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Space Expertise at TWI

TWI has been supporting space exploration for decades through the delivery of advanced technologies and the provision of technical advice and consultancy services. We have developed precision welding techniques and coating technologies that meet the extremely exacting demands of the sector, working to minute tolerances.

TWI began working with the space sector in the 1980s, but it was in the 1990s that our work in the sector gained momentum. In 1996, we developed bonding and coating methods to improve the thermal efficiency of the combustion chambers of the NASA Space Shuttle.

Then the following year our laser technology enabled the construction of precise thermal properties sensors that made up part of the scientific array on the Huygens lander that touched down on Saturn’s moon Titan during the joint ESA/NASA/ASI Cassini–Huygens mission.

In 1999 Boeing used friction stir welding – a technology invented at TWI – to seal the liquid oxygen propellant tanks on the Delta II rocket. Its effectiveness meant it was also selected for the Delta IV design, which has completed 30 successful launches to date.

Friction stir welding was subsequently selected to fabricate the external fuel tank of the Space Shuttle (with NASA and Lockheed Martin), after it produced welds with superior properties to the fusion arc techniques used previously. STS-132, which launched in 2010 and featured friction stir welds on two of its hydrogen tank barrels, was the first shuttle mission to benefit from this technology. The later STS-134 had friction stir welds on all four of its liquid hydrogen fuel tanks, as well as its liquid oxygen barrel.

The method is being used for future projects, too: the forward cone assembly and the aft barrel assembly of the Orion crew exploration vehicle are joined together using friction stir welding. A single weld, 11.3 metres in length, ensures the two components are securely fixed. Orion’s first manned mission is expected to launch in the early 2020s.

Adding Value

TWI adds value to the work of our Industrial Members by reducing costs, adding functionality to products and developing solutions to meet the challenges of the space industry.

Our work in other industries, such as aerospace and automotive allows us to migrate technologies and solutions between applications to find novel solutions for the space industry. This includes areas that are closely tied to the global space sector’s new phase of technical and commercial development, including lightweighting, dissimilar materials combinations, novel propulsion systems and net zero emissions.

Our strategy is to add value to our Members' projects by working with them to reduce costs, or add functionality to their products or services, including:

In addition, TWI has a wealth of experience of helping when things go wrong through our expertise in failure investigation.


TWI is also actively involved in committees for a number of standards with implications for the space sector:

  • ECSS-Q-ST-70-15C – Space product assurance – NDE of space vehicles
  • ECSS-Q-ST-70-39C – Space product assurance – Welding of metallic materials for flight hardware
  • AWS D17.1 – Specification for fusion welding for aerospace applications
  • AWS D17.3 – Specification for friction stir welding of aluminium alloys for aerospace applications


TWI is holding a webinar dedicated to the space industry on 10 November 2021.

Click here to find out more


TWI Joins European Space Agency Project

TWI joined a project funded by and for the European Space Agency to develop compact lightweight micro-channel heat exchangers (MCHX) for reusable launch systems.

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TWI Welding Technology used for Historic SpaceX Launch

The astronauts who completed the mission were transported using a crew capsule that was fabricated using TWI’s Friction Stir Welding technology.

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Cassini Space Probe to Titan

Thermal properties sensors were manufactured by TWI for the European Space Agency and installed on board the Huygens module on the Cassini space probe.

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You can find out more about our work in this sector on our space projects page.

For more information please email: