In its simplest form, friction stud welding involves rotating a stud, in the form of a solid rod, and forcing it on to the surface of a plate, under controlled conditions.
Rotation and downward force create frictional heat which causes the materials to plasticise in the region of contact. Rotation of the stud is then stopped and downward force either maintained or increased to consolidate the joint.
The weld time is very short, around 4 seconds for a 10mm diameter stud. Weld quality is consistently high, and when tested to destruction, failure invariably occurs in the weaker parent material and well away from the weld.
A number of material combinations can be joined using friction stud welding, for example: mild steel to low alloy steel; stainless steel, nickel alloys and aluminium to carbon steel; copper to mild steel; aluminium to aluminium.
Underwater friction stud welding is used for retrofitting sacrificial anodes. Tapered studs are friction welded, through electrical take-off straps, onto the structure of the submerged platform.
For further information see Joining Technologies or please contact us.