuit board are specified. Also the characteristics of wiring with an isotropic electrically conductive adhesive, which can be applied on the printed circuit board, is investigated.

BS ISO 17194: 2007 (R2015)
Structural adhesives. A standard database of properties

Basic properties for adhesives commonly required for the use of these materials in a wide range of applications is set out. Test methods and test conditions are recommended for the measurement of the data to enable traceability of presented values. For each property, a single (preferred) test method and specific test conditions are identified in order to improve the comparability of data on different materials generated by different data suppliers.

BS ISO 25217: 2009
Adhesives. Determination of the mode 1 adhesive fracture energy of structural adhesives using double cantilever beam and tapered double cantilever beam specimens

A method, based upon linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), for the determination of the fracture resistance of structural adhesive joints under an applied mode I opening load, using double cantilever beam (DCB) and tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) specimens, is specified.

ISO 4578: 1997
Adhesives. Determination of peel resistance of high strength adhesive bonds. Floating roller method

ISO 10354: 1992
Adhesives. Characterisation of durability of structural adhesive bonded assemblies. Wedge rupture strength

ISO 10364: 2015
Structural adhesives. Determination of the pot life (working life) of multi-component adhesives

ISO 14676: 1997
Adhesives. Evaluation of effectiveness of surface treatment techniques for aluminium. Wet-peel test by floating roller method

ISO 14679: 1997
Adhesives. Measurement of adhesive characteristics by a three point bending method

ISO 15107: 1998
Adhesives. Determination of cleavage strength of bonded joints

ISO 15108: 1998
Adhesives. Determination of strength of bonded joints using a bending shear method

ISO 15109: 1998
Adhesives. Determination of time to rupture of bonded joints under static load

ISO 17212: 2012
Structural adhesives. Guidelines for the surface preparation of metals and plastics prior to adhesive bonding

PD CEN/TS 14999: 2013
Adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems. Accelerated ageing test in storage container

An accelerated ageing test of an adhesive in its container is described. The test is aimed at providing the manufacturer with an indication of the storage stability of the adhesive/container combination and its ability to retain adhesive properties. The method is intended for solvent-based adhesives for thermoplastic piping, but may be applied to other adhesive types as appropriate.

Plastic Products (other than Pipes)

For pipes see Standards for Polyethylene Pipe

AWS B2.4: 2012
Specification for welding procedure and performance qualification for thermoplastics

Welding procedure qualification is specified by the following welding processes: electrofusion, hot gas, socket fusion, butt contact fusion, infrared, extrusion and flow fusion. Personnel qualification is specified for welders and welding operators of manual, semiautomatic, mechanised and automatic equipment. Materials covered are sheet or pipe of thermoplastics including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and perfluoro based materials. Test piece production, testing and required performance are detailed.

AWS G1.1M/G1.1: 2006
Guide to ultrasonic assembly of thermoplastics

Guidance is provided to permit the reader to understand and select ultrasonic welding processes for thermoplastics. The welding process is defined, and weldable materials and welding equipment are described. Included are part and joint design, welding process overview and optimisation, testing, and the ultrasonic techniques of staking, swaging, insertion, forming, degating, cutting, trimming, and spot welding.

AWS G1.6: 2006
Specification for qualification of plastics welding inspectors for hot gas, hot gas extrusion and heated tool butt thermoplastics welds

Qualification requirements are given. Visual inspection includes experience and examination demonstrating capabilities. Knowledge of plastics welding processes and procedures, nondestructive testing, destructive testing, terminology, definitions, symbols, reports, safety, quality assurance and responsibilities are tested.

AWS G1.10M: 2016
Guide for evaluation of hot gas, hot gas extrusion and heated tool butt thermoplastic welds

A list and description of defects in welded joints in thermoplastic materials is given, designed to provide a generally valid evaluation giving consideration to graded quality requirements.

BS EN 12814
Testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products

Part 1: 2000 Bend test

The dimensions and method for sampling and preparing test specimens, and the conditions for carrying out bend testing, are specified. The test is applicable to plate and tube butt jointed assemblies of filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics over 3 mm thick using any welding process.

Part 2: 2000 Tensile test

The dimensions and method for sampling and preparing test specimens, and the conditions for performing tensile testing are specified. The test is applicable to co-axial or co-planar welded assemblies of filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics using any welding process.

Part 3: 2014 Tensile creep test

Dimensions, sampling method, test specimen preparation and conditions for performing the test perpendicular to the weld are specified. The test is applicable to welded assemblies (tubes and fittings, sheets, plates, profiles) of filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics using any welding process.

Part 4: 2001 Peel test

This standard specifies dimensions, sampling method, preparation of test specimens and conditions for performing the peel test perpendicular to the weld, to determine peel resistance and failure behaviour of overlap weld assemblies made from thermoplastics materials. The test may be used irrespective of welding process, and in conjunction with other tests to assess the performance of welded assemblies made from thermoplastics materials.

Part 5: 2000 Macroscopic examination

The cutting and preparation of test specimens and conditions for examination are specified. The test is applicable to welded assemblies made of filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics joined by hot gas, extrusion, heated tool or electrofusion welding.

Part 6: 2000 Low temperature tensile test

Dimensions, sampling method, test specimen preparation and conditions for performing the test perpendicular to the weld are specified. The low temperature tensile welding factor and fracture surface appearance are used as a guide to joint ductility and quality of workmanship. Not suitable for tubes under 20 mm nominal diameter, the test can be used for co-axial or co-planar welded assemblies of filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics using any welding process.

Part 7: 2002 Tensile test with waisted test specimens

Dimensions, sampling method, test specimen preparation and conditions for performing the test are specified. Applicable to co-axial or co-planar welded assemblies or filled or unfilled (not reinforced) thermoplastics using any welding process, but not to tubular assemblies of nominal OD less than 90 mm.

Part 8: 2001 Requirements

Requirements for tests carried out on welded thermoplastics semi-finished products are outlined in this standard, with selection of the appropriate test method being made according to the type and application of the welded product. Test conditions should be related to service conditions to ensure their accuracy and applicability.

BS EN 13067: 2012
Plastics welding personnel. Qualification testing of welders. Thermoplastics welded assemblies

The method of testing the knowledge and skill of a welder, who is required to carry out welds on thermoplastics in new constructions and repair work, is specified. The standard is intended to provide the basis for the mutual recognition by examining bodies for qualifications relating to welders' competence.

BS EN 13100
Nondestructive testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products

Part 1: 2000 (+2015 draft) Visual examination

This standard addresses the visual examination of welds in thermoplastic materials. It covers examination conditions and equipment, personnel qualifications, visual examination of joint preparation, visual examination during welding, visual examination of the finished weld, and test reports.

Part 2: 2004 X-ray radiographic testing

This standard gives requirements applicable to X-ray radiographic examination of heated tool, electrofusion, extrusion and hot gas welded joints in single wall pipes and plates with a thickness range of 5-100 mm (only to pipes containing air or other gases at time of testing) in thermoplastics materials. It specifies personnel safety and qualification, radiograph identification, imaging and image quality assessment but not acceptance levels. It recommends techniques for making radiographs and specifies information to be included in the examination report.

Part 3: 2004 Ultrasonic testing

Methods for the manual ultrasonic examination of heated tool, electrofusion, extrusion and hot gas welded joints in thermoplastics materials are specified. The standard applies to single wall pipes and plates with a thickness range of 10-100 mm. After defining the standard's purpose, it gives requirements for information required before examination, personnel and equipment, examination volume, scanning surfaces preparation, range and sensitivity setting, examination technique and examination report but not acceptance levels

Part 4: 2012 High voltage testing

The equipment and methods for high voltage testing of butt or overlap welded joints in thermoplastic sheets for locating through-thickness defects only are specified. The standard applies to new unused constructions only.

BS EN 13705: 2004
Welding of thermoplastics. Machines and equipment for hot gas welding (including extrusion welding)

General performance requirements are specified for machines and equipment for hot gas welding (including hot gas extrusion welding), of thermoplastic semi-finished products.

BS EN 14728: 2005
Imperfections in thermoplastic welds

A classification and description of imperfections likely to be encountered in thermoplastic welded joints is presented. It applies to heated tool, electrofusion, hot gas and extrusion welding processes and to the following materials: PVC-C, PVC-U, PP, PE, PVDF, ECTFE, FEP and PFA. Defects considered cover those giving rise to discontinuities of materials or changes in shape. Requirements are given for symbols and designations, and the classification of imperfections is set out in tabular form with detailed explanation of the designations given in an annex.

BS EN 16296: 2012
Imperfections in thermoplastics welded joints. Quality levels

A simplified selection of imperfections based on designations given in EN 14728 "Imperfections in thermoplastic welds. Classification", for use as a reference when drafting application codes and/or other application standards, is provided. The purpose of the standard is to define quality levels based on typical imperfections that can occur in normal fabrication and which may be used within a quality system for the production of factory welded joints. Three sets of dimensional values from which a selection can be made for a particular application are provided.

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