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Effects of Biaxiality on Residual Stress Relief and Fracture in Welded Joints - Industrial Member Report 1094-2017

Back to Research Reports 5kW Yb-Fibre Lasers - The Influence of Optics Selection and Process Parameters on Weld Penetration Depth in Steel A 3-D Analysis of the Longitudinal Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welded Fatigue Specimen A Comparison of CTOD Ductile Fracture Analyses of Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Tests A Comparison of Cut Quality on C-Mn and 304 Stainless Steels using 1 and 10 Micrometer Wavelength Laser Beams A Comparison of Electro Discharge Machining, Laser and Focused Ion Beam Micromachining Technologies A Comparison of Hot Bar and Laser Soldering Techniques for 0.5mm Pitch Electronic Devices A Comparison of the Gap-Bridging Capability of CO2 Laser and Hybrid CO2 Laser MAG Welding on 8mm Thickness C-Mn Steel Plate A Comparison of Three Stress Counting Methods Using Simulated Stress Spectra A Comparison of TIG Canning and Electron Beam Sealing as Encapsulation Techniques for HIP Diffusion Bonding A Compendium of Toughness Requirements for Ferritic Materials in Various International Application Codes A Constraint-Based Model for Fracture in the Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Region A Coupled Model for Predicting Cleavage and Ductile Fracture in Steel: Improvements to the Model and Some Applications A Critical Review and Comparison of Various Methods to Evaluate the Static Strength of Corroded Pressurised Components A Cutting Process Comparison A Feasibility Study of Brazing Silicon Carbide to Metals A Feasibility Study of Ultrasonic Wire Bonding to Polymer Thick Films A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Adhesively Bonded Joints. Phase 1: Fatigue Performance and Joint Characterisation A Framework for a European Standard on the Automatic Ultrasonic Testing of Welds in Metallic Materials A Method of Measuring Displacements and Rotational Factors in SENB Specimens A New Approach to Improved Control of Thermoplastic Composites Induction Welding A Practical Guide to Process and Quality Control for Resistance Spot Welding A Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Restraint on HAZ Cold Cracking of Butt Welds in Three C-Mn Steels A Preliminary Investigation into Welding Fume Formation Mechanisms for MIG/MAG Welding A Preliminary Study of the Ultrasonic Welding of Four Thermoplastics A Re-Analysis of Fatigue Data for Butt Welded Specimens Containing Slag Inclusions A Review and Evaluation of the Durability of Low Surface Energy Coatings A Review of Arc Welding and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) A Review of Ball Grid Arrays for Electronic Assembly A Review of Crack Arrest Tests, Models and Applications A Review of Fatigue Monitoring Methods for Welded Joints A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 1, Process Review A Review of Friction Stir Welding: Part 2, Selection of Tool Materials A Review of Glass-Ceramics as Ceramic Bonding Media A Review of HAZ Toughness Evaluation A Review of Joint Tracking Systems for Laser Welding A Review of Literature on Porosity Formation and Recommendations on the Avoidance of Porosity in MIG Welding A Review of Mechanical Test Procedures for Adhesively Bonded Joints A Review of Methods and Recommended Procedures to Evaluate the Static Strength of Corroded Nozzles in Steel Pressure Vessels A Review of Methods for Determining the Frequency and Size Distribution of Welding Flaws in Steel Fabrications A Review of Methods for Rapid Prototyping of Computer Software, and their Application to Structural Integrity Assessment A Review of Micromachining Technologies for Microstructures A Review of Micromechanical Failure Models for Cleavage and Ductile Fracture A Review of Mixed Mode Fracture Tests, Models and Assessment Procedures A Review of Models for Simulation of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding A Review of Numerical Modelling of Fusion Welding for the Prediction of Residual Stresses and Distortion A Review of Optical Methods for Adaptive Control in Arc Welding A Review of Ozone Formation in Arc Welding A Review of Porosity Formation and Recommendations on the Avoidance of Porosity in TIG Welding A Review of Post Weld Heat Treatment Effects on Welding Residual Stresses A Review of Recent Advancements in Arc Welding Power Sources and Welding Processes in Japan A Review of Sensor Systems for the Top-Face Control of Weld Penetration A Review of Sol-Gel Technology for the Fabrication of Glasses and Ceramics A Review of Stress Intensity Factors for a Semi-Elliptical Surface Crack in a Plate and Fillet Welded Joint A Review of Structural Assessment Techniques for Yield Strength Mismatch and Welding Residual Stresses A Review of Techniques for Measuring and Ranking Adhesion of HVOF Sprayed Coatings A Review of Techniques to Manage Penetration Variability during TIG Welding A Review of the Physical and Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides A Review of the use of Lasers for Precision Microcomponent Manufacture A Review of the use of Metal Powder Additions in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel A Review of Thermography used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) A Review of Weld Metal Porosity and Hydride Cracking in Titanium and its Alloys A Review on the Problem of Reheat Cracking in Nuclear Vessel Steels A Revised Analysis of the Influence of Toe Defects on the Fatigue Strength of Transverse Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welds A Stress Intensity Factor Solution for Root Defects in Fillet and Partial Penetration Welds A Study of Arc and Friction Stir Welding of Two Al Alloys Containing a Low Level Scandium Addition A Study of the Applicability of the Tensile Weld Test for Thick Walled Polyethylene Pipe A Study of the Butt Fusion (Hot Plate) Welding Process for Polyethylene Pipe A Study of the Effects of Stress-Relief and Seawater Temperature on the Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Steel Joints A Study of the Factors Controlling Root Run Toughness in Multi-Pass Manual Metal Arc Welds in C-Mn Steels A Study of the Influence of C And Si on the Microstructure and Toughness of Submerged Arc Welds in 25mm C-mn Steel Plate A Study of the Ultrasonic Welding of Short Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyphenylene Sulphide A Survey of Welding and Repairing of Nickel Superalloys for Gas Turbines A Survey of Plastic Collapse Solutions used in the Failure Assessment of Part Wall Defects A System for Integrated Off-Line Programming of Welding Robots A Theoretical Assessment of the Fatigue Strength of Transverse Fillet Welded Joints in Thin Plate A Theoretical Fatigue Analysis of a Slender Mast Structure Subject to Wind Loading A Theoretical Investigation into Stresses Caused by Die-Bonding and the Validity of 'Low Stress' Die-Bonding Attachments A Thermal Model for Transmission Laser Welding of Thermoplastic Polymers AC Pulsed MAG and Powder Plasma Arc Welding of Positional Unbacked Root Passes - A Feasibility Study Achieving Aerospace-Standard Porosity Requirements when Laser Welding 7xxx Aluminium Alloy. Part B: Autogenous Yb-Fibre Laser and Hybrid Yb-Fibre Laser-MIG Welding of 12.7mm Thickness Alloy Achieving Aerospace-Standard Porosity Requirements When Laser Welding 7xxx Aluminium Alloy; Part A: Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MIG Welding 6mm Thickness Alloy Acoustic Pulsing - A Condition Monitoring Technique Developed at the Welding Institute Adaptive Control of the MIG Welding of Thin Sheet Steel Additions, Via a Tube, to Ferritic Steel Submerged-Arc Weld Metal: Preliminary Experiments Additive Manufacture by Friction and Forge Processes Additive Manufacture of Blisk and Guide Vanes by Friction Welding Advanced MAG Welding Techniques for Thin Sheet Material Advanced Tool Material Technology for FSW Stainless Steel Advancement of Arc Welding Repair of Mar-M247 and Alloy 713C Advances in Laser Welding Alternative Systems for the Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and its Alloys. 1: A Production Comparison Alternative Systems for the Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminium and its Alloys. 2: An Economic Comparison for the United Kingdom An Analysis of Fracture under Biaxial Loading using the Finite Element Method An Analysis of Published Creep Rupture Data for Modified 9%Cr Steel Weldments An Analysis of Some Fatigue Crack Propagation Data for Steels Subjected to Pulsating Tension Loading An Application of a Simple Numerical Model for Hydrogen Diffusion in Multipass Submerged Arc Welds in C-Mn Steels An Appraisal of Methods for Quantifying the Performance of Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for Detecting and Sizing Weld Flaws An Appraisal of Statistical Inspection Strategies and Inspection Updating An Assessment of Ar-He-N2 Shielding Gases for the TIG Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel An Assessment of Pseudo-Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) Analyses Based on Charpy V-Notch Properties An Assessment of the Advantages of Plasma Control in Laser Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel An Assessment of the Susceptibility of Al-Mg Alloy Welds to Stress Corrosion Cracking An Assessment of the Tandem MIG-MAG Welding Process An Assessment of Weld Heterogeneities in PMMA using Birefringence An Evaluation of a High Tolerance Plasma Arc Cutting (HTPAC) Process An Evaluation of Infrared NDT Techniques Applied to Thermally Sprayed Coatings An Evaluation of Minicomputer Techniques for Data Acquisition and Analysis in Arc Welding Process Research An Evaluation of NDT Methods for Adhesion Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings An Evaluation of Precision Reliability Testing and CALCE Modelling for Temperature Cycle Testing of Printed Circuit Boards An Evaluation of the Production Welding Aspects of Flux-Cored Wires An Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Electrical Resistance Methods for the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of Resistance Spot Welds in Low Carbon Steel Sheet An Examination of Diffusion Bonded Interfaces in a Mild Steel An Improved Backscattered Electron Vision System for High Power Electron Beam Welding Operation An Initial Investigation of Microwelding of Multiple Overlapped-Foils using Continuous-Wave Lasers An Initial Study of Applications and Parametric Relationships for Abrasive Water Jet Cutting An Initial Study of Arc Energy and Thermal Cycles in the Submerged Arc Welding of Steel An Initial Study of Thermal Cycle Prediction in Submerged-Arc Welds An Initial Study on Laser Welding of Magnesium Alloys An Inter-Laboratory Programme of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Tests An Introduction to Expert Systems for Microcomputers and some Potential Applications for Engineering of Welded Structures An Introduction to K, CTOD and J Fracture Mechanics Analyses and Toughness, and the Application of these to Metal Structures An Introduction to Laser Weld Monitoring - Literature Review and Preliminary Experimental Results An Introduction to Lean Manufacturing for SMEs An Introduction to Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots An introduction to risk based inspection An Investigation into Fatigue of Fillet Welded Plate Joints under Varying Principal Stress Direction An Investigation into the Effect of Joint Angle on Bead Geometry for the Submerged-Arc Welding of Mild Steel An Investigation into the Influence of Nb and V on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Submerged Arc Welds in C-Mn Steels - Phase 1 An Investigation Into the Influence of Nb and V on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Submerged-Arc Welds in C-Mn Steels - Phase 2 An Investigation into the Mechanisms of Active Fluxes for TIG (A-TIG) Welding An Investigation into the Origin and Effect of Magnetic Fields in EB Welding An Investigation into the Use of Active Fluxes for MIG/MAG Welding of C-Mn Steel An Investigation of Plastic Collapse Assessments for Ferritic Steels for Part Wall Defects in Tension An Investigation of the Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Behaviour during Welding of Two High Strength Structural Steels An Investigation of the Influence of Applied Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Structural Steels An Investigation of the use of Transient Arc Data to Detect Process Deviations An Investigation of Weldment Toughness in Two Low Alloy High Strength Steels An R Curve Approach to COD and J for an Austenitic Steel Analysis of Vitolane® Method for the Synthesis of Methacrylate Functionalised Resins Application of a Steelmaking Model to Predict Weld Metal Composition Application of Fatigue Design Rules for Welded Steel Joints Application of the Local Approach to Cleavage Fracture to HAZ Failure Predictions Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part II: Published and Additional TWI Data Appraisal of PD 6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Part III: Assessment of Actual Failures Appraisal of PD6493:1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures. Part I - TWI Data Arc Disturbances in Consumable Electrode Welding - A Review of the Literature Arc Initiation in MIG Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Arc Parameter Sensing using Second Generation Robots - A Preliminary Assessment Arc Spraying using Cored Wire Consumables to Produce Hard Coatings Arc Stability of Copper-Coated Mild Steel MIG Welding Wires - A Case Study Arc Welding Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels: Prediction of Weld Area Microstructures Aspects of the Improvement in Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welds by Peening Assessment of Ageing Properties and Residual Stresses in Thermoplastic Welds Assessment of Cold Spray Systems for the Deposition of Nickel Alloy 718 Coatings Assessment of Limit Loads for Circumferential Embedded Flaws in Pipes Assessment of Mechanical Property and Fracture Mechanics Tests Applicable to Plain Material and Welded Joints in Thermoplastics Assessment of Monitoring Methods for Clearweld Assessment of Resistance Spot Welds in Low Carbon and High Strength Steel Sheet - Part 1 Static Properties Assessment of Shearography and Thermography for Flaw Detection Assessment of Single Resistance Spot Welds in Low Carbon and High Strength Steel Sheet. Part 2: Fatigue and Impact Properties Assessment of the Accuracy of the Unloading Compliance Method for Measuring Crack Growth Resistance Curves Assessment of the Mechanised Flux Cored Arc Welding Process for Underwater Wet Welding Assessment of the Particulate Welding Fume Associated with the Flux-Cored Arc Welding of Carbon-Manganese Steels Assessment of the Significance of LBZs in Steels using a Probabilistic Model Assessment of the Torsion Test for Resistance Spot Welds Assessment of the TWI Top Face Control System for TIG Welding Assessment Procedures for Non-Sharp (Blunt) Defects (AMICA) Atmospheric-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Welded Austenitic Stainless Autogenous Welding of High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels Automatic TIG Ambient Temperature Temper-Bead Technique for Ni-Based Weld Overlay Repairs of Nuclear Components Axial Misalignment in FAD-Based Fracture Assessment of Circumferential Girth Weld Flaws Background to Changes to BS7608, Guide to Fatigue Design and Assessment of Steel Products Beam Characterisation of Industrial CO2, Excimer and Nd:YAG Lasers Beam Characterisation of Industrial Lasers Behaviour of 0.5%Cr Steel in Sour Environments Behaviour of Semi-Elliptical Cracks in Welds with Yield Strength Mismatch Bonding of SiC Fibre Reinforced Ti-6Al-4V MMC Sheet by Resistance Heating Brazing of Zirconia for Structural and Sensor Applications Brazing Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Nickel Alloys via Sputter Coatings Carbon Nanotube Safe Removal from Water Suspension: Mitigating Health Risks Cast-to-Cast Variations in Penetration During Mechanised TIG Welding of Austenitic Stainless and Low Alloy Steels: Further Studies Cast-to-Cast Variations in Penetration during Mechanised Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Progress Report Catastrophic Failures of Steel Structures in Industry: Case Histories Ceramic/Metal Bonding: A Study of Joining Zirconia to Cast Iron, and Silicon Carbide to Steel Characterisation of a Novel Electron Beam Gun Design with a Radio Frequency Excited Plasma Cathode Characterisation of Dissimilar Metal Interfaces and Evaluation of Resistance to Subsea Hydrogen Cracking Characterisation of Nylon 6,6 Vibration Welds Characterisation of, and Guidelines for, Rotary Friction Welding of Common Metallic Engineering Materials Charpy V-Notch Tests: Influences of Striker Geometry and of Specimen Thickness CO2 and Yb Fibre Laser and Hybrid Laser-TIG Welding Processes in 10mm Thick Stainless Steel CO2 Laser Welding of 5000 Series Aluminium Alloys CO2 Laser Welding of Steel Tailored Blanks for Automotive Application Coating Composites - A Review Cohesive Zone Modelling of Ductile Crack Growth in High Strength Steels Cold Spray Technology Update and TWI Facility Installation Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Flaw Assessment Methods for a Welded Joint Comparison of Measured and Calculated Residual Stresses in Steel Girth and Butt Welds Comparison of Static Properties of Point and Hybrid Joints in Steel Sheets Comparison of the Cutting of Four Different Steels, using Linearly and Circularly Polarised Laser Light Comparison of the Fatigue Performance of Full-Scale Girth Welded Pipes and Small Scale Strip and Plate Specimens Comparison of the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Friction and Arc Welded Joints in High Alloy Stainless Steel Pipe Compilation of K-Solutions for Fitness-for-Service Procedures Composition and Surface Effects on CO2 Laser Cut Edge Quality in Carbon and C-Mn Steels Compositional Factors Controlling Solidification Cracking in C-Mn Steel Laser Welds Computer Based Fatigue Analysis for Welded Joints - Fifth Reporting Period Computer Based Fatigue Analysis for Welded Joints - Third Progress Report Computer Techniques for High Voltage Design of Compact Electron Beam Guns Considerations for a Robot Welding Cell - A Guide Document Constraint Calculation in Pipeline Girth Welds Control of Porosity in CO2 Laser Welds in C-Mn Steel Control of Weld Penetration in TIG Welding: A Review of Factors Affecting Weld Pool Behaviour and of Techniques to Improve Process Control Correlating the Long-Term Performance of Electrofusion Joints in Polyethylene Pipes with Short-Term Tests Correlation of Phased Array Inspection and Fatigue Performance of FSW Joints Correlations Between Fracture Toughness and Charpy Impact Energy Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Properties of Arc Welds in 18% Chromium-2% Molybdenum Titanium Stabilised Ferritic Stainless Steel Corrosion Behaviour of Cold Sprayed Tantalum Coatings Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth in a Simulated Heat Affected Zone Microstructure Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation in Structural Steel Corrosion Fatigue of Simulated C-Mn Steel HAZs in Sour Produced Fluids Corrosion Protection of Metals by the Use of Sol-Gel Coatings Corrosion Resistance of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys 2014A-T651 and 7075-T651 Corrosion Resistance of High Speed Fusion Welds in Austenitic Stainless Steel - Progress Report Corrosion Resistance of Welded High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steels in Sulphuric Acid Corrosion Testing of Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds - Literature Review Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings in High Temperature Environments for Biomass Applications Corrosion Under Insulation: An Overview of Causes, Prevention and Test Methodologies Crack Arrest Test Methods and Properties for Structural Steels Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Method for the Analysis of Ductile Materials Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Methods for Fracture Assessments: Proposals for Revisions to BSI PD 6493 CTOD Design Curve Approach: Limitations, Finite Size and Application Cumulative Damage Calculations Taking Account of Low Stresses in the Spectrum Cumulative Damage Calculations with the Proposed New Fatigue Design Rules Curing and High Temperature Stability of Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coatings Current Status of Revisions to PD 6493 Assessment Procedures for Fusion Welded Structures Current Welding Practice and Investigation of Weld Repair Without Post-Weld Heat Treatment for Grade 91 Cutting Stainless Steel with Disc and CO2 Lasers Defect Control in the Fade-Out Region of Thick Section Electron Beam Welds - A Preliminary Investigation Demagnetisation Techniques for Welding Requirements Demonstration: Finite Element Analysis of Conventional Ultrasonic Testing Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 2 - Effects of Calcium Disilicide on Microstructure and Toughness Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes: Part 1: Effects of Titanium on Microstructure and Toughness Deployment of Local Vacuum Mobile Systems for Power Beam Welding of Thick Section Structural Steel Deposition of Hardfacing, Corrosion Resistant and Non-Ferrous Material by Friction Surfacing Derivation of a Procedure for Determining Free Nitrogen in Ferritic Steels Design and Damage Tolerance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Joints: A Review and Technical Appraisal Design and Development of a Locally Coupled, High Frequency Pulser for 100kW EB Welding Design of Electromagnets for Arc Oscillation in Surfacing Applications, for MIG and TIG Processes Detection and Characterisation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Austenitic Weld Overlay Cladding for Non-Intrusive Inspection Detection of Penetrator Flaws in High Frequency Induction Welded (ERW) Tube Development and Understanding of Wire-Fed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Development of a Brazed Ceramic-Faced Steel Tappet Development of a Computer Model for Welding Similar Thermoplastic Polymers Development of a Fatigue Sensor for Welded Steel Structures Development of a Methodology to Produce Samples and Ultrasonic Techniques for Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joints Development of a Novel Pre-Treatment for Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloys Development of a PC Based System for Monitoring Arc Welding Parameters Development of Alternative Hardfacing Materials - Progress Report Development of an Electronic Weld Measurement Gauge Development of an Enhanced Probabilistic Fatigue Method for Structures Under Variable Amplitude Loading Development of Assessment Methods for Environment Assisted Cracking - Review of Shallow Crack Behaviour Development of Fast Full Matrix Capture Ultrasonic Inspection using Sparse Arrays Development of Friction Stir Tools for the Welding of Thick (25mm) Aluminium Alloys Development of Improved Tool Designs and Parameters for the Friction Stir Butt Welding of 1.2, 6 and 25mm Thickness Aluminium Alloys Development of Joining and Sealing Technologies for Polymer Fuel Cells Development of Joint Finding, Following and Adaptive Arc Welding Procedures for Autonomous Robotic Manufacture Development of Keyhole Plasma Orbital Welding Procedures for Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes Development of Laser Vision-Based Adaptive Control of Robotic Multipass MAG Welding Development of Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Section Steel Development of Novel Compact High Voltage Power Supplies for EB Welding Development of Novel Focused Ultrasonic Transducers for NDT Development of PC 6493 - Defect Assessment Software Based on the Revisions to BSI PD 6493 Development of Phased Array Ultrasonic Techniques for the Inspection of Clad Line Pipe Girth Welds Development of Procedures for Low Porosity Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 3.25 and 6.35mm Thickness Titanium Alloys Development of Robotic Bobbin and Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding Development of Sealing Technologies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Development of Tack Welding Procedures using the TIG Process Development of Techniques for Defect Control in the Fade-Out Region of Electron Beam Welds in 70mm Thick C-Mn Steel Development of Test for Encapsulants for Implantable Electronic Medical Devices Development of Titanium Dioxide Coating by Suspension Spraying for Photocatalytic Applications Development of Two-Layer Deposition Techniques for the Manual Metal Arc Repair Welding of Thick C-Mn Steel Plate without Postweld Heat Treatment Development of Ultrasonic Full Matrix Capture Technology to Improve Flaw Characterisation Developments in Arc Welding Data Retrieval Systems Developments in Manufacture and Characterisation of Comeld Joints Developments to the Master Curve for Application to Welds Diffractive Optical Elements for Manipulation of CO2 Laser Radiation Diffusion Bonding of a 0.4 Carbon, Chromium/Molybdenum Steel (En 19) Diffusion Bonding of Aluminium Alloys to Titanium Diffusion Bonding of an Aluminium-Lithium Alloy (AA8090) Digital Image Technique for Displacement and Deformation Measurement of Structural Components Dilution and Heat Input Control in High Deposition Rate Multi-Power Submerged Arc Welding Dissimilar Friction Welding of Titanium to Stainless Steel Drop Weight Impact Testing of Spot Welded, Weldbonded and Adhesively Bonded Box Sections Ductile Crack Extension in API 5L X65 and HY 130 Steels Ductile Instability Considerations and the Prediction of Driving Force Curves for Six Test Geometries Durability of Structural Adhesives and Adhesively Bonded Joints and Mechanisms of Environmental Attack - A Review Effect of Aluminium in C-Mn Steels on Microstructure and Toughness of Submerged-Arc Weld Metal. Final Report Effect of Aluminium in C-Mn Steels on Microstructure and Toughness of Submerged-Arc Weld Metal: Progress Report Effect of Back Purging Gas Oxygen Content on Weld Discolouration and Corrosion Resistance of Autogenous Tungsten Inert Gas Welds in Duplex Stainless Steel Pipes Effect of Cast to Cast Material Variations in TIG Welding Literature Review Effect of Clamping System Configuration and Joint Gap on Through-Transmission Laser Welding of Plastics Effect of Composition and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Modified 9%Cr 1%Mo Weld Metals Effect of Composition on Creep Properties of 9%Cr1%Mo Weld Metals for Grade 91 Steel Effect of Composition on Pitting Corrosion Resistance of High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals Effect of Contamination by Air on the TIG Welding of Commercially Pure Titanium Sheet Effect of Flux Cored Arc Welding Conditions on Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of Two Iron-Based Hardfacing Alloys Effect of Forced Cooling on the Integrity of Polyethylene Butt Fusion Welds Effect of Gamma Sterilisation on Dissimilar Materials Bonded with an Adhesive for the Medical Industry Effect of Geometry Changes upon the Predicted Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints Effect of HAZ Intermetallic Precipitates on the Toughness of Superduplex Stainless Steel Effect of Hydrogen Gas on Fatigue Performance of Steels - A Literature Review Effect of Intercritical Reheating During Welding on the HAZ Microstructure and Toughness in a C-Mn-Nb-Al Steel Effect of Interface Modifications on the Solid-State Bonding of a 0.4C Steel Below the A1 Temperature Effect of Intermetallic Content on Pitting Resistance of Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steels Effect of Nitrogen Addition to Nickel Alloy TIG Weld Metals on Corrosion Resistance Effect of Postweld Heat Treatment on HAZ Microstructure and Toughness of Microalloyed C-Mn Submerged-Arc Welds Effect of Preheat and Interpass Temperatures on Nickel Alloy Effect of Process Parameters on Centre-Line Solidification Structures of Electron Beam Welds in Steel Effect of Projection Design when Welding Single Projections in Aluminium Autobody Sheet Effect of Remelting on OES [Optical Emission Spectroscopy] Calibrations for Ferritic Steels Effect of Surface Preparation on Adhesion of Alumina Coatings Sprayed using the High Velocity Oxyfuel Process Effect of Thermal Cycles on the Properties of 25%Cr Duplex Stainless Steel Plates - Preliminary Studies Effect of Weibull Parameters on 'Local Approach' to Cleavage Fracture Predictions Effect of Welding Variables on Cracking in Cobalt-Based MMA Hardfacing Deposits Effect of Welding Variables on the Pitting Resistance of Autogenous Welds in UNS S31254 High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Effect of Welding Variables on the Pitting Resistance of Autogenous Welds in UNS S31254 High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube Effect of Wire Composition and Flux Type on Solidification Cracking when Submerged-Arc Welding C-Mn Steels Effect on Element Transfer of Deoxidant Additions to Submerged-Arc Fluxes for Welding Ferritic Steels Effects of Active and Inert Gas Atomisation on Coating Quality in Arc Spraying - A Review Effects of Al, Ti and V on Microstructural Development in Laser and Electron Beam Steel Weld Metal Effects of Arc Energy, Plate Thickness and Preheat on C-Mn Steel Weld Metal Hydrogen Cracking Effects of Basic Electrode Coating Formulation on Fume Emission Rate and Composition in Manual Metal Arc Welding of Steel Effects of Biaxiality on Residual Stress Relief and Fracture in Welded Joints Effects of Composition and Laser Focus Position on Solidification Cracking Susceptibility in C-Mn Steel CO2 Laser Welds Effects of Composition and Welding Speed on Solidification Cracking in C-Mn Steel Laser Welds Effects of Electrode Coating Composition on Fume Emission Rate and Composition in Manual Metal Arc Welding of Steel Effects of Mechanical Loading on Residual Stress and Fracture: A Re-examination of the BS 7910 Rules Effects of Niobium and Nitrogen on Localised Corrosion Resistance of Nickel Alloy Weld Metals Effects of Postweld Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress Levels of Submerged-Arc Welds in a C-Mn-Nb-Al Steel Effects of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Porosity for Coatings Deposited using the Arc Spray Process Effects of Spray Particle Characteristics on Coating Quality in Arc Spraying - A Review Effects of Surface Condition on CO2 Laser Cutting Quality for Two Ferritic Steels Effects of Warm Prestress on Residual Stress and Fracture in Uniaxially Loaded Welded Joints Elastic Plastic Fracture Toughness Based on the COD and J Contour Integral Concepts Elastic-Plastic Fracture Assessments Based on CTOD Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis of a Simulated Transverse Fillet Welded Joint Subjected to In-Plane Tensile Loading Electrochemical Noise Methods for Identifying Pitting of Stainless Steel Electron Beam Texturing Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 1: The Effect of Material Type and Composition on Electron Gun Discharging Electron Beam Welding Gun Discharge Problems. Part 2: Recent Developments in the Design and Application of Magnetic Trap Devices Electroslag and Electrogas Welding of C-Mn Steel - The Present Position in the UK Electrostatic Bonding of Silicon to Glass Elevated Temperature Midlife Weldment Cracking (Type IV) - A Review Engineering Critical Assessment of Steel Catenary Risers in Sour Deepwater Oil and Gas Developments Environmental Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Welded Steel in Aqueous Media Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacture: Efficiency Measurements of Welding and Joining Equipment Environmentally Conscious Design: Review of EuP Legislation and Primary Energy Efficiencies of Joining Techniques Equipment and Process Development using Lasers for Automated Fabric Joining Error Reduction Techniques for Region-of-Interest Computed Tomography of CFRP Composites Establishing the Unloading Compliance Method for Generating R-Curves using SENT Specimens Estimation of Exposure to Arc Welding Fume Estimation of Probability of Detection Curves for Ultrasonic Testing Based on Theoretical Simulation of the Inspection Process Evaluation of a High Velocity Wire Flame Spraying Process Evaluation of a Laser Diode Based Vision System for Monitoring Arc Welding Processes Evaluation of a Low-Cost Camera for Monitoring Arc Welding Processes Evaluation of a Model Metallisation System for Silicon Carbide in High Temperature Electronics Evaluation of a New Corrosion Under Insulation Test Method Evaluation of a Video System for Control of Weld Bead Penetration in TIG Welding Evaluation of Adhesives and Test Methods for Measurement of Adhesion and Cohesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings Evaluation of Five Commercially Available Synergic MIG Welding Power Sources Evaluation of High Velocity Oxyfuel Sprayed Coatings of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Material Evaluation of Phased Array Ultrasonic Techniques for the Inspection of Dissimilar Metal Welds including Cladding Evaluation of the Effect of Arc Welding Practice on Fume Emission Rate, Exposure to Fume and its Control Evaluation of the FEA Package PZFlex for the Ultrasonic Beam Profile and Response on Smooth Fatigue Crack Evaluation of the Use of Carbon Nanotubes for Rubber Reinforcement and for Improved Transmission Laser Welding Evaluation of Three Commercially Available Quality Control Systems for Spot Welding Mild Steel and Aluminium Sheet Evaluation of Tool Material Performance for the Friction Stir Welding of 6mm AISI 304L Stainless Steel Evaluation of Welding Processes for S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate Examination of Crystallinity in Polyethylene and Polypropylene Welds using Fourier Transform Infrared-Microspectrometry Examination of the Protocol Defined by prEN/ISO 10882-1 When Sampling Airborne Particles from Carbon Steel and Aluminium Alloy Welding Examination of the Sampling Protocol Defined by Draft European/International Standard prEN ISO 10882-1 When Sampling Airborne Particles from Stainless Steel Welding Exploratory Investigation of the Significance of the Low Stresses in a Fatigue Loading Spectrum Exploratory Studies on the Fracture Toughness of Multipass Welds with Locally Embrittled Regions Exploratory Tests on Nickel-Based Wet Welding Electrodes for Ferritic Steels Fabrication Aspects of a Case Study Laser Welded Lightweight Panel Fabrication Technologies, Residual Stresses and Structural Integrity in Clad Components Fabrication Thermal History Effect on Weldment Mechanical Properties in Grade 91 Steel Factors Affecting MIG Arc Initiation in Mechanised Systems Factors Affecting the Level of Porosity in Nd:YAG Laser Welded 3.2mm 2024 Aluminium Alloy Factors Controlling the Ferrite/Austenite Balance in Arc Welded 22Cr/5Ni/2.5Mo/N Duplex Stainless Steel Factors Controlling Weld Toughness - The Present Position Part 1 Heat-Affected Zones Factors Controlling Weld Toughness - The Present Position Part 2. Weld Metals Factors Influencing the Properties of Spot Welds in Cold Rolled High Strength Steels Factors which Affect Abrasive Wear Resistance of Hardfacing Weld Deposits - A Review of the Literature Failure Mechanisms of Subsea Dissimilar Joints and Opportunities for Improving Their Performance Fatigue Crack Front Shape and its Effect on Fracture Toughness Measurements Fatigue Crack Growth Within Adhesively Bonded Joints Fatigue Crack Propagation in C-Mn Steel HAZ Microstructures Tested in Air and Seawater Fatigue Data Relevant to Steel Pressure Equipment Design to EN 13445 Fatigue Life Improvement by Water-Jet Erosion Fatigue Life Prediction for Toe Ground Joints Fatigue of Load-Carrying Fillet Welded Joints Under Multiaxial Loading Fatigue of Stress-Relieved Fillet Welds Under Part-Compressive Loading Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading - A Review Fatigue of Welded Joints under Complex Loading: Test Methods and Preliminary Results Fatigue Performance of Butt Welds in Titanium for General Engineering Applications Fatigue Performance of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Plasma Welds in Thin Steel Sections Fatigue Properties of Clinched, Self Piercing Riveted and Spot Welded Joints in Steel and Aluminium Alloy Sheet Fatigue Reassessment of Ageing Pressure Vessels: Life Extension and Change of Use Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Transverse Butt Welds in a Low Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy Steel Fatigue Test Results for Laser Welds in Steel - A Review Fatigue Tests on Electron Beam Welded C-Mn Steel Butt Joints Fatigue Tests on Fillet Welded Joints in Steel under Simulated Wide Band Type Loading Fatigue Tests on Fillet Welded Joints under Variable Amplitude Loading Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Pipes Fatigue Tests on Plasma Dressed Fillet Welded Joints Fatigue Tests on Two Types of Joint to Establish Joint Classifications Fatigue Tests on Two Types of Welded Joints Under Compressive Loading Fatigue Tests on Welded Tubular Joints in Air and Sea Water Fatigue Tests Under Variable Amplitude Loading FATIGUECALC - A Microcomputer Program for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints - Description and Application in Design for Variable Amplitude Loading Feasibility of Monitoring Corrosion Damage in Storage Tanks Using Piezo-Generated Vibrations Feasibility of Solid State Joining of Aluminium to Alumina Feasibility of Twin Spot Nd:YAG Laser Welding of 2024 Aluminium Alloy Feasibility of Using Electromagnetic Transducers for Generating and Detecting Guided Waves in Ferritic Steel Pipes Feasibility of Using Laser Profiling for Image Enhancement of Digital Radiographs Feasibility Studies into Surfacing by Friction Welding Feasibility Trials on Heat Sink Attachment for New Electronic Ceramic Substrates Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel TIG Welding using High Nitrogen Shielding Gas Fibre-Delivered Laser Welding of Ultra-High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications Fine-Scale Electron Beam Processing Development Finite Element Analysis of Crack Driving Force at Circumferential Cracks in Pipelines under Large Deformation Finite Element Analysis of Guided Waves in Pipes and Rails with Flaws Finite Element Analysis of Long-Range Ultrasonic Waves in Metallic Structures of Arbitrary Cross Section Fitness-for-Purpose Assessment of Misalignment in Transverse Butt Welds Subject to Fatigue Loading Flaws in Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds Flux-Cored Wire Welding of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel: Metallurgical Assessment, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties Fluxes and Slags in Arc Welding Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels - A Literature Survey Part 2: Weld Properties and Weld Defects Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Ferritic Steels - A Literature Survey Part 3: Classification and Problem Areas Forces in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys - Further Studies Formation Mechanisms of Weld Root Flaws in Duplex Stainless Steels and their Effect on Corrosion Resistance Formation of 'Tramlines' on Arc Welds and Back Face Oxidation of Keyhole Plasma Welds in Titanium and its Alloys Fracture Assessments of 50mm Thick Welded Aluminium Alloy Wide Plate Tests Fracture Case Studies for Validation of Fitness-for-Service Procedures Fracture Toughness Associated with Natural Weld Defects - Solidification Cracks Fracture Toughness of Friction Stir Welds in 2014A, 7075 and 5083 Aluminium Alloys Friction Skew-StirTM Lap Welding 5083-H111 Aluminium Alloy - Process Development and Mechanical/Fatigue Evaluation Friction Stir Welding - The State of the Art Friction Stir Welding Aluminium Alloy 5083 - Increased Welding Speed Friction Stir Welding of a Ferritic Stainless Steel - A Feasibility Study Friction Stir Welding of an Aluminium Alloy - Effects of Tool Geometry Friction Stir Welding of Steel Friction Stir Welding of Steel: Process Considerations Friction Stir Welding of Steels - A Further Evaluation Friction Stir Welding of Steels - An Evaluation of some Mechanical Properties Friction Stir Welding of Steels - Status Report Friction Taper Plug Welding of 10mm AA6082-T6 [Aluminium Alloy] Friction Welding 25mm Diameter Steel Bars. The Effect of Steel Composition on Weld Properties Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels - Part 1: The Use Of Electroplated Barrier Interlayers Friction Welding Aluminium Alloys to Stainless Steels. Part 2: Weld Properties Friction Welding Non-Circular Sections with Linear Motion - A Preliminary Study Friction Welding of Dissimilar Metal Combinations: Aluminium Alloy HE9 to Stainless Steel Friction Welding of Dissimilar Metal Combinations: Copper to Stainless Steel Friction Welding of Injection Moulded Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and Medium Density Polyethylene Thermoplastics FSW as a Repair Technique for Surface Cracks in Stainless Steel FSW Tool Performance and Lifetime in High Strength Aluminium Fume Emission Rate and Composition for Flux-Cored Arc Welding of Stainless Steel using All-Positional Consumables Fume Emissions from Arc Welding through Shop Primers: Data Generation to Establish a Method for Producing Safety Data Fume Emissions from Resistance Welding through Organic Coatings: Establishing a Method for Generating Safety Data Further Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys Further Development of a Probabilistic Model of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Further Development of Finite Difference Software for the Analysis of High Current Electron Guns Further Fatigue Tests on Fillet Welded Joints Under Simple Variable Amplitude Loading Further Progress in Joining of Intermetallic Alloys Further Studies of Microstructural Development in Low Oxygen Steel Weld Metal: Effects of Al, Ti and V in TIG and Laser Weld Metals Further Studies on the Welding Performance of High Brightness Lasers Further Toughness Data on Electroslag Welds in C-Mn Steels Gap Filling in FSW using AdStir: Further Improvement Gas-Shielded Arc Welding of the Al-Li Alloy 8090 Geometry and Orientation Effects on Ductile Crack Growth Resistance Grain size and Morphology in Nickel-Chromium Alloy Weld Metal Guide to High Average Power Nd:YAG Laser Processing with Fibre-Optic Beam Delivery for Metals Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Developing Welding Engineering Software Guidelines for the Interpretation of Automated Ultrasonic Test Images: Pulse Echo HAZMET: Microstructural Prediction Software Heat Affected Zone Hydrogen Cracking Behaviour of Low Carbon Equivalent C-Mn Structural Steels - Further Data Heat Affected Zone Hydrogen Cracking of C-Mn Steels when Welding with Tubular Cored Wires Heat Affected Zone Toughness of MMA Welded 12%Cr Martensitic-Ferritic Steels Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) Hydrogen Cracking Behaviour of Low Carbon Equivalent C-Mn Structural Steels High Average Power Nd:YAG Laser Beam Transformation Hardening and Cladding of Steel High Brightness Electron Beam Power Deposition for Improved Material Processing High Power Electron Beam Welding of Thick Section Steel with Filler Wire Additions High Power Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding: Equipment Development and Preliminary Process Evaluation High Productivity Pipe Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys High Productivity Tape Laying of Carbon Fibre / PEEK High Productivity Weldments in the Advanced 9% Chromium Steel FB2 High Stress Abrasive Wear Testing of Chromium Boride/Stainless Steel and Tungsten-Vanadium-Carbide/Stainless Steel Hard-Facing Materials High Temperature Corrosion Testing in Oxidising/Carburising and Metal Dusting Environments High Temperature Corrosion Testing of Engineering Alloys in Contact with Molten Chlorides High Temperature Corrosion Testing of HVOF Coatings for Biomass Applications High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying of Alumina Based Coatings High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying of NiCr-Cr3C2 Coatings using Hydrogen Fuel High-Brightness Electron Beams for Micro Processing Hole Repair in Steel Plate using Friction Taper Plug Welding - Initial Trials in Air and Underwater Hot Plate Welding Injection Moulded Thermoplastics: The Effect of Process Parameters HVOF Sprayed Alternatives to Hard Chromium Plating Hybrid CO2 Laser-MAG Welding of Carbon Steel - A Literature Review and Initial Study Hybrid Laser-Arc Weld Quality Enhancement by Seam Tracking, Adaptive Control and Weld Bead Inspection Hybrid Laser-MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Butt Joints with Adaptive Control Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser MAG Welding of T joints in C-Mn Steels for Shipbuilding Applications Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-AC MIG Welding of 1.2mm Thickness Automotive Aluminium Alloy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Subsea Joints Between Nickel-Alloy Butterings and Steel Forgings Impact Damage and Modelling of Flaws in Glass Reinforced Plastic Adhesively Bonded Lap-Shear Joints Impact Tests on Welded Joints in 6000 Series Aluminium Alloy Extrusions for Rail Vehicles Improved Control of High Voltage Discharges During Electron Beam Welding using Switch-Mode Power Supplies Improved Cutting Performance from the Addition of Water to the Plasma Gas in Plasma Arc Cutting Improved Operation of Nd:YAG Lasers Using Diode Pumping Improvements in Friction Stir Welding Tool Technology Improvements in Guided Wave Focusing Technology for Detection of Defects in Pipelines Improvements to a High Brightness 7.5kW Electron Beam System and Initial Processing Trials Improving Essential Variables for Hardness Control: A Feasibility Study Improving Procedure Prediction to Avoid Hydrogen Cracking when Welding C-Mn Steels Improving the Efficiency of Multirun Submerged-Arc Welding by the use of a Forward Fed Metal Powder Addition Improving the Fatigue Performance of Welded Stainless Steels Improving the Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welded Joints by Grinding and Peening Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints by Grinding - Techniques and Benefits In-Bore Multi-Positional Laser Welding Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloy 718 and Ti-6Al-4V Increasing Manufacturing Performance using Computer Simulation - An Industrial Case Study Industrial Applications of Multi-Scale Modelling Industrial Ceramics - A Survey of Materials, Applications and Joining Processes Industry Survey of Dissimilar Materials Joining and Opportunities for Friction Welding Influence of Current Type and Polarity on the Composition, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of C-Mn-Ni and C-Mn MMA Deposits Influence of Current Type on the Composition of C-Mn-Ti-B MMA Deposits and of Welding Position on the Mechanical Properties of C-Mn-Ni MMA Deposits Influence of Hole and Plate Geometries on Friction Taper Plug Welding of AA6082-T6 Influence of Manganese and Coating Basicity on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Vertical-Up MMA Welds in 38mm Thick C-Mn-Nb Steel Plate - Final Report Influence of Spectrum Shape on Cumulative Damage of Plates with Fillet Welded Edge Attachments Influence of Thickness on Critical Crack Opening Displacement (COD) and J Values Influence of Various Factors on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Plates with Fillet-Welded Attachments Initial Assessment of Precision Reliability Test Methods Initial Current Characteristics of Welding Sets for Gas Tungsten Arcs Initial Development of Transparent Conducting Coatings by a Sol-Gel Route Initial Feasibility Study of the Potential of Resistance Spot Welding Steel to Aluminium using Interlayer Transition Materials Initial Investigation of the Orbital Friction Welding of Mild Steel Initial Performance Assessment of Yb Fibre Laser Technology in the Power Range from 4 to 7kW for Welding Structural Steel Initial Study in Generating a Microwave Powered Plasma for Cutting and Welding Thin Materials Initial Study into Thermal Piercing of Thermoplastic Composite Laminates Initiation of a Tungsten Inert Gas Arc by High Voltage DC Innovation Management Processes at TWI Innovative Techniques for Sizing Locally Thinned Areas in Straight Pipes and for Inspection Beyond Pipe Bends Using Guided Waves In-Process Weld Quality Monitoring of Laser and Hybrid Laser-Arc Fillet Welds in 6-12mm C-Mn Steel Insights into Friction Stir Welding Instrumentation for Quality Assurance in Arc Welding Instrumentation in Gas Metal Arc Welding Integration - the Key to an Intelligent Computer Aided Arc Welding System Interim Progress Report on Toughness Distributions in a Submerged Arc Weld Interlaboratory Examination of the Analysis of Thick Steel Plate using Optical Emission Spectrometry Intermetallic Formation in Superduplex Stainless Steel Simulated Heat Affected Zones Interpretation of Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction Data - A Guide Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture for Small and Medium Enterprises - An Interim Progress Report Introducing Computer Integrated Manufacture to Small and Medium Enterprises Introduction to Microwave Heating and its use for the Joining of Ceramics Introduction to Reliability Testing Methods in Microelectronics and Related Sectors Introduction to the Measurement of the Quality of Electron Beams Inverter Developments with Improved Response to Flashovers During Electron Beam Welding Investigation into the Abrasive Wear Resistance of Some Experimental Hardfacing Materials Investigation into the Influence of Calcium Treatment on Submerged-Arc Weld Metal and HAZ Toughness of Microalloyed C-Mn Steel Investigation into the Joining of Creep-Resistant Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys Investigation into the Mechanisms of Ultrasonic Welding of Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers Investigation into the Role of Non-Metallic Inclusions on Ferrite Nucleation in Carbon Steel Weld Metals Investigation of Crack Depth Effects on the Performance of a C-Mn Pipeline Steel in a Sour Environment Investigation of Factors Which Affect the Fatigue Strength of Shot Peened Fillet Welded Joints Investigation of Fatigue Damage to Welded Joints under Variable Amplitude Loading Spectra Investigation of Submerged Arc Weld Metal Inclusions Investigation of Surface Cleanliness and Diffusion Bonding of Steel Below the A1 Temperature Investigation of the Fatigue Crack Growth Performance of a C-Mn Pipeline Steel in a Sour Environment Investigation of Various Processes for the Deposition of Chromium Boride/Stainless Steel Hard-Facing Investigations into Temperature and Specimen Geometry Dependence of the 'Local Approach' Parameters of a Structural Steel Joining Aerospace Composite Structures - Machining, Mechanical Fastening and NDI Joining Aluminium to a Steel - A Review of Mechanisms and Techniques in Friction Welding and Diffusion Bonding Joining Aluminium to Steel - A Review of Mechanisms and Techniques in Friction Welding and Diffusion Bonding Joining Dissimilar Alloy Combinations using Scanning Laser Beams Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet - Literature Survey Part 2: Weldbonding Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheet - Literature Survey Part 1: Resistance Welding Joining of Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composites: Initial Study Joining of Intermetallic Alloys: Further Studies Joining of Metal Matrix Composites - A Review Keyhole Plasma Welding of a Cast Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloy Keyhole Plasma Welding of Carbon Steel Sheet Laboratory and Industrial Validation of Electron Beam Probing Equipment Laser Beam Induced Surface Modification Using the Surfi-Sculpt Process Laser Cutting and Welding of Mild and Stainless Steel Sheets up to 3mm Thick Laser Cutting of Fibre Reinforced Polymers Laser Cutting of Sheet Steel - A Users' Guide Laser Deposition of Functionally Graded Material Laser Deposition of Nickel-Based Superalloy, Waspaloy - A Preliminary Study Laser Materials Processing using Tailored Heat Sources Laser Metal Deposition Titanium 5553, Titanium 811 for Aerospace Applications Laser Surface Hardening with Adaptive Control Laser Surface Modification of PEEK and PP for Improved Adhesion and Wettability Laser Surface Processing to Alter the Elastic Properties of Nylon-Elastane Fabrics: An Initial Study Laser Transformation Hardening of a Medium Carbon Steel: Part I - Defocused Beam Trials Laser Transformation Hardening of a Medium Carbon Steel: Part II Preliminary Assessment of the Axicon Lens Laser Weld Metal in a Microalloyed Steel: Fracture Toughness Properties and Porosity Laser Welding of a 12.5mm Thick Niobium Microalloyed Structural Steel at Powers of up to 9kW Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys - Principles and Applications Laser Welding of Butt and T Joints in Deep Drawing Low Carbon Steel Sheets Laser Welding of Butt Joint in Low Carbon Steel Sheets - Process Tolerance Data Laser Welding of Laser Cut Edges Produced by High Pressure Inert Assist Gas Techniques Laser Welding of Plastics Film and Sheet Laser Welding of Some Low C [Carbon] and Low S [Sulphur] C-Mn-Si-Al-Nb Structural Steels Laser Welding of Structural Steel with Cold and Hot Wire Feed Techniques Laser Welding of Structural Steel with Wire Feed Laser Welding of T Joints in Low Carbon Steel Sheets - Process Tolerance Data Laser Welding of Titanium Alloys with Low Internal Porosity Content Lead-Free Solders: Current Status and Future Trends Linear Friction Welding of Alpha 2 Titanium Aluminides Linear Friction Welding Information for Production Engineering Linear Friction Welding of Engineering Metals Linear Friction Welding of Nickel Superalloys for Oil and Gas Linearity of Clip Gauges Used in Fracture Mechanics Tests Literature Review on Robotic Friction Stir Welding Literature Review: Forced Cooling of Polyethylene Pipe Butt Fusion Welds Literature Survey of Acceptance Criteria for the Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique Local Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Branch Connections Local Vacuum System Development for Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding - Technology Review Long Range Monitoring of Corrosion Damage in Storage Tanks using Piezo Generated Elastic Vibrations - A Progress Report Long Range Ultrasonic Testing using a Broadband Excitation Method (A Feasability Study) Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Welding in 304 Stainless Steel: Improved Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation Low Stress Non-Distortion (LSND) TIG Welding of Thin-Walled Structural Elements Macro and Microstructural Features of Friction Stir Welds in Various Materials MAG Weld Procedure Development for Galvanneal Coated High Strength Steel Sheet Magnetic Arc Oscillation for Weld Surfacing, using Mechanised TIG, MIG and PTA Processes Magnetic Trap Devices for Elimination of High Voltage Breakdown in Electron Beam Welding Equipment Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding of Aluminium Alloy Tube: Machine Developments and Initial Trials Manual Metal Arc and Flux Cored Wire Welding Structural Steels without Preheat Manual Metal Arc Welding Effects of Core Wire Deoxldatlon Practice Manual Ultrasonic Inspection: Characterisation of Flaws in Welds using Neural Networks Material and Structural Behaviour of MIG Butt Welds in 6005A-T6 Aluminium Alloy Extrusions under Quasi-Static and Impact Loading Material Models for Improved Finite Element Predictions of Residual Stresses in Ferritic Steels Material Selection Consideration for Offshore Steel Structures Materials Technology Gap Analysis for Handling CO2 in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and Oil and Gas Service Measurement and Modelling of R-Curves for Low Constraint Specimens Measurement of Crack Opening Displacement in Weldments with Particular Reference to Offshore Structures Measurement of Residual Stress and the Effects of Prior Deformation using the Neutron Diffraction Technique Measurement of True Resistance at High Alternating Current (For Resistance Spot and Seam Welding and for Cables) Mechanical Approaches to Seam Tracking for Arc Welding Mechanical Fastening Technologies for Steel to Aluminium Joining in Automotive Manufacture - Member Report 1082/2017 Mechanical Properties of Arc Welds in 18% Chromium 2% Molybdenum Titanium Stabilised Ferritic Stainless Steel Mechanical testing and Finite Element Modelling of Aluminium Alloy Welds Under High Strain Rate: Initial Results Mechanical Tests for Plain and Welded Plastics - A Review Mechanised Arc Welding with Industrial Robots - An Initial Study Mechanised Electrode Weaving for Vertical MIG Welding Mechanised Orbital TIG Process Pipe Welding - Development of Outline Procedures for Austenitic Stainless Steel Mechanised Pulsed MIG Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet for Vehicle Fabrication Mechanised Wet Underwater Flux-Cored Arc Welding Trials and Qualifications for Typical Weld Repair Metal Powder Additions to Multipower Submerged-Arc Welds in Steel - Two and Multipass Welds Metal Powder Additions to Single Pass, Triple Arc Submerged-Arc Welds in Steel Methods for Improvement of Microstructure and As-Welded Properties of Electron Beam Welds in 50mm C-Mn Steel Methods for Measurement and Prediction of Residual Stresses in Pipe Girth Welds in Clad Pipes Methods for the Financial Optimisation of Plant Management Methods of Fatigue Life Improvement for Welded Joints in Medium and High Strength Steels Microcomputer Control of Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Microcomputer Controlled Robotic Equipment for Precision TIG Welding Microcomputer Program for Guidance on the Prevention of HAZ Hydrogen Cracking when Arc Welding Carbon and Carbon Manganese Steels Microsegregation and Laser Beam Surface Melting of High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal Microstructural Characterisation of HVOF Sprayed Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Coatings Microstructural Development in Low Oxygen Steel Weld Metal Microstructural Development in the Intercritically Reheated Grain Coarsened Heat Affected Zone of C-Mn Steels Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Vertical-Up C-Mn-Ni Steel Semi-Automatic Weld Metal Microstructure and Post-Weld Heat Treated Mechanical Properties of C-Mn-Ni Steel MIG/MAG Weld Metal Microwave Curing of Composite Microwave Heating and Bonding of Alumina Ceramics Microwave Processing of Polymer Composites: Literature Survey and Preliminary Trials MIG and TIG Arc Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet - A Literature Survey Missed Joints in Electron Beam Welding: An Investigation of Techniques for Assessing Magnetic Effects Missed Joints in Electron Beam Welding: Further Investigation of Techniques for Rapid and Effective Demagnetisation of Thick Sections Mk Solutions for Fatigue Assessment of Flaws at Weld Root Toes in Girth Welds Modelling and Inspection of Pipes Containing Bends Using Long-Range Guided Waves Modelling and Validation of Direct Metal Laser Depostion Modelling of Heat Affected Zone Microstructures in C-Mn Microalloyed Steel Single Pass Welds Modelling of Long-Range Guided Wave Inspection Beyond Pipe Bends Using Novel Signal Reconstruction Techniques Modelling of Microstructure in C-Mn and Low-alloy Steel Weld Deposits Modulated, Twin Spot and High Beam Quality Laser Welding of Titanium Alloys Multi-Layer Coatings of Alumina and Nickel Alloy Prepared by High Velocity Oxyfuel (HVOF) Spraying Narrow Gap MIG Welding - A Review of the Literature Narrow Gap Submerged Arc Welding of Steel: A Technical Review ND:YAG Laser Joining of Aluminium Sheet to Galvanised Steel Sheet: Initial Studies NDT Techniques for Inspection of Thick Section EB Welds in Ferritic Steels Neural Network Processing of Ultrasonic Test Signals Non-Destructive Techniques for the Inspection of Surface Mount Solder Joints - Review and Experiment Non-Destructive Testing Methods for Adhesively Bonded Joint Inspection - A Review Nondestructive Testing of Radial Friction Welds Non-Destructive Testing of Thermally Sprayed Coatings - A Review Non-Unique Solutions in PD6493: 1991 Fracture Assessment Procedures Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding - Progress Report and Future Developments Novel Application of the Keyhole Plasma Process for Welding Thin Section Stainless Steels Novel Specimen for Investigating the Interaction of Primary and Secondary Stresses in Fracture Assessments Numerical Determination of Dynamic Fracture Toughness from Measured Time-to-Fracture Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Low Stress No Distortion (LSND) Welding in 304 Stainless Steel Off-Line Programming of Industrial Robots - A Case Study for New Users Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures: A Review of Standards and Comparison with Fracture Toughness Derived from ECA On the Influence of Tensile and Compressive Peak Overloads on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Structural Steels - Progress Report On the Unloading Compliance Method of Deriving Single-Specimen R-Curves in Three-Point Bending One-Knob Controlled MIG Welding Power Sources: Steady D.D. Open Arc and Short-Circuiting Arc Operation - A Critical Review On-Line Adaptive Control for Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser/MAG Welding 8mm Thick Steel Plate On-Line Monitoring of Laser Welded Steel Tailored Blanks Optical Design and Performance of a 2kW CO2 Laser Optical Emission Spectrometry of Steels: Study of a Standard Calibration Procedure Optical Sensor Controlled Multipass Welding Optimisation and Observation of the Laser Surfi-Sculpt® Process Optimisation of a Gas Jet Plasma Control System for Laser Welding with a 10kW CO2 Laser Optimisation of Direct Laser Metal Deposition for Additive Manufacture and Repair of Alloy 718 Optimising Focussed/Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing of Clad Pipe: Initial Verification of CIVA 3D Modelling Software Orbital A-TIG Welding of Stainless Steel Tube Using a Low Cost Activating Flux Out-of-Chamber Electron Beam Welding for Thick Section C-Mn Steel Overview of Flexible Automation in the Structural Fabrication Industry Overview of Friction Stir Welding Modelling Projects at TWI Parametric Relationships in Short-Circuit MIG Welding Penetration Control in TIG Welding - Development of a Hard-Wired Control Unit Pitting Corrosion of Friction Stir Welds in 7050-T7451 Aluminium Alloy Pitting Corrosion of Weldments in a High Chromium/Nitrogen Austenitic Alloy Pitting Corrosion Resistance of High Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals - Progress Report Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Surfacing of Small and Medium Scale Components - A Review Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Weld Surfacing Process Plastics - An Industrial and Literature Survey of Joining Techniques Polymer Coated Material (PCM) Welding: A Novel Technique for Joining Dissimilar Materials - Preliminary Study Polymer Composite L-Joints - Static, Fatigue and Impact Tests with Modelling of Damage Growth Porosity, Bead Geometry and Cracking Issues Related to Laser Welding of Alloy 718 Portable Arc Welding Robots - An Industrial Survey Potential of Welding for Repair of Wrought Iron Precision Laser Welding of Plastic Components Predicting Successful Manufacture of Ceramic/Metal Joints using Weibull Modelling Predicting the HAZ Toughness of C And C-Mn Steels - Welding at 2kJ/mm Predicting the HAZ Toughness of C and C-Mn Steels: Welding 25mm Plate at 1-7kJ/mm Prediction of Creep Failure of Components Subjected to Steady Loading at Elevated Temperatures - Review of Contemporary Methods Prediction of Element Transfer During Submerged-Arc Welding of Ferritic Steels from Inclusion Analysis Prediction of GCHAZ Hardness in Single Pass Arc and Power Beam Welded Plain and Microalloyed C-Mn Steels Before and After PWHT Prediction of Precipitates and Prior Austenite Grain Size in Ti-Nb Steels Prediction of Square Wave Pulse Current Parameters for Control of Metal Transfer in MIG Welding Prediction of Weld Distortion in Complex Thin-Walled Components: The Development of SDPS - TWI's Structural Distortion Prediction System Prediction of Weld Pass Size and Placement in Robotic Multipass MAG Welding of Steels Predictive Formulae for Weld Distortion - A Critical Review Preliminary Assessment of the Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys Preliminary Environmental Testing of Polymer-Coated Materials (PCM) Joints Preliminary Evaluation of Electrospark Deposition Process for Repair of Worn Components Preliminary Evaluation of Metallic Coatings Deposited using the Cold Spray Process Preliminary Evaluation of Spray-Formed Ti and Ti Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray Preliminary Examination of Forces Generated During the Friction Stir Welding Process Preliminary Investigation into Arc Disturbances and Poor Weld Appearance in the Spray Transfer MIG Welding of Stainless Steel Preliminary Investigation into the Multi-Pass Fibre Laser Welding of Thick Section Steel Preliminary Investigation into the Preparation of Aluminide Coatings Using the High Velocity Oxyfuel Spraying Process Preliminary Investigation into the Properties of Stainless Steel Friction Welds Preliminary Investigation of a Modified Charpy Test for the Assessment of Narrow Welds Preliminary Investigation of High Frequency Electrical Pulsing for the Control of Plasma Formation During Laser Welding Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Controlled Shot Peening on the Fatigue Strength of Fillet Welded Joints Preliminary Trials of Sliding Seal Reduced Pressure Laser Beam Welding Press Joining and Self Piercing Riveting for Sheet Joining; Joint Formation and Mechanical Properties Prior Overload Effects in Structural Integrity Assessments Probabilistic Assessment of Pipeline Flaws Using Response Surface Model for FEA Probabilistic Modelling of HAZ Fabrication Hydrogen Cracking in C-Mn Steels Procedures for Reducing Solidification Cracking in CO2 Laser Welds in Structural Steel Process Charateristics when Friction Surfacing Mild Steel with Austenitic Stainless Steel Process Guidance and Software for Clearweld Process Monitoring for Quality Control of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters Influencing the Melt Profile and Deposition Rate in High Productivity Arc Welding Processes for Thick Section Process Tolerance in Submerged Arc Welding: Initial Report Producing High Quality Welds in up to 7mm Thickness Titanium Alloys with High Brightness Yb-Fibre Lasers Progress in Friction Stir Welding of Steels Proof of Concept for Real-Time Hydrogen Monitoring During Welding Properties of 12%Cr Ferritic:Martensitic Steel Heat Affected Zones Produced by Non-Arc Welding Processes Properties of 25mm Diameter Orbital Friction Welds in Three Engineering Steels Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel Properties of Diffusion Bonds in a 0.4C Steel (Technology Briefing No. 131 - December 1980) Properties of Flash Welded Carbon Manganese Steel - Influence of Power Supply and Welding Conditions Properties of Friction Welds in 50mm Diameter Carbon Manganese Steel. Effect of Welding Parameters and Component Geometry Properties of Resistance and Laser Sheet Welds in Type UNS S32304 Duplex Stainless Steel Pulsed MIG Arc Welding Processes for Joining of Thin Sheet Aluminium Pulsed MIG Welding of Titanium with a Novel Wire Pulsed MIG with Phased Transverse Oscillation Pulsed Wire Feed Spray MIG-Welding Qualifying Long-Term Performance of Butt Fusion Welds in PE Pipes from Short-Term Tests Quality Control of the Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Process - A Literature Survey Rapid Prototyping Real Time Defect Assessment from Ultrasonic Test Data Real-Time Hydrogen Monitoring During Welding Recommended Procedures for the Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Testing of Weldments Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding - Development of a Prototype Local Vacuum System Reduced-Pressure, Local-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding System Commisisioning and Initial Welding Trials Reference Stress and J-Based Limit Load for Circumferential Embedded Flaws in Pipe Girth Welds Reflow Performance of Solder Paste with Tin/Silver/Copper Alloy Reignition Characteristics of Square Wave AC Manual Metal Arc Welding Relationship Between Ni-Based Weld Metal Strength, Welding Current and Weld Metal Dilution in 9%Ni Steel Joints Relationships Between Process Variables and Weld Geometry Relaxation of Residual Stresses During Postweld Heat Treatment of Submerged-Arc Welds in a C-Mn-Nb-Al Steel Relief of Residual Stresses in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Weldments by PWHT and its Prediction by Uniaxial Relaxation Testing Repair of Single Crystal CMSX-10 Blades and Polycrystalline Mar-M247 Vanes by High-Frequency Pulsed DCEN TIG Welding Residual Stress and Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al-4V Components Using SLM Residual Stress in Girth Welded Pipeline After High Plastic Deformation Residual Stress Measurements at Repair Welds in Pressure Vessel Steels in the As-Welded Condition Residual Stresses in 25mm Thick Weld Metal COD Specimens in the AS-Welded and Locally Compressed States Residual Stresses in Crack Starter Sections of Double Tension Crack Arrest Specimens - Preliminary Results Residual Stresses in Cracked Specimens Subjected to Prior Loading Residual Stresses in MIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Panels Resistance Spot Welded Galvanised Steel Sheet, Electrode Life and Corrosion Tests Resistance Spot Welding of High Strength (600-1200N/mm2) Steel Sheet Resistance Spot Welding of Hot Pressed Boron Steels Resistance Spot Welding Steel to Aluminium using Interlayer Materials Resistance Welding of Thick Section Low Carbon Steel Resistance Welding Toolkit Review of Assessment Methods and the Influence of Process Factors on the Quality of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Review of Continuous Wave CO2 Laser Beam Measurement Techniques, and the Development of a High Intensity Beam Scanner Review of Factors Influencing Particulate Fume Emission During Arc Welding Review of Factors Influencing Porosity in Aluminium Arc Welds Review of Fatigue Assessment Procedures for Welded Aluminium Structures Review of Fatigue Results from Girth Welds in Risers Review of Innovation Management Tools Illustrated by Industrial Case Studies Review of Laser Heat Treatment and Surfacing Techniques Review of Optical NDT Techniques in Industrial Applications Review Of Overlay Welding Procedures For Light Water Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels Review of Recent Advance in Computer Based Prediction of Weld Distortion Review of Recent Developments in Mechanised High Efficiency Gas Shielded Arc Welding Processes for Steel Review of Shearography Review of Sustained Load Strain and Cracking Phenomena in Titanium Alloys Under Static and Dynamic Loading Review of Systems for Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Review of Type IV Cracking in 9-12%Cr Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels Risk Assessment and Control of Exposure to Fume During Arc Welding of Steel Robotic Floating Bobbin FSW in 3mm Thickness Al Alloys Root Run Consumables for Single-Sided Manual Metal Arc Butt Welds in Steel Structures Root Run Formation In Mechanised Vertical MIG Arc Welding Rotating Arc Welding of Thin Section Tubulars - Machine Development Sample Preparation For Ferrous Weld Metal Compositional Analysis Sensitivity Analysis of a Fracture Assessment Procedure Based on the Strip Yield Model Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Sour Pipelines (Near-Threshold Regime) Shallow Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour in Sour Pipeline Girth Welds Shielding Gases for CO2 Laser Welding - An Experimental Case Study on Lap Welds in High Strength Low Alloy Steel Significance of Liquation Cracks in Thick Section Al-Mg-Si Alloy Plate Significance of Prior Overload with Regard to the Risk of Subsequent Fracture in A533B Steel Silane Pre-Treatment of Al Alloys for Adhesive Bonding Single-Sided Welding of Thin Galvanised Sheet to Hydroformed Tube for Automotive Applications Solidification Cracking During the Submerged-Arc Welding of Carbon-Manganese Steels - A Detailed Assessment of the Effect of Parent Plate Compositions Solidification Cracking During the Submerged-Arc Welding of Carbon-Manganese Steels - The Relative Importance of Parent Plate Strength and Composition Solidification Cracking of High Speed TIG and Laser Welds in Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet Solidification Cracking of Modified 9Cr1Mo Submerged Arc Weld Metals: The Influence of Mn and Nb Some Aspects of the Influence of Residual Stresses on the Fatigue Behaviour of Fillet Welded Joints in Steel Some Aspects of the Time Dependent Ductile Fracture of Line Pipe Steels Some Basic Fatigue Data for Various Types of Fillet Welded Joints in Structural Steel Some Correlations Between Charpy V and COD Test Data for Ferritic Weld Metals Some Fatigue Tests on Adhesively Bonded Fibre-Reinforced Metal Laminates Some Fatigue Tests On Fillet Welded Joints Under Simple Variable Amplitude Loading Some Fatigue Tests on Friction Welded Steel Bars Some Limitations of the Implant Cracking Test for Predicting Hydrogen Cracking Behaviour Spatter Reduction When Welding with High Brightness Lasers Specification of Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Specimen Thickness Considerations for Structural Predictions A533B Class 1 Steel Spot Welding Electrode Life Tests on Aluminium Sheet - Effect of Electrode Design and Material (Solid Electrodes) Spot Welding Electrode Life Tests on Aluminium Sheet - Effect of Machine Characteristics and Welding Schedule Spot Welding Electrode Life Tests On Aluminium Sheet - Effect Of Parent Metal Composition And Surface Treatment SSC of Welded 0.5%Cr Steel: Effect of pH and H2S Partial Pressure Standardisation of NDT by Time-of-Flight Diffraction for Fabrication Inspection Static and Fatigue Performance of Mechanically Fastened and Hybrid Joints in Sheet Metals Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding of Fillet Reinforced T-Butt Joints in Aluminum Alloys Strain Determination on a Microstructural Scale Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction Report) Strain-Based Driving Force Estimates for Circumferential Cracks in Pipe Girth Welds Strain-Based Engineering Critical Assessment of Pipeline Girth Welds Stress Corrosion of Friction Stir Welds in 7050 Aluminium Alloy Stress Intensity Factors Compliances And Elastic Nu Factors For Six Test Geometries Stress Intensity Factors Due to Standard Residual Stress Profiles Stress Intensity Factors For Cracks At The Toes Of Transverse Butt Welds Stress Intensity Factors For Toe Defects In Single-Sided Transverse Attachments Of Varying Thickness Made With Fully Penetrating Welds Stress Interaction Effects in Fatigue - A Compendium of Experimental Findings Structural Hot Spot Stress Based Fatigue Design for Welded Structures Using Finite Element Analysis Structural Integrity of Butt Fusion Welded Polyethylene Pipes - A Review Structural Integrity of Butt Fusion Welds in Polyethylene Pipes - Comparison of Short-Term Coupon Tests Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys 2014A and 7075 Structure Evaluation of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Hot Plate Welds Structure/Property Relationships in Polyetheretherketone Hot Plate Welds Studies on the Dependence of Weld Metal Toughness on the Level of Test Panel Restraint - Final Report Study into the Use of Process Gases in High Power Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C-Mn and Stainless Steels Study of Procedures to Establish and Furnish a Welding Fume Database and its Practical Application Study of the Mechanical Properties of Flux-Cored Wire Welds in C-Mn Steels Study of the Process Interactions During Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-MIG/MAG Welding Study of the Use of Argon and Helium for Plasma Control and Shielding When Laser Welding Submerged Arc Welding Of Aluminium Bronze Surface Characterisation and Preparation for Thermal Spray Coatings - Technical Review Surface Imaging of the Electron Beam Welding Process by Backscattered Electrons Surface Modification of Thermoplastic Materials Using Lasers for Improved Adhesion Sustained Load Cracking of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and its Weldments Switched Arc Twin MIG Welding Of Joints Synergic Control in MIG Welding Using A Thyristor Controlled Power Source - Steady D.C. Open Arc and Short-Circuiting Arc Operation Synergic Control in MIG Welding Using An Inverter Controlled Power Source - Steady DC Open Arc Operation Synergic Control in Steady D.C. Open Arc and Short-Circuiting Arc MIG Welding Synergic Pulse MIG Welding System Elements and Concepts for Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment Techniques for Improving the Resistance Spot Weldability of 1.6-2.0mm Ultra-High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications Techniques for Improving the Weldability of TRIP Steel Using Resistance Spot Welding Techniques for Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Chip-On-Board Applications Techniques for Welding Fine Insulated Cu Wire Without Prior Removal of Insulation Technology Survey and Assembly Demonstration of Flip Chip Bonding Tensile And Toughness Properties Of Arc Welds In Aluminium Bronze Tensile And Toughness Properties Of Arc-Welded Al-4.5%Mg-0.8%Mn And Al-1%Si-0.8%Mg-0.7%Mn Alloys Tests On C And C-Mn Steel Submerged Arc Welds Made With Commercial Consumables Containing Boron The "State-Of-The-Art" In Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Testing And Analysis The Applicability of Vision Systems to Positional Control of Hot Wire TIG Welding The Application of Glob Top Materials to Chip On Board Components - A Review The Application of Magnetically Controlled Arc Oscillation to the Mechanised Orbital TIG Welding of Stainless Steel Pipe The Application of Microscopy to Welded Joints in Thermoplastics The Application of Resistance and Laser Welding to the AI-Li Alloy 8090 The Application of the 'Local Approach' to Cleavage Fracture of Ferritic Steels and their Weldments - A Review The Butt Fusion (Hot Plate) Welding Process for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Pipe - Improvements to Productivity The Butt Fusion (Hot Plate) Welding Process for Polyethylene Pipe of 125 and 400mm Diameter The Calibration And Definition Of Performance Of Stress Wave Emission Equipment Part 1 - Transducers The Characterisation of Glob Top Materials for Chip-On-Board Components The Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas Shielded Welding Of Steel: Part II The Chemistry Of Oxygen In Gas-Shielded Welding Of Steel The Chemistry Of Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes The Clearweld Process for Laser Welding of Plastics and Fabrics The COD Approach And Its Application To Welded Structures The COD Design Curve: An Assessment Of Validity Using Wide Plate Tests The Corrosion Resistance of Supermartensitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Pipes Welded by Arc and Power Beam Processes The Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Design Curve: Some Simple Proposals For Incorporating Stress Gradient Effects The Dependence Of Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) On The Level Of Test Panel Restraint: Preliminary Report The Deposition of Glass and Ceramic Structures Using DMD Equipment - A Feasibility Study The Development And Welding Performance Of A 6kW Laser The Development of a Computer Based In-Process Data Acquisition System for Monitoring Resistance Spot Welds The Development of a Solidification Cracking Test for Carbon-Manganese Steel Laser Welds The Development Of An Electron Beam Weld Solidification Cracking Test The Development of an Impression Creep Technique to Characterise Weldment Properties The Development of Electron Beam Real-Time Seam Tracking Equipment Using Backscattered Electrons The Development of Equipment for Electron Beam Characterisation The Development of Non-Destructive Test Procedure for Hot Plate Butt Fusion Welds in Polyethylene The Development of Reinforced Braze Alloys for Brazing Ceramics The Development of Tolerant MIG Fillet Welding Procedures - Preliminary Report The Effect of a Dual Stage Pressure Cycle on the Linear Vibration Welding of Thermoplastics - A Preliminary Study The Effect Of A Post Rotational Twist On Friction Weld Properties Of A C-Mn Steel The Effect of Additives in the Absorber Coating on the Performance of Laser Welded Textiles The Effect of Ageing on Structure and Properties of Hot Plate Welds in Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene The Effect of Ageing on Tensile Properties and Structure of Linear Friction and Hot Plate Welds in Polyethersulphone The Effect Of Axial Misalignment On The Fatigue Strength Of Transverse Butt Welded Joints The Effect of Composition on Microstructural Development and Toughness of Weld Metals for Advanced High Temperature 9-13%Cr Steels The Effect of Direct Fluxing on Steel Root Weld Metal Profile The Effect Of Electrode Weaving When Producing Vertical Fillet Welds Using Mechanised CO2 Welding The Effect of Intercritical Thermal Cycles on HAZ Microstructure and Toughness in C-Mn-Al-Nb Steel The Effect of Load Fluctuation on Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking in C-Mn Steel Weld Metal The Effect of Manganese and Nitrogen on Microstructure and Toughness of Modified 9%Cr 1%Mo Weld Metals The Effect Of Mean Stress On The Fatigue Lives Of Ground Or Peened Fillet Welded Steel Joints The Effect of Misalignment on the Fatigue Strength of Welded Cruciform Joints The Effect Of Niobium On The HAZ Toughness Of High Heat Input Welds In C-Mn Steels The Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Critical Hardness for Carbon-Manganese Steels in Sour Service The Effect Of Process Parameters On Tensile Properties For Diffusion Bonded Mild Steel The Effect Of Process Parameters On The Weld Metal Toughness Of EB Welds In A Range Of C And C-Mn 1% Steels - A Preliminary Investigation The Effect Of Specimen Geometry On Crack Growth Resistance The Effect of the Tool Shoulder on Friction Stir Welding of 6mm Thickness Aluminium Alloys The Effect of Thermomechanically Controlled Processing of Steels on Heat Affected Zone Properties The Effect of TiN Particles on the HAZ Properties of Microalloyed Steels The Effect Of Welding Parameter Changes On The Heat-affected Zone Microstructure And Toughness Of Single Pass Welds In 25mm Thick C-Mn Steels The Effect Of Welding Parameters On The Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds In A Carbon-Manganese Steel Part IV: Summary The Effects of Composition on the Toughness and Creep Behaviour of Weld Metals for Advanced High Temperature 9-13%Cr Steels The Effects of Electrode Formulation on Fume Emission Rate and Composition in Manual Metal Arc Welding of Stainless Steel The Effects of Multiple Preloads on Subsequent Low Temperature Fracture of a Pressure Vessel Steel The Effects Of Sulphur On HAZ Hydrogen Cracking In C-Mn Steels The Effects Of Titanium And Boron Additions To Submerged-Arc Fluxes On Weld Metal Chemistry And Microstructure The Evaluation of Molecular Orientation and Structural Changes in Polypropylene Welds The Experimental Generation of Ultrasonic Surface, Plate and Interface Waves in Adhesively Bonded Joints The Fatigue of Laser Welded Lap Joints in Zinc Coated Automotive Sheet Steel The Fatigue Performance of Adhesively Bonded Joints - A Review The Fatigue Performance of Repaired Fillet Welds The Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Transverse Butt Joints in C-Mn Steels The Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Transverse Butt Welds in Low Alloy Ni-Cr-Mo Steels - Further Endurance and Fracture Mechanics Tests The Fatigue Strength Of Transverse Butt Welded Joints Made By The Electron Beam Welding Process In A C-Mn Steel The Feasibility of Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding 200µm Diameter Al-1%Si and Al Wires The Flux-Cored Arc Welding Of Carbon Manganese Steels - A Review Of The Present Position The Generation of Surface Features Using A Low Power Laser Beam The HAZ Microstructure and Toughness of 3 kJ/mm Multipass Welds in Ti Microalloyed Steels The High Speed Resistance Seam Welding of Nominally 1.2mm Low Carbon Steel Sheets The Hydrogen Economy: Materials and Joining Technology Needs The Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds In A Carbon Manganese Steel Part III: Flash Welds The Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds In A Carbon-manganese Steel Part II: Orbital Friction And Inertia Welds The Impact Properties Of Forge Butt Welds In Carbon-Manganese Steels Part 1: Continuous Drive Friction Weld The Importance of Laser Beam Brightness on Melt Run Penetration The Influence of Aluminium Additions to Tubular Cored Welding Electrodes on the Microstructure and Toughness of As-Deposited C-Mn-Ni Weld Metal The Influence of Aluminium and Oxygen on the Microstructure of Hot Wire TIG Weld Metal for C-Mn Steel The Influence of Composition on Microstructural Development and Toughness of Modified 9%Cr 1%Mo Weld Metals The Influence Of Fatiguing Load And R-Ratio On Fracture Toughness The Influence Of Flux On Element Transfer During Submerged-Arc Welding The Influence Of Flux Type On The Strength And Fracture Toughness Of Mild Steel Weld Metal Part 2: Multipass Welds The Influence Of Flux Type On The Strength And Fracture Toughness Of Mild Steel Weld Metal Part 3: Further Tests On Two-Pass Welds The Influence Of Flux Type On The Strength And Fracture Toughness Of Mild Steel Weld Metal. Part 1 - Two-Pass Welds The Influence Of Flux Type On The Strength And Toughness Of Mild Steel Weld Metal Part 4: Additional Test Data The Influence Of Flux Type On The Strength And Toughness Of Submerged-Arc Weld Metal The Influence Of Manganese And Preheat On The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Vertical-Up MMA Welds In 38mm Thick C-Mn-Nb Steel Plate - Part 1 The Influence of Mean and Residual Stresses on the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints Under Variable Amplitude Loading - Some Exploratory Tests The influence of plasma control gases on laser weld quality in C-Mn steel The Influence Of Residual Stress On The Fatigue Strength Of Butt Welded Joints Containing Slag Defects The influence of Ti and Al on the toughness and creep rupture strength of grade 92 steel weld metal The influence of TIG welding procedure on slag island formation on a Type 316 stainless steel - a case study The Influence Of Weld Preparation And Restraint On The Risk Of Root Pass HAZ Cracking In Butt Welds In A C:Mn:Si:Nb Steel The Joining of Aluminium and its Alloys to Similar and Dissimilar Materials by Diffusion Bonding - A Review The Measurement And Prediction Of Thermal Cycles In Electron-Beam Welding The MIAB Welding Of Mild Steel Tubing The MIAB Welding of Thick Wall Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Tubing Using Conventional Techniques The MIG Spot Welding Of Aluminium Alloy Sheet - Process Operation And Control The Physical and Welding Metallurgy of Titanium Aluminides: A Review The potential of neural networks in welding The Prediction of Maximum HAZ Hardness in C-Mn and Low Alloy Steel Weldments The Prediction of Maximum HAZ Hardness in Multiple Pass C-Mn and Low Alloy Steel Weldments The Preparation of Graded Metal Ceramic Coatings by High Velocity Oxyfuel (HVOF) Spraying - A Feasibility Study The Relationship Between Arc Welding Parameters And Fillet Weld Geometry For MIG Welding With Flux Cored Wires The Relationship Between Arc Welding Parameters And Weld Bead Geometry - A Literature Survey The Repair of Aircraft Structures Using Adhesive Bonding - A Survey of Current UK Practices The Role Of Inclusions In Controlling Weld Metal Microstructures In C-Mn Steels The Significance of Embedded Non-Planar Defects in Transmission Pipeline Girth Welds: A Literature Review The Significance of Root Flaws in Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys The Significance Of The Electrode Weave Pattern For Mechanised CO2 Vertical Fillet Welding The Solidification Crack Susceptibility Of A Range Of Commercial Steels During Submerged-Arc Welding The Strength of Fillet Welded Joints in Steels Subjected to Static Loading - A Review The Stress Magnification Effect of Angular Misalignment at Butt Welds The Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel - A Decade Of Procedure Optimisation The Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Part 1 : The Influence Of Procedure Parameters On Weld Bead Geometry The Submerged Arc Butt Welding Of Mild Steel Part 2: The Prediction Of Weld Bead Geometry From The Procedure Parameters The Tolerance of Adhesively Bonded GFRP Joints to Interlaminar Flaws The Use of Glass-Ceramics as Joining Media The Use of Laser Beam Spinning to Improve Fitup and Beam Alignment Tolerances When Laser Welding Butt Joints in Sheet Steel The Use Of Maximum Load Toughness For Ductile Fracture Assessments The Use of Non-Destructive Testing Techniques for Residual Stress Measurement The Use of the Elastic T-Stress and other Constraint Parameters in Fracture Mechanics Part I: Review of Literature Part II: Applications The V-factor - An Alternative Parameter to Allow for Plasticity Interaction Between Primary and Secondary Stresses in Fracture Mechanics Assessments The Vibration Welding of Thermoplastic Extruded Sheet: An Exploratory Study The Weldability Of Low Carbon Structural Steels The Welding Institute Procedure for the Determination of the Fracture Resistance of Fully Ductile Metals Theoretical Analysis Of The Influence Of Attachment Size On The Fatigue Strength Of Transverse Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welds Theoretical Analysis Of The Influence Of Toe Defects On The Fatigue Strength Of Fillet Welded Joints Theoretical Modelling of Ultrasonic Rayleigh, Lamb and Stoneley Wave Propagation in Adhesively Bonded Joints Thermal Management Technology and Measurement for Electronics Thermal Spraying of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Metallic Coatings - A Review Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermal Welding of Polymers Thermally-Assisted Piercing (TAP) to Form Holes in Thermoplastic Composites Thermoelastic Determination of Stress Intensity Factors for Toe Cracks in Fillet Welded Joints and Comparison with Finite Element Results TIG Welding High Nitrogen Superaustenitic Stainless Steels with Filler Addition Titanium Flux Additions During Submerged-Arc Welding of Ferritic Steels Tolerance of the MAG Welding Processes to Gaps in Lap Joints in Thin Sheet Steel Tool Developments for Friction Stir Welding of 6mm Thick Aluminium Alloys Top-Face Monitoring of Weld Penetration Using a Single Sensor with Two Assessment Parameters Topographic Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Mechanised Grit Blasting Toughness Distributions In Two Steels Toughness of Electron Beam Welds in Thick Section C-Mn and Microalloyed Steels Toughness of Submerged-Arc Weldments in Low Carbon Equivalent C-Mn Structural Steels Towards Exemption from Postweld Heat Treatment of C-Mn and Low Alloy Steels Treatment of Low Stresses When Applying Miner's Rule in the Fatigue Design of Welded Aluminium Alloys Trials of the Instrumented Indentation Technique to Measure Tensile Properties Twin Spot Laser Welding for Dissimilar Thickness Steel Tailored Blanks Two pass per layer narrow gap submerged-arc welding of 50mm BS 4360 Grade 50D steel Ultrasonic and radiographic NDT of butt fusion joints in polyethylene Ultrasonic and Radiographic NDT of Butt Fusion Welded Polyethylene Pipes Ultrasonic Au Wire Bondability of Aluminium Alloy Thin Film Metallisations Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding of 500µm Diameter Al Wires Ultrasonic Bonding of Al-1 %Si Wire to NI-Cr Thin Film Metallisation on Glass and to Cu Tracks on Printed Circuit Board Ultrasonic Bonding of Plastic Packages for Protecting Electronic Devices - A Feasibility Study Ultrasonic Inspection of External Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ferritic Steel Line Pipe Underwater Wet Welding - Welding Steel with a Carbon Equivalent up to 0.40 using Rutile and Oxyrutile Electrodes Update on Fracture Toughness Test Methods for Welded Joints Use of Metal Powder Additions for One-Pass and Two-Pass Double-Sided Submerged-Arc Welding of Steel Plate Using Fracture Mechanics to Claim Exemption from PWHT - Four Case Studies Validation of Analytical and Computational Models of Friction Stir Welding Validation of CrackFirst Sensors at Ambient and Reduced Temperature Validation of Finite Element Models of Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Small Fatigue Cracks Validation of Methods to Determine CTOD from SENT Specimens Validation of the ESIS Protocol for Measurement of the J-Fracture Toughness of Thermoplastics Validation of the European FITNET fitness-for-service procedure: incorporation of weld strength mismatch into fracture assessment (Options 2 and 3) Validation of the European FITNET fitness-for-service procedure: Locally thinned area assessment (MK7 draft) Validation of the European FITNET fitness-for-service procedure: use of Fatigue Assessment Route 4 Validation of the European FITNET Fitness-for-Service Procedure: Use of Fracture Assessment Option 4 Validation of the Proposed R6 Strain-Based FAD Using Pipe Test Data and FEA Validation of Theoretical Models for Focused/Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection Variations in Stress Intensity Factor Across Curved Crack Fronts in Fracture Mechanics Test Specimens Vibration Welding of Polyetheretherketone Vortex Generator Nozzles for Oxy-Fuel Cutting of C-Mn Steel: An Initial Study Wear and Corrosion Resistant Coatings by Resistance Surfacing Weld metal hydrogen cracking behaviour, microstructure and hardness of MMA welded 9%Cr-1%Mo steels Weld metal hydrogen cracking during welding 450 N/mm2 yield strength using tubular cored electrodes Weld metal mixing in hybrid Nd:YAG laser-MAG welding of 8mm S275 structural steel plate Weld metal toughness of MMA and electron beam welded modified 9%Cr1%Mo steel Weld Overlaying-Effect of Process and Process Parameters on Dilution Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steel: Interim Report Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: 25Cr-5Ni-Cu-Mo Steel Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Intercrystalline Corrosion Resistance Of Sheet Material Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Stress Corrosion Testing In Chloride Media Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Toughness Properties Weldability Of Stress Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steels: Welding Institute Studies On Duplex And ELI Ferritic Materials Weldbonding of 1mm Aluminium Alloy Sheet Welding and cutting trials using a 3kW fast axial flow carbon monoxide laser Welding and Deposition of Nickel Superalloys 718, Waspaloy and Single Crystal Alloy CMSX-10 Welding Austenitic Stainless Steel With High Completion Rate Processes: Submerged-Arc Welding Welding Characteristics of a Pulsed 1kW Nd: YAG Laser with Fibre Optic Beam Delivery System Welding characteristics of an 800W pulsed Nd-YAG laser Welding of CRA Clad Materials - Three Layer (Buffer Layer) Approach Welding of CRA Clad Materials Using the Three Layer (Buffer Layer) Approach - Butt Weld Trials Welding of Plastic Films Using Infrared Lamp and Laser Technologies Welding Performance of Small Diameter Tubular Cored Wires for Semi-Automatic Welding C-Mn Steels Wire and Ribbon Interconnection Techniques for Bond Pads < 50 Micrometers in Size X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Small Metal Samples
 

TWI Industrial Member Report Summary 1094/2017

By Isabel Hadley

Background

TWI’s database of full-scale fracture tests includes wide plate tests carried out on well characterised welded joints with and without use of a warm prestress (WPS). This work relates to a set of tests carried out at -70°C on surface cracked specimens using biaxial loading conditions for both the WPS (where applicable) and the final failure condition. Factors other than this (weld procedure, flaw size, materials properties etc) were matched as far as possible in order to ensure that WPS was the only significant variable between the tests. The main objectives were:

  • To demonstrate the effect of WPS under different biaxiality conditions on welding residual stress.
  • To calculate the effect of biaxiality on failure in terms of fracture assessment procedures.
  • To analyse the effect of biaxiality on the relief of welding residual stresses during WPS, and compare these results with experimental measurements.
  • To demonstrate the effect of using different reference stress/limit load solutions on failure assessment.

Key Findings

  • Residual stresses transverse to the weld in an uncracked joint subjected to a simulated WPS were higher when biaxial loading was applied than under uniaxial loading conditions, ie there was less mechanical relief of residual stresses under biaxial conditions.
  • The initial estimate of Lr was reduced by a factor of around 1.3 once a revised global limit load solution was used, and the effects of biaxiality had been taken into account.
  • Refinement of the treatment of residual stress from a simple Level 1 approach to a Level 3 approach allowed a reduction in the value of Kr at failure by a factor of around two.
  • All the results associated with failure of the biaxial wide plates lie outside the default failure assessment line so can be considered to support the fracture models in BS 7910 and R6.
  • The Level 1 model for residual stress relaxation is a reasonable representation of the data obtained after WPS, especially if the appropriate plastic collapse model is used and weld strength mismatch and biaxiality are taken into account.
  • The experimental data used to validate the BS 7910 plastic collapse equations, when analysed in terms of the R6 global collapse model produce several points on the ‘unsafe’ side of the boundary, ie the equations overpredict the observed failure load.

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