Frequently Asked Questions
ECAs have displayed good resistance to thermal cycling (over wide temperature ranges) and various environments, such as humidity and moisture. However, performance depends on the adhesive in question and the surfaces bonded. Gold and copper surfaces have shown good reliability, as has nickel-palladium; while tin-lead surfaces cause significant problems due to poor adhesion and growth of a weakly adhered, electrically insulating, tin-oxide layer. To ensure confidence in performance, representative assemblies must be tested under typical service conditions. Improvements to reliability can be achieved by the use of conformal coatings and/or encapsulation, which is common practice in the electronics industry.