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Joint Industry Projects List

A joint industry project (JIP) is a work programme of mutual interest to a number of organisations each contributing to fund the work. They were previously known as group-sponsored projects (GSPs). Typically, each project has between three and ten sponsors.

About JIP

What are the benefits ?

  • Sponsors receive substantially more results for their money than could be obtained by single-company sponsorship
  • You can guide the direction of a significant part of a substantial industry-focused research programme
  • You may use the information gained to further your own business interests
  • You share and develop state-of-the-art knowledge with like-minded companies
  • Access to TWI's independent, expert view of the issues and world-class research capability

Is the work confidential ?

Yes. Results are confidential to sponsors. You may choose to keep them confidential but, if agreed among the sponsor group, we arrange for wider publication.

How is a JIP launched ?

TWI experts are in regular contact with industry and have a unique insight into shared industry problems. Based on this knowledge, project outlines are issued to organisations with an interest in the subject. We generally hold a launch meeting to obtain views from Industrial Members. Attending or requesting notes of the meeting does not commit you to participation in the project, and is free. Following the launch meeting, we issue a full proposal, and invite organisations keen to participate to formally confirm their participation. 
Don't worry if the project has started - all that is required is payment of the participation fees. Further new projects will be formed throughout the year - ask to be kept informed.
You can also buy into completed projects and receive all reports and results. Instant access to years of work!
For more information, please contact us.

Browse recent projects


Stress relaxation cracking (SRC) is a potentially catastrophic failure mode of concern across a number of industries, and can occur in stainless steels and nickel alloys, during high temperature service, particularly in thick section welds.

SRC is thought to be mitigated by a high temperature post-weld heat treatment (≥ 900°C), However, recent TWI experience has identified occasions where PWHTs have exacerbated problems rather than prevented them. Furthermore, current test methods for SRC do not reliably replicate in-service conditions and are unreliable, making it difficult to assess SRC risk.

In the proposed project, an approach will be developed, and verified, for reliable prediction of SRC. The approach will provide a solid basis for the identification of risk and where mitigation measures, such as PWHT, are suitable.

The assessment of SRC risk is complex and requires a multi-disciplinary approach. In this project, high temperature material test data will be used in advanced FE models to predict the failure times for in-service scenarios. Validation of the predictions will be achieved through large-scale testing. In this way a thorough, pragmatic, engineering approach for determining the risk of SRC in service will be developed. The approach builds on a large body of work, concerning the assessment of structures in high temperature service, previously undertaken at TWI and a number of other organisations.

Date Announced: Thu, 02 March 2006

Date Completed: Mon, 02 March 2009

Develop electrochemical test method and acceptance criteria - Correlating laboratory testing with in-service performance - Studying corrosion resistance alloys assist material selection

Date Announced: Wed, 07 December 2016

Date Completed: Mon, 02 March 2009

The aim of this project is to investigate the route to compliance of selected AM components and materials and produce required data in terms of microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and inspection.

Date Announced: Wed, 31 March 2010

Date Completed: Mon, 31 March 2014

Identify the most promising low heat input welding technologies for nickel superalloys. - Identify the benefits of localised, forced cooling, combined with low heat input welding technologies. - To determine the productivity benefits of advanced arc and laser welding techniques. - To assess the integrity of the welds made using advanced arc and laser welding procedures. - To establish practical guidelines to facilitate the industrial application of advanced arc and laser welding techniques

Date Announced: Wed, 31 March 2010

Date Completed: Fri, 31 July 2015

Phased Array Ultrasound Testing (PAUT) is now a well-established inspection technique and has shown many advantages for a number of industry sectors including aerospace. Due to easy availability of increased computing power it is now possible to apply new ultrasonic processing techniques based on the Full Matrix Capture (FMC) acquisition method, such as Total Focusing Method (TFM) and Multi-Mode Total Focusing Method (MTFM). The proposed project aims to assess the FMC based techniques developed by University of Bristol and provide objective technical information on the potential industrial use of the processing techniques and an assessment of its likely benefit to industry in the future.

Date Announced: Fri, 27 April 2018

Date Completed: Fri, 31 July 2015

Launch to be held 2 May 2018

Date Announced: Mon, 22 September 2008

Date Completed: Tue, 31 May 2011

Fixed and floating bobbin welding techniques are novel enhancements to the FSW process. Potential exists to produce improved full penetration welding performance using significantly simplified, and therefore cheaper, equipment. The proposed JIP will develop and assess the welding techniques and demonstrate their advantages by application to a range of aluminium alloys and section thicknesses. The planned work will include process industrialisation, tool design, tool materials, joint quality, fixturing, component tolerance, process repeatability and the production of prototype components.

Date Announced: Fri, 09 March 2012

Date Completed: Fri, 12 June 2015

 The proposed new version of BS7910 (Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures) to be published in 2012, will allow more detailed consideration of yield behaviour, residual stress distribution, weld strength overmatching, and crack tip constraint conditions than the current (2005) procedure. 

start date 1/7/14

end date 30/6/15


Date Announced: Tue, 18 October 2016

Date Completed: Tue, 14 August 2018

Eddy current (EC) inspection is one of a number of NDT methods employing electromagnetism in conductive materials for tasks such as the detection of surface and near surface flaws and determining material properties. EC offers many advantages over other surface inspection methods such as magnetic particle or liquid penetrant inspection but is traditionally considered very dependent upon the skill of the operator and does not offer a permanent record of the inspection conducted.

The capability now exists through Eddy Current Array (ECA) technology to electronically drive multiple eddy current coils placed side by side in the same probe assembly. This project proposes to establish the essential variables that should be controlled when conducting an inspection and determine the performance of ECA systems relative to that of existing, recognised surface inspection methods: Dye Penetrant Testing (PT), conventional Eddy Current Inspection (EC) and Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) as appropriate. Based upon the results of this study, a Best Practice Guide will be produced for the application of EC

Date Announced: Tue, 01 September 2015

Date Completed: Tue, 14 August 2018

Project start: May 2016

Additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a direct digital manufacturing process in which a component is produced layer by layer directly from 3D digital data without the use of machining, moulding or casting. AM has developed rapidly in the last ten years and has demonstrated significant potential for reducing the cost of aerospace components and unique opportunities in the medical sector. Benefits can be realised through improved design freedom, weight reduction and lower tooling costs, complemented by reductions in carbon footprint and waste during manufacture.


This project, to be operated jointly by TWI and Lloyd’s Register Energy will bring together research and development efforts alongside real-world additive manufacturing practices to create new industry product certification guidelines - paving the way for more widespread adoption of the additive manufacturing technology and assisting industry in how best to tap in to its potential.

This JIP will:

  • Identify potential applications of AM in the Energy and Offshore sectors.
  • Undertake practical work to determine optimum build parameters and producecomponents.
  • Determine required inspection activities to certify component.
  • Generate AM Certification Guidelines, based on certification of the selected components.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) are the processes that will be applied in the JIP, leading to qualification of components defined by the sponsors. Further details can be found in the attached Project Outline.

Date Announced: Tue, 14 May 2013

Date Completed: Tue, 14 August 2018

Five Shell operated Indefatigable (Inde) Platforms previously located 75km offshore in the Southern North Sea and installed between 1970 and 1986 have recently been decommissioned. The availability of several decommissioned North Sea structures for detailed study under controlled conditions provides a unique opportunity to advance the industry’s understanding of the behaviour of structures following extended environmental exposure.

Project Commenced 13/6/14

End Date 30/6/16

Date Announced: Wed, 11 March 2009

Date Completed: Fri, 28 May 2010

With the high price of corrosion and wear resistant alloys in bulk form, there are major financial incentives to use coated, lower cost substrates. However, despite much research effort and many application development studies, corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) coatings, e.g. Ni alloy 625, prepared by thermal spraying still provide greatly inferior corrosion resistance when compared to parent material of the same composition. Even the most advanced thermal spray processes, such as high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying, produce coatings with interconnecting pathways (due to the presence of micro-scale porosity and oxides); hence substrate attack by corrosive media is usually inevitable. However, the recent development of cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of virtually pore-free and oxide-free metallic coatings. The process involves the acceleration of fine powders to 500-1000m.s-1 in a supersonic inert gas jet. On impact with the target surface, the solid particles experience very rapid deformation, forming a bond with the substrate and each other to produce a very dense and strong coating. To date, published articles have related to demonstration of the concept, equipment development and process modelling using ductile metals e.g. Cu. Published data on corrosion and wear resistance are very limited, and data pertaining to cold spray deposit cohesive strength are limited to a few basic metals e.g. Cu and Ni. Data are needed for more useful engineering materials, e.g. corrosion resistant metals and alloys and metal-bonded carbide, so that cold spray can be validated for applications such as corrosion resistant vessels, hard-facing, spray-forming and additive manufacturing. There is, also, little understanding of the relationship between cold spray particle flight characteristics and coating properties, and no published process economic data. It is the aim of this project, therefore, to address these technology gaps.

Date Announced: Tue, 26 July 2011

Date Completed: Tue, 30 June 2015

The use of composites as structural components is increasing due to good strength to weight ratios, electrical insulation properties, resistance to corrosion, increased fatigue lifetimes and ease of use. There are many types and forms of composites that have evolved over the years including glass, carbon and Kevlar® reinforced materials. However their limited surface properties prevent their use in applications where thermal management is required such as aeroengines. TWI has developed an advanced coating technology (CompoSurf™), employing thermal spraying processes, which offers increased functionality of composite materials.


This project evaluated the CompoSurf™ technology for selected potential industrial applications. Work at TWI has shown that by careful control of the selection of spraying process, surface preparation, coating consumables and substrate materials, well-adhered coatings can be produced. A new approach has enabled the deposition of metallic coatings to thicknesses in excess of one millimetre and the development of coatings for thermal management. To expand the range of potential applications and bring the technology to higher technology readiness levels (TRLs), work has been undertaken to improve the understanding of materials selection, spraying process and parameter selection to produce coatings for more extreme environments. This work is of benefit to OEMs, Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers.

Date Announced: Tue, 13 June 2006

Date Completed: Wed, 31 December 2008

Calculation of Structural Hot Spot stresses. - New, robust method for stress calculation. - New fatigue design curves. - Introduction of methods to Standards bodies.

Date Announced: Mon, 17 September 2007

Date Completed: Sat, 31 December 2011

Increased confidence in fatigue design and qualification requirements of steel catenary risers for sweet service with data to support optimised material selection. Reduced likelihood of failure of steel catenary risers in sweet service. Extension of knowledge of sweet corrosion fatigue to more realistic conditions to improve confidence in prediction of performance for systems where scaling will occur.

Date Announced: Mon, 12 January 2009

Date Completed: Thu, 13 August 2015

Strain measurement during full-scale pipe straining; - Environmentally-Assisted Cracking behaviour of strained welded supermartensitic and superduplex pipe; - Understanding/predicting full-scale testing behaviour.

Date Announced: Mon, 12 January 2009

Date Completed: Thu, 13 August 2015

Austenitic stainless steel bolts and fasteners are used in many safety critical applications in several industries, including oil and gas and wind power. However, austenitic stainless steel bolts are susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking (Cl-SCC), and are very difficult to inspect through non-destructive techniques. When failures occur, they are often catastrophic and have significant financial, environmental and reputational implications.

There is therefore a need to define the safe operational limits for austenitic stainless steel bolts and fasteners in chloride-containing environments. Unfortunately, such information is currently only available for wrought materials, which is not necessarily applicable to threaded fasteners.

This research project aims to address this need by undertaking testing to define the safe service limits of various grades of austenitic stainless steel threaded components in chloride-containing environments. Testing will be conducted according to NACE TM0177-96 and the safe service limits will be defined for:

n  A range of austenitic stainless steel made to various Standards (such as ASTM A193, A320, F593 or ISO 3506 A4-70);

n  A range of temperatures;

n  Rolled and machined threads.


It is envisaged that the information gained from this project will contribute to the development of Standards for the safe use of these materials in threaded fasteners.


Date Announced: Tue, 19 February 2008

Date Completed: Thu, 30 September 2010

Started July 2005. Cost per sponsor £50,000. Completion date June 2008. Project Leader: Briony Holmes. - Accurate sour service limits for 316L stainless steel defined - Summary of existing knowledge of SCC limits - Welded homogenous compared with welded metallurgically clad material - Ballot for changes to ISO 15156-3

Date Announced: Thu, 23 February 2012

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

There is a resurgence of interest in welding thick section steels within the renewable energy, nuclear and fossil fuelled power industries. Although Electron Beam (EB) and narrow gap (NG) arc welding processes provide a cost effective and high integrity joining solution, the presence of residual magnetism in the materials can impede the effective application of these processes. This project will investigate how such fields arise and what practical steps can be taken to eliminate their effect during fabrication of heavy section low alloy steels. Experience with these materials is that they are easily magnetised and difficult to fully demagnetise. This is problematic in EB welding as the process is less tolerant to residual magnetism than conventional arc welding processes, and as section thicknesses increase the possibility of the occurrence of lack of fusion flaws, due to deflection of the beam resulting in a missed joint, is increased. In addition it has been noted that some arc welding processes, particularly in thick steel with NG joint details, are also sensitive to residual magnetism. As a consequence, there is a need to measure and mitigate residual magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. The project will examine the origins of residual magnetic fields in large structures, and will develop techniques for demagnetising of large components using numerical and experimental methods. The work will provide a framework for a European standard on assessment of residual magnetism and guidelines for demagnetisation for welding requirements.

Date Announced: Mon, 06 December 2010

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

Started in December 2010. Cost per Sponsor £40,00 per year, duration 2 years. Project Leader: Mike Gittos Objectives: - Validate the acceptance criterion for avoidance of hydrogen embrittlement of subsea dissimilar joints, established in Project 17434. - Establish the performance of subsea components under combined tensile and bending loading conditions, including in the presence of lack of fusion flaws that might be missed by non-destructive methods. - Determine the influence of pressure and temperature on hydrogen ingress, ensuring that qualified joints are robust through life. The project will be completed within two financial years with a total budget of £640,000 required to address the full scope of work presented. Thus, eight sponsors will be required, each contributing £40k per year (ie £80k total contribution per company). It is anticipated that testing will commence as soon as test welds are available and the testing programme should be completed 18 months after receipt of the materials. Note: The results of testing from Projects 14403 and 17434 may be purchased separately by companies that did not fund the original programme.

Date Announced: Wed, 31 October 2018

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

Metallic cellular materials and lattices offer unique combinations of thermal, mechanical and acoustic properties that are often unachievable with fully dense materials (Cabras and Brun, 2016). These material systems have been used in a range of industrial applications such as energy absorbers, lightweight structural components, heat exchangers, vibration control mechanisms and medical implants. Although there are many standard fabrication methods for cellular metals, Additive Manufacturing (AM) – and in particular, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) – is capable of producing complex shapes, topologies, and unit cells that could not otherwise be produced.

A launch meeting will be held on 6 December 2018

Date Announced: Thu, 19 April 2007

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

Started April 2007. Cost per Sponsor £40,000 Phase 1 plus £40,000 Phase 2. Duration Phase 1 - 6 months and Phase 2 - 12 months.<br/><br/><li> Performance limits for subsea dissimilar joints under CP.<br/><li>Nickel alloy welds to steel components.<br/><li>Threshold stress and stress intensity.<br/><li>R-curves.<br/>

Date Announced: Wed, 30 November 2016

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

Leaking or Non-leaking piping system defects such as corrosion, dents, gouges, pits, and cracks can cause piping to rupture. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT), there are three primary methods of repair for non-leaking defects on steel pipe:

  • Cut out damaged segment and replace with new pipe.
  • Install a full-encirclement steel split sleeve over the damaged area.
  • Install a composite sleeve over the damaged area (composite wrap system)

Date Announced: Wed, 30 November 2016

Date Completed: Thu, 17 April 2014

High strength cupronickel alloys are commonly used in the oil and gas industry where a combination of high strength, anti-galling properties and, resistance to corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement are required. Applications include many high value parts of critical subsea infrastructure including locking probes and other complex fastening systems. Despite their excellent properties, and significant alloy development, high strength cupronickel alloys are not impervious to environmentally-induced cracking with several unexplained and high-cost failures reported by various operators over recent years.

The circumstances and mechanism(s) of failure vary, in each case, but stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have been reported as the active cracking mechanisms. The root cause of these failures has not been fully established, because of unique circumstances of failure in each case, which include a variety of environments, complex loading conditions and cathodic protection schemes, and the difficulties associated with replicating the observed failure mechanisms in controlled laboratory environments.

The logic of this research project is to carry out a detailed assessment programme, studying the effects of relevant environments on high strength cupronickel alloys, in order to identify the critical parameters causing cracking in service. The goal is (i) to prevent future failures by refining the material specification, in an analogous manner to that that which has been achieved in API 6CRA, for other alloys, and (ii) to establish quantitative critical design parameters, such as maximum design loading and environmental limits, applicable for the safe operation of high strength cupronickel components in subsea service.

Date Announced: Wed, 19 August 2009

Date Completed: Wed, 02 January 2013

The high temperature, chlorine-induced corrosion encountered with biomass and municipal solid waste combustion will be addresed by the development of thermal spray coatings with improved properties in aggressive power generation environments. - Benefits to operators will include increased combustion temperatures, recoverable energy efficiency and plant maintenance intervals; and reduced life cycle costs, pollutants, unscheduled breakdowns and lost days per annum. The use of advanced coatings will eliminate the need for expensive superalloy substrates that cost up to 100 times the price of steel. - The technology is applicable to waste-to-energy, biomass, co-firing, petrochemical and other process plants. - Coating performance will be ranked using TWI's high temperature test facility and field trials will be undertaken to generate real life performance data.

Date Announced: Tue, 04 July 2017

Date Completed: Wed, 02 January 2013

Subsea oil and gas (O&G) production relies on the application of subsea sensors to provide health metric information from the subsea (Christmas) tree assembly to the topside monitoring and control station. This data is critical to controlling the well infrastructure and to the asset management of the field. Such sensors are typically mounted on a Christmas tree fixed to the wellhead of a completed well. They are used to monitor and support the control of production of a subsea well. For example, pressure and temperature of flow is monitored for effective reservoir management. Changes in pressure and temperature can have a significant impact on recovery, production rate and safety. The safety and reliability of these sensors is therefore high on the manufacturer’s agenda.

Typically these types of sensors are assembled using electron and laser beam welding. Surface inspection techniques and helium leak and pressure testing are typically used during and post manufacture. However, according to API-6A there is a requirement to perform volumetric inspection using either radiography or ultrasonic testing for Wellhead and Christmas Tree equipment. Currently the requirements of the standards the industry asks the providers of subsea sensors to adhere to, are unsuitable for being applied to a significant percentage of the typically small homogenous welds that are featured in subsea instruments. The industry is then left with the choice of:

n  Having larger instruments which will increase cost through all stages of the system lifecycle (manufacturing, transportation, deployment and decommissioning)

n  Accept non-conformances

Date Announced: Thu, 24 March 2016

Date Completed: Wed, 02 January 2013

Friction stir welding (FSW) is now a well-established technique for joining similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys where properties of a structure can be tailored for enhanced performance. The majority of current industrial applications involve joining components in the thickness range of 2-8mm. Companies are gaining many benefits from using this technique; however the technical and commercial benefits of joining thicker section aluminium alloys are less well established.

Sponsors will benefit from an early assessment of new and novel FSW techniques for joining thick section aluminium alloys. These techniques have the potential to:

  • Increase production rates.

  • Lower tooling costs.

  • Improve weld properties.

  • Reduce distortion.


The results of this project will provide data to assist sponsors in the calculation of return on investment on bespoke FSW equipment to weld thick section aluminium alloys.               

Date Announced: Mon, 26 February 2007

Date Completed: Fri, 22 January 2010

Welding development with Ytterbium Doped Fibre Laser and Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Processes - Pipeline Steel and Alloy Steels - A thick Section from 6-25mm - Application of Welding Procedures to demonstration Parts

Date Announced: Mon, 10 April 2006

Date Completed: Fri, 16 September 2011

Effect of H2S concentration on fatigue of steel risers. - Fatigue of steel risers at low cyclic stresses. - Tests representative of actual riser response

Date Announced: Mon, 06 December 2010

Date Completed: Fri, 28 February 2014

The objectives of the project are: - Perform resonance fatigue tests of full scale specimens of lined pipe and plot the results on an S-N curve - Ascertain which fatigue class is most appropriate to describe the fatigue strength of lined pipe - Identify a non-destructive test for detecting cracks present in the CRA-liner during resonance fatigue testing

Date Announced: Tue, 13 July 2010

Date Completed: Wed, 31 May 2017

Develop validated riser fatigue design guidance based on direct qualification of a sour service design curve. - Characterise the sour corrosion fatigue behaviour of risers, by testing full scale girth welds in a sour environment. - Greater confidence in likely material behaviour in service resulting from a more direct means of quantifying material performance. - Improved understanding of fatigue in sour environments leading to enhanced safety by reducing the risk of corrosion fatigue related failure.

Date Announced: Mon, 28 May 2012

Date Completed: Mon, 25 June 2018

 Project Leader - Yanhui Zhang. - Provide full-scale S-N curve data for mooring chains/shackles in seawater. - Perform material characterisation of mooring chain links to obtain stress/strain data, fatigue crack growth rate data, fracture properties, etc. - Utilise FE modelling techniques for the prediction of residual stresses and fatigue endurance especially in the interlink contact zone.

Date Announced: Wed, 22 August 2007

Date Completed: Wed, 11 September 2013

 Development of a robust procedure for assessing flaw tolerance of pipeline girth welds at post yield strains. - Quantification of the main factors that affect flaw tolerance. - Validation of assessment procedures through full-scale pipe testing with and without internal pressure. - Production of a strain-based assessment annex for submission to BS7910 (with agreement of Sponsor Group).

Date Announced: Tue, 20 May 2008

Date Completed: Mon, 30 September 2013

 Use of KISCC - Development of small-scale testing method. - Understanding/predicting full-scale testing behaviour. - Use UT flaw sizing.

Date Announced: Thu, 22 March 2012

Date Completed: Mon, 30 September 2013

Project Commenced: November 2013 Project Completion date: November 2015 Project Leader: Mohamad Cheaitani This project will develop and validate an industry best practice procedure for fracture toughness testing of parent material and welds under sour service or CP. It will further develop and validate a robust method for fracture assessment of planar flaws in steel components in the presence of hydrogen due to sour service or exposure to CP.

Date Announced: Thu, 08 June 2006

Date Completed: Fri, 20 February 2009

Fee £40,000. Completion date: February 2009. - Weld through coatings, adhesives, sealants and multiple layers. - Robotic application and process economics. - Comparison with competing processes.

Date Announced: Mon, 23 April 2007

Date Completed: Sun, 31 January 2010

 A novel method has been developed for solid phase welding of titanium alloys - Potential exists for high quality, high efficiency, joining with low distortion - The proposed GSP will assess the capabilities and limits of this new method - The planned work will include the welding of demonstration structures/components

Date Announced: Mon, 14 November 2011

Date Completed: Fri, 30 November 2012

The objectives of Phase One of this GSP will be to provide Sponsors with a comprehensive review of the state of the art of FSW of steel and ferrous alloys. It will identify the current status of the technology and assist Sponsors considering the adoption of FSW to understand the developments required to achieve commercial implementation. Specific objectives will be to provide a comprehensive report that will: • Identify potential FSW tool materials, their performance, alloys welded and weld properties. • Identify potential industrial applications and developments necessary to achieve commercial implementation. • Compare FSW of ferrous alloys with conventional joining techniques in terms of process time, joint quality and performance, process monitoring, energy consumption, consumables and equipment costs. • Provide a roadmap for the most promising industrial applications, identifying the technical milestones and work packages required for production Project Leader: Stephen Cater

Date Announced: Tue, 24 May 2016

Date Completed: Fri, 30 November 2012

Date Announced: Tue, 03 January 2012

Date Completed: Mon, 30 September 2013

Following the completion of Group Sponsored Project 18887 “Assessment of Bobbin Friction Stir Welding for the Joining of Aluminium Alloys” additional work in this area is proposed to develop the technique further especially joining thin section aluminium alloys and also robotic floating-bobbin FSW on linear and curvilinear components.

Date Announced: Mon, 16 October 2017

Date Completed: Mon, 30 September 2013

Steel catenary risers (SCRs) are commonly used within deep-water oil and gas developments, and fatigue performance is often a critical factor in overall design. Resonance fatigue testing of full scale girth welds has become standard industry practice to demonstrate adequate performance. However, these tests alone take no account of aggressive service environments such as sour production fluids. In these instances qualification testing is traditionally a two‑stage process involving resonance fatigue testing to demonstrate the required performance in air, and strip fatigue testing (in air and in a sour environment) to determine a fatigue life reduction factor that is then applied to the base design curve. This is primarily for experimental convenience as sour environmental control is achieved by immersing a sample in an aqueous environment contained within a test vessel. Previous TWI work has illustrated that small and full scale tests on riser girth welds in air give different results and has established the relationship between the two test types. There is a need to repeat this for sour environments, to provide validated design guidance to industry.

A previous Joint Industry Project conducted at TWI investigated the above by conducting fatigue tests in a sour environment using full scale girth welded pipe specimens (TWI JIP 20324). The project aimed to eliminate the uncertainty associated with deriving fatigue life reduction factors from small scale specimens.

Date Announced: Mon, 17 September 2007

Date Completed: Mon, 30 May 2011

Enhanced safety by reducing the risk of underestimating the fatigue damage due to load spectra relative to risers. - Significant cost saving by using the appropriate design procedure developed from this project. - Vital information urgently needed for the development and validation of the ISO and API fatigue design rules.

Date Announced: Tue, 06 June 2006

Date Completed: Thu, 18 June 2009


Date Announced: Tue, 06 June 2006

Date Completed: Thu, 18 June 2009


The Tesoro Refinery industrial accident in 2010 resulted from damage due to high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA).

The risk of related failures was assessed using API RP 941 Nelson curves.

The U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB) concluded that the carbon steel Nelson curve methodology is inaccurate, cannot be depended on to prevent equipment failures due to HTHA, and cannot be reliably used to predict the occurrence of damage due to HTHA .

The CSB has identified at least eight incidents of HTHA occurrence below the carbon Nelson curve; i.e. which did not indicate high risk of HTHA. The 2016 edition of API RP 941 reports 13 new failures below  the carbon steel Nelson curve.

CSB recommendation: For existing equipment operating at risk, all carbon steel equipment in hydrogen service should be identified. Those operating above 400 °F and greater than 50 psia should be replaced with inherently safer materials (see above).

The most effective safeguard is better design against HTHA; including the application of high chromium steels with greater resistance to HTHA.

An alternative approach to replacing all equipment with higher performance materials would be to improve detectability of defects at an early stage and focus replacement where the risk is greatest.

The effectiveness of Risk Based Inspection (RBI) is limited by current technology and the effectiveness of operator skill.

Advances in inspection system capability combined with effective training of operators coupled with effective RBI could mitigate the risk for existing carbon-steel plant

Date Announced: Wed, 04 April 2012

Date Completed: Tue, 30 September 2014

There is an increasing range of opportunities for electronics and sensor companies in the area of high operating temperature systems. A significant obstacle to the development of these systems is the difficulty in finding information on components, materials, interconnects and packaging technologies capable of surviving high operating temperatures (eg 200-600°C) for long periods (eg 10,000hrs).

Date Announced: Tue, 08 May 2012

Date Completed: Thu, 30 June 2016

 Project Leader: Capucine Carpentier The oil and gas industry produces in the region of 1 billion barrels of petroleum per day with a current approximate price of $75 per barrel equating to around $75 billion production per day. When a failure occurs it can result not only in the shut-down of production of a plant at a cost of around $300,000 per day but also damage to the environment with disastrous consequences and no means to calculate costs.

Project Started: 9/4/14

Project End Date: 30/6/16

Date Announced: Thu, 30 July 2009

Date Completed: Thu, 13 December 2012

The very severe corrosion associated with splash and tidal zones and the limited capability of coating systems is an obstacle to a 40-year design life for many offshore structures. - Current technology gaps & current working practice and experience related to the mitigation of splash and tidal zone corrosion will be assessed. - Coating systems offering the best long-term corrosion mitigation for splash and tidal zones will be determined through laboratory and on-site testing and monitoring. - A specification for a coating (or coatings) with a 40-year design life for the splash and tidal zones will be produced.

Date Announced: Mon, 17 September 2007

Date Completed: Thu, 30 June 2011

Review of current linepipe manufacturing methods with their effect on installation welding and NDE. - Higher productivity girth welding procedures. - Recommendations on alternative CRA and intermediate weld filler materials. - Development of procedure for ECA of girth welds in clad pipelines. - Mechanical property data, example ECA calculations and full-scale test data. - Evaluation of state-of-the-art inspection systems, offering increased defect detection and sizing capabilities, and reducing the time required for NDT follow-up of questionable indications.

Date Announced: Fri, 18 September 2009

Date Completed: Thu, 18 December 2014

Failures of subsea duplex and superduplex stainless steel due to hydrogen induced stress cracking (HISC) led TWI to quantify the resistance of such materials to HISC. These data were incorporated into DNV Recommended Practice RP-F112 Design of duplex stainless steel subsea equipment exposed to cathodic protection but concerns with regard to the future integrity of duplex/superduplex subsea structures remain.

Date Announced: Tue, 10 January 2017

Date Completed: Thu, 18 December 2014

IntACom is a development programme with the aim of reducing the time taken for inspection of complex geometry composite components. The project was originally dedicated to aerospace structures, but IntACom 2 extends this to other applications. It has achieved this by addressing three areas:  (1) Automation of current manual inspection; (2) Enhancement of existing semi-automated systems through the use of multiple transducers and ultrasonic phased array technology (PAUT); (3) Software enhancement through the use of techniques such as assisted defect recognition and scan display management.

The programme has made great strides forward in its early phases and exceeded many of the original objectives. A system has been developed that incorporates two robotic arms, an advanced pulser receiver system and bespoke software. Phase 1 was completed in late 2014 and phase 1A in 2016. A further phase, IntACom 2, is now underway and will address the inspection of larger components through the addition of axes to the inspection system such as tracks and turntables, and the addition of metrology systems to cope with positioning and part shape variability. It will also develop enhanced radiographic CT and laminography systems, and large area scanning systems for use on site and in service.

Date Announced: Thu, 02 September 2010

Date Completed: Fri, 14 November 2014

Validate the use of x-ray tomography/gamma source digital detection inspection methods for inspection of bonded hoses, in the presence and absence of service fluids in the hose bore. - Explore the use of Radiographic Modelling to allow development and optimisation of inspection regimes. - Provide a critical assessment on potential impacts of minimum detectable flaw size on the integrity of bonded hoses. - Enable greater confidence for asset management. - Recommend viable, proven in-situ inspection procedures and tool specifications.

Date Announced: Fri, 03 November 2017

Date Completed: Fri, 14 November 2014

Fixed and floating offshore structures have been widely adopted for offshore installations in the oil and gas industry. Fixed offshore structures are also increasingly being proposed for wind turbine structures. Cathodic protection (CP) in the form of anodes is usually specified for the submerged parts to reduce the rate of material loss over the design life. Industrial experience and applied research have shown that thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA) behaves in the manner of a distributed anode and can similarly mitigate corrosion of submerged structure, whilst its use can significantly reduce the cost of implementing corrosion protection.

In addition to corrosion, such structures also see twenty or more years’ of cyclic loading imposed by winds, waves and tidal action. Current design codes provide fatigue guidance for the principal joint geometries in structural grade steels, including the effect of free corrosion and CP in seawater. Although the effect of TSA coating on material loss due to corrosion has been widely studied, there are no useful data for its corrosion fatigue performance on welded joints. The current project will address this by conducting fatigue endurance tests and fatigue crack growth rate in seawater on appropriate joints details with TSA coating.

Date Announced: Fri, 11 March 2011

Date Completed: Tue, 31 March 2015

 Objectives: - Develop an industry standard for fracture toughness testing of SENT specimens in particular for weld metal and HAZ. - Perform SENT testing and carry out work to fill in missing aps in existing practices. - Critically review existing literature, experience and practices associated with SENT testing. The full project will be completed in two years with a total of five Sponsors each contributing £40,000 per annum.

Date Announced: Tue, 15 November 2016

Date Completed: Tue, 31 March 2015

Life extension is an on-going requirement in industry in order to reliably and safely continue operation of assets beyond their original design intent. There exist a number of weld toe improvement techniques capable of extending the fatigue life of welded joints by means of either the removal of crack initiation sites or the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses. One such technique uses high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) to provide both of these benefits.

Date Announced: Wed, 07 December 2016

Date Completed: Tue, 31 March 2015

The aim of this joint industry project is to examine methods for joining AM

produced parts and to examine the influence of the AM materials and

processing on the integrity and performance of the joints.

Date Announced: Thu, 20 August 2009

Date Completed: Fri, 31 October 2014

 Developing test methods to evaluate materials performance and integrity in contact with supercritical CO2. - Enabling confident material selection, safe operation and accurate remaining life assessment. 3- Focusing on technical issues surrounding high pressure reservoirs that produce high proportions of CO2. - provides enabling technology and knowledge for a Carbon Capture & Storage strategy as well as enhanced oil and gas recovery.

Date Announced: Thu, 07 February 2013

Date Completed: Wed, 16 August 2017

Thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA) coatings are increasingly used to mitigate the corrosion on subsea pipelines and structures. Other than the results of work published in the early 1990s relating to the effect of various levels of cathodic protection (CP) at ambient North Atlantic seawater temperatures, there are limited published data covering the interaction of TSA and CP when applied to hot and thermally-cycled risers and hydrocarbon transportation pipelines. To address the issues highlighted above, this project will use quantitative methods to measure coating current demand under selected CP values and to measure potential and corrosion rate at Ecorr during long-term testing at elevated temperature. The scope of work will include evaluation of two TSA-based coating compositions, the use of sealant and the effect of thermal cycling. The implication of project results for cathodic protection design codes and standards were reported.

Date Announced: Thu, 15 April 2010

Date Completed: Wed, 31 July 2013

Demonstrate the feasibility of applying FSW corner welding to a range of commercially available aluminium alloys and section thicknesses chosen by the sponsors. - Optimise tool designs and assess performance - Determine the process requirements in terms of fixturing, FSW machine tool requirements, component dimensional tolerances and setup alignment - Evaluate joint properties of similar and dissimilar welds using corner welding techniques compared with FSW and conventional fusion techniques - Assess weld stability and process reproducibility - Apply the developed technology to prototype components.

Date Announced: Thu, 02 September 2010

Date Completed: Mon, 20 October 2014

Quantify the capabilities of new generation arc welding process variants for weld overlaying. Identify the effect of varying dilution on corrosion and corrosion fatigue performance for a range of representative environments including severe sour service. This involves: - Quantifying the effect of process variables on dilution in weld overlay produced using commonly used weld overlaying process/techniques and advanced welding techniques with regard to productivity. - Investigation into the local variations in dilution on corrosion resistance for a range of corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) including 316L and 904L stainless steel, alloy 625, alloy 825, and Monel alloys. - Quantify the correlation between the dilution and corrosion and corrosion fatigue resistance in a range of mild and aggressive environments, including severe sour service. - Investigate the suitability of some of the current NDT methods to ensure the integrity and uniformity of the weld overlay

Date Announced: Fri, 20 April 2012

Date Completed: Tue, 04 September 2018

Project Leader: Peter Mudge Project started: 16 May 2013 End date: 16 May 2018 This project will monitor selected in-service tanks using a non-invasive technique to obtain long-term data on floor condition, which will be compared with results from internal examinations to demonstrate the performance reliability of this technique. The ultimate goal is to assist the liquid storage and distribution industry in reducing the costs involved in ensuring that leaks do not occur from aboveground storage tanks.

Date Announced: Wed, 01 February 2017

Date Completed: Tue, 04 September 2018

This project aims to develop NDT procedures to overcome the difficulties of complex geometries and anisotropic and noisy grain structure associated with AM components. The developed procedures will then be validated through the use of statistical methods, eg probability of detection (PoD) and probability of sizing (PoS), and alignment of these with relevant codes and standards such as ISO17296-3:2014 and ASTM.

Date Announced: Wed, 18 March 2009

Date Completed: Fri, 31 October 2014

Life predicted from fatigue assessment can be too short when residual stress is assumed to be conservatively high and constant. - Improved methods accounting for the evolution of residual stress with proof loading, fatigue load and crack growth will provide more accurate assessments. - This project will combine experimental and modelling activities in order to define an effective stress range to be applied in assessment procedures. - Guidance notes will be prepared on the use of finite element analysis for prediction of fatigue damage in a residual stress field, and on the influence of materials properties and loading history on fatigue assessment results. This will allow life extension of engineering structures, increased safety, and improved designs, which save energy and materials.

Date Announced: Tue, 06 June 2006

Date Completed: Sun, 15 June 2008

Ni levels in weld metal (1% to 3.5%). - Summary of existing/historical data and standards basis for 1%Ni. - Experimental data generation in sour and mild sour service. - To support client specification and application along with potential changes to standards (ISO15156-2).

Date Announced: Mon, 06 November 2006

Date Completed: Sun, 31 August 2008

 Statistical analysis of defect sizing capability for manually applied phased array. - Comparison of four manufacturers' instruments. - Comparison of six operators. - Probability of detection for manually applied phased array equipment.

Date Announced: Tue, 03 June 2008

Date Completed: Mon, 31 December 2012

Determine safe engineering limits - Effects of materials, pre-strain and environment - Understand strains on reeling - Development of small-scale test for weld procedure qualifications

Date Announced: Thu, 12 July 2012

Date Completed: Mon, 31 December 2012

TWI has recently commenced work on this project, the primary objective of which is to determine the degree of corrosion of a carbon steel surface protected by an extruded polymer or built composite liner from a sour fluid mixture containing water and simulated hydrocarbon. Polymer liner material will be chosen from the polyethylene, polyamide and polyvinylidene fluoride family in the first instance. The incorporation of higher temperature polymeric and composite liners to the test matrix will be facilitated as the Sponsorship group grows.

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Project commenced 2014

Due to be completed 2017

Date Announced: Mon, 10 April 2006

Date Completed: Wed, 31 August 2011

Fatigue performance of clad risers in sour environments. - Determination of endurance knock-down factor under simulated service conditions.

Date Announced: Wed, 31 October 2018

Date Completed: Wed, 31 August 2011

As oil & gas exploration goes further offshore, there is an increasing use of floating production platforms that are moored to the sea bed. There is also a growing use of floating structures in the renewable energy sector, where wind turbines in deep water can no longer be fixed on the sea-bed. Mooring chain integrity is highly critical and there is a need to implement Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques for the early prediction of damage, which can lead to catastrophic failure.

This project will develop Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) procedures to meet this need. The AET procedure will be qualified on chain tensile and fatigue tests conducted on TWI’s world-class mechanical test rig facility, both in and out of sea-water. Furthermore, the AET procedures can then be used as a tool in mechanical tests to gather information that is not currently available, about crack initiation and growth in chain links. Tensile tests done on chains at TWI have indicated that AET is more sensitive to crack initiation than other Non-Destructive Test (NDT) methods. The results of the AET procedure qualification will be used as a basis for a Requirements Specification for bespoke equipment for monitoring chains in situ.


Date Announced: Tue, 06 June 2006

Date Completed: Sun, 31 May 2009

Started January 2008. Cost per sponsor £25,000, duration six months. Project Leader: C Selcuk. - Modified ASTM A707 Grades 1 and 3 / C-Mn SCR material joints. - SSC behaviour in mild sour. - PWC behaviour in sweet conditions.

Date Announced: Fri, 17 November 2017

Date Completed: Sun, 31 May 2009

Passing data within composite structures currently requires cables routed externally to the structure with fixing harnesses to hold the wiring in place. Embedding cables in the composite is feasible but is risky as it may compromise the integrity of the material and the structure.

TWI has developed and patented (GB2522344) a new, disruptive technology which involves passing data through the composite structure itself. The SurFlow™ technology uses trandsucers that induce a surface wave in the composite. Data transfer rates of up to 3 Gbps at GHz frequencies have been achieved.

This project will advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the SurFlow™ technology and provide technical solutions suited to specific products and applications selected by Sponsors.

The project will have two phases:

Phase 1: Characterisation of the technology in terms of frequency range and data transfer rates in materials typically used in a range of engineering sectors and applications.

Phase 2: Development of SurFlow™ technology solutions for specific geometries / products of relevance to the project Sponsors.

The primary output of the project will be a design tool, based on enhanced knowledge of the SurFlow™ technology, that Sponsors can utilise in order to design new products or add value to existing products. Tailored solutions for specific applications selected by the Sponsors will also be offered.

Date Announced: Fri, 17 November 2017

Date Completed: Thu, 31 August 2017

TWI carried out a Joint Industry Project (JIP) to assess the feasibility of creating a facility for mechanical testing in HPHT gaseous hydrogen environments. This feasibility study concentrated on identification of the relevant components of the proposed HPHT hydrogen testing system as well as proposing conceptual designs for the general vessel layout and its supporting experimental apparatus

Date Announced: Tue, 18 April 2006

Date Completed: Thu, 08 May 2008

Fee £50,000. Completion date: December 2008<br/><br/><li>Welded 25Cr SDSS and 12Cr SMSS.<br/><li>TSA alloy compositions for control of polarisation to mitigate risk of HISC.<br/><li>Feasibility of internally protecting welds.<br/><li>TSA coatings under insulation of paint or aluminium foil.<br/>

Date Announced: Thu, 04 February 2010

Date Completed: Wed, 16 November 2011

Propose rationalised Charpy requirements for steels for low temperature service based on a critical review of current requirements (onshore and offshore). - Conduct small scale tests to examine the relationship between impact energy, fracture toughness and crack arrest toughness. - Review the reliability of current underlying correlations between impact energy, fracture toughness and crack arrest toughness and their applicability to modern steels. - Carry out large scale tests to validate recommended Charpy requirements.

Date Announced: Mon, 16 February 2009

Date Completed: Wed, 09 May 2012

Integrate flaw sizing with fitness-for-service procedures. - Extend flaw sizing capability to a wider range of pipe diameters. - Establish the accuracy of these assessments through validation tests. - Validated techniques for the examination of difficult to inspect areas. - Evidence to support the use of the technology for presentation to regulatory bodies.

Date Announced: Fri, 04 September 2009

Date Completed: Mon, 31 August 2015

Topics to be presented include: - Wet underwater welding - A review of experiences, current limitations and opportunities for improvement. - Hyperbaric welding - A review of experiences, limitations and future opportunities. - Dry localised welding (NEPSYS). - ULBW - Experiences from the nuclear sector and ongoing research for offshore O&G application. Project Started: 14/12/12 with a duration of 2 years

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