Subscribe to our newsletter to receive the latest news and events from TWI:

Subscribe >
Skip to content

Evolution of ageing management

Back to Media and Events £19.5m project launched for Port Talbot engineering centre 11th International FSW Symposium 2016 – Call for Papers 2013-07-creepimage-inspecting-creep-damage-in-critical-power-plant-components 2015-05-contributions-invited-for-uk-strategy-for-additive-manufacturing 2015-10-cswip-employer-specific-ndt-in-compliance-with-iso-9712 2016-09-cutting-edge-technology-for-nuclear-decommissioning 2017-08-david-williams-ieng-mweldi-an-engineering-inspiration A career in welding inspection A forum to share knowledge and exchange manufacturing ideas Accelerated Innovation Programmes launch at TWI ActFast: Real-time fibre-optic monitoring for laser welding Additive manufactured medical implants to enter mainstream Additive manufacturing guidelines will support industry adoption Additive Manufacturing UK Strategy update available for download Addressing advances in laser additive manufacturing Advanced electron beam facilities meet advanced industrial challenges Advanced ultrasonic full matrix capture inspection software launched Advisory group promote novel NDT methods in aerospace African company approaches TWI for plastics welding training AILU awards recognise TWI laser technology innovators Alan Taylor to represent TWI at international conference Apprentice welder wins medallion at WorldSkills 2015 Armourers & Brasiers' awards open for entries Art exhibition leads to new method of laser metal deposition Asbestos detection made easier and more reliable ASME issues White Paper on auditing of welding Audit shows TWI as integral to innovation Aviation Industry Corporation of China collaborates with TWI AWFTE to hold first all-day forum at TWI Back to work with TWI's 2018 'Business Resolutions' BeamAssure™ – electron beam welding quality assurance tool Best practice for nuclear construction industry welding Best young welders' teams from throughout Europe will compete BIS Chief Scientist and Director of Innovation visit TWI Blended learning gets results for Spanish NDT students Boccard UK engineers receive plastic welding training from TWI Brazilian student sees advantage of blended learning course BS 7910:2013 - Assessing flaws in metallic structures BS 7910:2013 receives first amendment Budding engineers join Structural integrity project Call for papers: 12th International FSW Symposium Call for papers: International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Celebrating success - spotlight on young engineers Centre of excellence created for the next industrial revolution CII and TWI awareness seminar in composites technology Coatings and surface engineering: addressing the needs of industry Cold spray experts launch all-round introduction course Combatting ice and erosion in extreme low temperatures - EIROS Combining Cathodic Protection with Aluminium Coatings CROWN project commended for offshore wind corrosion work Depositing silicon carbide coatings by thermal spraying Designed for future growth: TWI celebrates construction milestone Developing technology to reuse industrial waste heat Digital Twin Technology to monitor offshore assets Digital twin technology wins environmental business award Dr Melissa Riley presents paper at international conference Dr Melissa Riley represents TWI at international conference Effective operation of undersea well control valve stacks eLearning package for CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspector launched Engineering laboratory marks new era of R&D at TWI Engineers develop chewing machine to test denture adhesives Entrepreneur tours TWI Technology Centre (Wales) Entry is now open for SkillWeld 2016 Evolution of ageing management Exploring opportunities with friction stir welding of steels Extending Aircraft Life Using Cold Spray Technology Familiarisation Course to EN ISO 3834 Fibre delivered laser beam cutting optimisation First MPhil student graduates from NSIRC Franco-British Symposium on Composite Materials Friction stir welding – joining the future of industry Friction stir welding and Japanese jewellery Friction stir welding of high performance steels Gammax IIS, Bury St Edmunds, employs Weldspec and Welderqual Gareth Hurrell wins Advanced Engineering Apprentice Award Gathering of experts at 2016 NSIRC Annual Conference Government funds £10 million technology hub in Teesside Graduates visit TWI to capitalise on Industrial Membership Has your PCN NDT Certification been voided? TWI Can Help… Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal opens new laboratories at TWI Highlighting women in engineering: Ángela Angulo High-pressure hydrogen testing at TWI Hot Gas and Extrusion Welding Appreciation: a new course from TWI Ice-repellant coating for aerospace and energy industries Industry benefits of composites microwave processing Innovation Centres at TWI deliver progress for industry Innovation ensures thermoplastic storage tank integrity International FSW Symposium technical programme available INTRAPID produces rapid in-line laser AM inspection systems Introducing the TWI Virtual Academy: studying on your own terms Investigating geothermal coatings for the future of renewable energy Investigating real-time testing and monitoring of pipelines Investigating the use of lasers for nuclear decommissioning Irish Rail calls TWI for bespoke visual inspection training Joint industry project to develop mobile rail head repair solution Laser research drives greater take-up of cutting technology Laser scanner improves TWI weld analysis services for Members Lasers for decommissioning: the story so far LEP deal launches plans for a new large-scale test facility at TWI Lifting the lid on innovation: exploratory projects at TWI Lord Heseltine opens new TWI technology and training centre Meeting discusses on North Sea oil and gas asset management Meeting reinvigorates Welding Institute's Liverpool branch Mike Russell appointed as TWI Operations Director 'Mind the doors' – New project investigates train door failure Mobile electron beam welds for fabricating large structures ModuLase - combining laser processes for the future of manufacturing MoU between ALFED and TWI enhances collaboration Names of latest Engineering Council registrants published today Nanosecond pulsed laser expands opportunities for project work NDT Voiding of PCN certification from NDT International New benefit for TWI Members: free access to Welding Abstracts journal New building to house TWI's structural integrity expertise New capabilities shown during seminars in China and Japan New centre for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies launched New developments in plastic welding highlighted New eBooks added for Professional and Industrial Members New equipment boosts ultrasonic inspection capability New facility for testing the barrier performance of polymers New fracture testing accreditation New fracture toughness testing standard published New Granta Centre manager guarantees premier conferencing New home and new capabilities for TWI in Middlesbrough New manufacturing process supports Hayter's winning position New project aims to spread the use of additive manufacturing New project to advance laser additive manufacturing New sensor technology for safe shale gas extraction funded New specialist equipment and project to improve tidal energy New TWI article breaks down the changes to ISO 15614-1 New ultrasonic testing courses from the TWI Virtual Academy New version of RiskWISE® released New welding apprenticeship standards receive government approval New Welding of Moulded Plastic Components course New welding procedures CSWIP course launched Nominations now open for The Welding Institute Awards 2018 Novel solution for submersible pumps in oil and gas industry NSIRC invites PhD proposals from leading universities NSIRC to operate from new, expanded facilities at TWI NSIRC welcomes first BP-sponsored PhD student Offering expertise to tackle knife crime epidemic Online tool launched for electromagnetic field assessments Open Day sparks the start of a new era of research for TWI Phased Array Ultrasonic Training – An Innovative Approach Pioneering tests being conducted on bespoke TWI rig Plant Inspection training meets need for competent workers Plant Integrity applies guided wave expertise to handheld device Plant Integrity exhibiting at the IPEIA Conference, Alberta, Canada Plant Integrity exhibits at Middle East Corrosion Conference Plastics welding experts answer your questions at Aquaculture UK 2014 Polyethylene pipeline testing service launches in N. America Polymers expert delivers graphene talk at TWI Preparing students for industry: the Brunel Innovation Centre Progressing graphene as a supercritical fluid barrier Project investigates Powder Metallurgy for astrospace use Project to detect hydrogen attack opens to partners Purpose-built pressure testing facility opens for business at TWI Purpose-built pressure testing facility to be constructed at TWI Quality control project could transform laser welding Reducing impact of air transport using additive manufacturing Registration open for 2017 Structural Integrity Conference Registration open for the UK's national welding competition Registration opens for 11th International FSW Symposium Registration opens for TWI BS EN ISO 15614-1 (2017) training Report examines state of engineering in the UK Richard Dolby / Rolls-Royce Prize launched RJD Engineering gains Factory Production Control system Certification Robotic automated NDT inspection boost for the aerospace industry Rolls-Royce's Martin Boyd discusses the benefits of becoming an IEng Safety warning issued following catastrophic clamp failure Sharc Matter: First -time market access to TWI's VitoNano Technology Showing expertise in corrosion safety, investigation and assessment Simulating real-world conditions for oil and gas research Skills Development Fund Scheme provides extra TWI courses SkillWeld apprentice set for WorldSkills São Paulo 2015 SkillWeld medallist goes on to take gold at EuroSkills 2016 SOCAR and TWI celebrate new competence training partnership STEM Fair workshops inspire next generation Stephen Kinnock MP supports new business initiatives at TWI Wales Strengthening links with Chinese industry Students begin UK's first MSc in Structural Integrity Success for TWI's first blended learning course candidates Successful engineers graduate from EWF/IIW Diploma in Welding 'SUPERSLAB' to meet thicker high-strength steels challenge SurFlow: secure, robust, integrated data transfer through composites Symposium celebrates 25 years of friction stir welding Symposium highlights developments in linear friction welding Taking the next step as a CSWIP Welding Inspector Tate Modern use solvent technology for art restoration Team Romania scoops gold in WeldCup 2015 Technician and STEM Ambassador of the Year awards open Technology tournament inspires young engineers to fly high Teletest business transfers to Eddyfi Technologies The 50-year view of fracture The Test House Gains UKAS Accreditation For Digital Radiography The Transport Systems Catapult and TWI Announce Partnership The Welding Institute Annual Awards and Dinner 2016 The Welding Institute Annual Awards and Dinner 2017 The Welding Institute Awards 2018 – Applied Technology Award The Welding Institute promoting career development at NECR exhibition Thermal spraying facility opens for industrial research Ties strengthened with Indian industry at UK–India Manufacturing Week TowerPower to reduce costs for offshore wind inspections Training workshop delivered to power company Eskom True Stress-True Strain Tensile Testing to Failure TWI adds to new standard for thermoplastic component joining TWI agreement with AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute TWI and DNV collaborate to host 'Welding Experts' event TWI and leading university establish new innovation centre TWI and Lloyd's Register launch Fullagar Technologies initiative TWI and Lloyd's Register projects advance take-up of AM TWI and Rolls-Royce team up to develop Welding Engineering Diploma TWI and Teesside University launch Health Innovation Centre TWI announces Technical Open Day in conjunction with WeldCup TWI Arkwright Scholars a step closer to engineering career TWI at Engineering and Construction Recruitment Exhibition TWI attends tribology anniversary reception TWI attends UK-India Manufacturing Week TWI celebrates National Women in Engineering Day TWI CEO Christoph Wiesner awarded OBE TWI Certification chief executive to become president of EWF TWI Certification partners with construction skills scheme TWI China TWI combines heritage with innovation for the Morgan Motor Company TWI commence 'SubSeaLase' decommissioning project TWI composites specialist to speak at National Space Centre TWI contributes to LIGHTer International Conference TWI delivers plastics welding training course to Fusion Marine TWI develops essential metallography training to ensure best practice TWI engineer wins international award for research TWI enters research centre agreement with AECC BIAM, China TWI expansion bringing jobs and investment to Teesside TWI expert appointed visiting professor by top university TWI experts available for consultation at NACE Corrosion 2015 TWI extends capability to test adhesives and composites TWI Finite Element Analysts achieve accreditation TWI flies high at Farnborough International Air Show TWI helping to spearhead skills initiative in India TWI helping UK businesses to 'Access India' TWI helps bring Philips Avent's thermoplastic nebulizer to market TWI helps Engineering College meet industry demand for staff TWI helps grow Innovation, Research and Technology sector TWI helps push European car body initiative TWI holds materials workshop at Cambridge sixth-form college TWI holds successful cold spray technology course TWI hosted Innovation Centres continue to grow TWI hosts graduation ceremony for EWF/IIW Diploma engineers TWI hosts successful exploration and production workshop TWI inspection team in high demand at JEC World, Paris TWI joins 'Integral' nuclear waste project TWI lands NDA innovation award for nuclear decommissioning TWI launches course for advanced digital radiography TWI launches new MSc in Engineering Leadership and Management TWI pioneers 'invisible weld' process TWI Pioneers New Dissimilar Weld for European Space Agency TWI plays its part in Working to Engineer a Better World TWI provides fracture toughness training and consultancy in Singapore TWI rewards outstanding undergraduate engineering projects TWI set to exhibit at Offshore Wind Energy 2017 next month TWI set to exhibit at the Farnborough International Airshow TWI set to present at AWS Conference on Plastics Welding and Joining TWI signs Memorandum of Understanding with Saudi Aramco TWI South East Asia commended by Malaysian government TWI supporting the 2016 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures TWI Supports Underwater Laser Cutting Project TWI supports West Suffolk's Outstanding Apprentice of the Year Award TWI Technology Centre Wales secures over €1m through EU programme TWI Technology Fellow given Visiting Professorship at LSBU TWI technology used for ground-breaking SpaceX flight TWI to develop underground storage tank monitoring system TWI to exhibit at 56th Annual British NDT Conference TWI to exhibit at SPE Offshore Europe TWI to launch aerospace inspection software at the Paris Air Show TWI to present at major industry conferences in India TWI to train Environment Agency landfill inspection staff TWI Training success story - Vera Dragoi TWI wins Cambridge Business Weekly Award for International Trade TWI wins RIBA Awards TWI working to progress composites in the automotive industry TWI-led project to reduce costs and improve aircraft efficiency TWI's Dr Philippa Moore: A role model for female engineers TWI's Dr Shiladitya Paul called as guest editor of Coatings journal TWI's flow loop available again after three-year testing UAE seminar demos TWI's unique PolyTest inspection system UK friction stir welding courses see increasing demand UKTI mission to India explores opportunities for UK aerospace sector Ultrasonic imaging climbing robot passes field trials Update on CPD for Welding Institute Professional Members Upgraded surface engineering facilities showcased Vibration-based in-flight composite health monitoring Video series sheds light on studying a PhD with TWI Vince Cable India visit promotes UK business successes Visit Plant Integrity Ltd booth at Corrosion 2016 exhibition Visit TWI at First World Congress on Condition Monitoring Volumetric testing of polyethylene pipe joints with PolyTest Welding Institute Annual Awards 2018 Welding Institute Annual Conference to focus on AM Welding Institute branch promotes welding careers Welding Institute Engineering Council Registrations increase Welding Institute's latest Engineering Council registrants Welding the unweldable: TWI friction stir welds ODS steel WindTwin project to revolutionise wind turbine technology Workshop explores state of play of mooring chain research Workshop to address dissimilar materials joining challenge World's largest linear friction welded component produced World's most precise weld made at TWI Yorkshire MP pays visit to TWI in Rotherham Young welders and metalworkers recognised at WorldSkills UK
16 March 2016
[ Zoom ]
A petrochemical processing facility

This article, written by TWI Technology Fellow John Wintle, was originally published in the November 2015 edition of Managing Aging Plants magazine.

It is now over ten years since an inspector from the UK's Health and Safety Executive Hazardous Installations Directorate (HSE HID) called Harry Bainbridge came to me and said that there were a lot of plants in a poor physical condition around and what industry needed was a guide to manage ageing. The result was the publication of Research Report 509 – Plant Ageing: Management of Equipment Containing Hazardous Fluids and Pressure (2006). The rest, as they say, is history.

Of course, the subject matter was not new and not confined to the hazardous chemicals and refining sector. By the end of the 1990s the International Atomic Energy Authority had set out the principles of ageing management and published a series of guides to the management of ageing of different nuclear components and the European ageing aircraft programme had been running for several years. For the process industries, HSE Research Report 509 changed a mind-set in their approach to integrity management, as the management of ageing became a holistic interdisciplinary activity.

Historically, engineering plant was designed and constructed to function without major failure or repairs for a pre-determined design life. The design life was based largely on prior experience of similar constructions in similar duty and provided designers with a target from which corrosion allowances and fatigue lives could be conservatively assessed. Plant inspection was largely qualitative, prescriptive, periodic and judgemental, designed to confirm that the design assumptions had not been breached by service conditions and misuse beyond the design specification. If some deterioration was found, it was normal to repair the damage or replace the component rather than to attempt a fitness-for-service assessment or re-rating of the degraded component.

A combination of technological development and economic factors brought about the management of ageing. Low prices for oil and bulk chemicals, competitive pressures from Far East producers and a lack of investor confidence forced Europeans and Americans to adopt leaner operations and to keep equipment in service when previously it would have been replaced with new. The need to operate older equipment, combined with developments in understanding degradation mechanisms, inspection planning practices and non-destructive testing (NDT) technology, fitness-for-service assessment and repair techniques, created the conditions for a change in thinking from a ‘find and fix’ culture to a ‘predict and preserve’ mentality.

Degradation mechanisms

The understanding of corrosion degradation mechanisms and rates has largely been driven by experience of plant operation and failures. It is generally difficult to replicate plant conditions over the long durations involved in the laboratory through accelerated testing. A catalogue of degradation mechanisms for the petrochemical and refining industry was published in API RP 579, but a comprehensive guide of degradation mechanisms for a wider range of material–environment combinations has yet to be produced. The dependence of the occurrence and rate of progression of degradation on a wide range of process and product composition variables and material factors, such as temperature, trace elements, microstructure and hardness, may make such a task intractable.

There have been significant developments in the understanding of degradation for particular material–environment combinations. Conditions for the avoidance of external corrosion of stainless steels from pitting and atmospheric-induced stress corrosion cracking in marine environments are now becoming established. The susceptibility of ferritic materials and welds to attack in corrosive environments and the problems of hydrogen-induced cracking are becoming better known.

Operators often need to rely on measures of wall loss, pitting depth and cracking over a period of service to determine the corrosion rates for particular plant conditions. Tools such as trending analysis and statistical techniques are vital to make appropriate predictions. Even so, the ability to characterise damage for analysis in its true geometric complexity is still in the early stages. Experience of plant failures informs us that the causes of degradation can occur throughout the life of a plant. Defects introduced during fabrication or installation can be the root cause of failure in service, while problems during commissioning can result in premature ageing.

The possibility of fatigue cracking in welds over extended periods of cyclic service should be assessed using modern fatigue design methods. The bathtub curve of ageing and failure rate remains a useful model but may not reflect the reality of modern plants where quality management of design and construction reduce early life failures, and interventions during service can yield extended periods of reliable operation.

Risk-based inspection

Risk-based inspection (RBI) is an inherent part of the management of ageing. From the mid-1970s regulators in the UK were placing the responsibility for maintaining health and safety on the shoulders of industry that created the risk and set high-level goals for the prevention of dangerous occurrences. In 1989 the Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas Containers Regulations removed any prescriptive requirement for periodic inspection by requiring simply that owners of pressure systems should have a written scheme of examination drawn up or certified by a competent person that would ensure the detection of a defect that could give rise to danger.

This requirement forced operators to start to think about the particular locations in a plant where degradation mechanisms might cause a defect and where a defect could give rise to danger. As the regulator did not prescribe inspection intervals, operators were encouraged to consider the mechanisms and rates of degradation for each particular plant component and to select intervals that were appropriate to reasonably address the risk from a defect by timely detection.

The Institute of Petroleum’s code of practice in the 1980s allowed inspection intervals to be extended for some equipment based on favourable experience and technical understanding, but the new regulation gave this opportunity to all operators of pressure systems. Some sectors preferred to keep to the fixed inspection intervals that they had traditionally used as the costs and knowledge required to adopt RBI were beyond their means and capability.

The move towards RBI gathered pace during the 1990s. The American Petroleum Institute gave RBI a major boost following a joint industry project which resulted in the publication of Base Resource Document 581 and Recommended Practice 580. In the UK, the HSE published Research Report 363 on RBI practices in 2001, and this was followed by similar publications from industry-led bodies such as EMMUA. Other European regulators have been slower to recognise RBI as the preferred approach and it is only now that practices are beginning to change.

Inspection and NDT technology

Developments in inspection and NDT technology also created the platform for the management of ageing. Ultrasonic testing, with the introduction of advanced transducers and computerised signal processing over the past 30 years, has improved the reliability and quantification of detection, sizing and characterisation of defects in plant. Long-range ultrasonic technology, time-of-flight diffraction and other screening techniques such as eddy currents, acoustic emission and thermography and magnetic induction methods have added to the armoury of NDT that can be deployed in particular circumstances. The PANI trials in the 1990s still showed deficiencies in the practical implementation of industrial NDT and these led to a series of guidance documents covering the main techniques.

Fitness for service methods

If physical or functional degradation due to ageing mechanisms is to be managed then it is necessary to know the impact of the degradation on the performance of the component and to assess its fitness-for-service now and in the future given that further degradation may occur. For active components like pumps, valves and motors, a functional test checked against specification may be all that is required. Deterioration in passive equipment like vessels and structures is harder to assess since a fall-off in performance is not usually evident until final failure.

The evolution of fitness-for-service assessment procedures is aligned to the development of fracture mechanics of crack-like defects. It was largely driven by the requirement to evaluate defects in welded fabrications, particularly for nuclear pressure vessels, and later by the need to determine the fatigue lives of offshore welded structures, pipelines and risers. The effect of non-crack-like defects, such as localised corrosion, pits and gouges requires a different approach, and methods are still evolving. Modern finite element stress analysis is allowing the modelling of real defects and the ability to have a seamless interface between NDT and fitness-for-service assessment is a real prospect.

API Recommended Practice 579 is a compilation of fitness-for service assessment methods applicable for refinery plant designed to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It contains many useful methods including those for assessing hydrogen and creep damage and equipment damaged by fire. However, the methods need to be translated for equipment designed to other codes where different safety margins and criteria apply. More generalised fitness-for-service procedures have been standardised in publications such as BS 7910 and FITNET.

Ageing management process

While ageing is usually associated with the physical deterioration of equipment, its scope also encompasses non-physical issues and other changes with the passage of time. For example, obsolescence may mean that original parts are difficult to replace, whereas changes in standards or technology can challenge the adequacy of the original construction. Lack of knowledge of the physical condition in uninspectable areas or loss of original design data and key operating records can undermine the confidence necessary for continued safe production.

Against this background a philosophy for the proactive management of ageing has evolved. In some respects it can be regarded as a management- of-change process. The management of ageing is a process that requires foresight of changes that will occur in the future from the extrapolation of trends based on historic data and the application of technical knowledge.

In its essentials the ageing management process can be broken into five steps. It requires an organisation to recognise what assets it has, understand what they do, know how important they are, determine what condition they are in and how fast this may change in the future, and evaluate what happens should they fail. On this basis an ageing management programme can be created to understand, predict, minimise, find and remediate the effects of ageing, with appropriate feedback. Making this happen in a busy company is not easy and requires senior management to set the policies and create the roles to champion its implementation.

Ageing management is an activity requiring a team of plant engineers and technical experts in fields such as materials technology, integrity management, inspection and NDT. Some companies have appointed managers with a wider asset management remit to co-ordinate and direct the management of ageing, supported by systems engineers who are the custodians of particular assets and design authorities who are the discipline experts concerned with design intent functionality and fitness-for-service.

Link to asset management and asset integrity management

The ageing management process forms part of a wider process called asset integrity management, which itself is a subset of the global process of asset management. British Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 55-1 defines asset management as systematic and co-ordinated activities and practices through which an organisation optimally and sustainably manages its assets and asset systems, their associated performance, risk and expenditures over their lifecycle for the purpose of achieving its organisational strategic plan.

It translates the organisation's strategic plan and policies into long-term objectives and plans and activities over the lifecycle of the asset portfolio where assets are created or acquired, utilised, managed, maintained, renewed, decommissioned and disposed. Asset integrity management is the process by which an asset’s integrity is maintained to deliver required levels of functionality, availability, reliability, survivability and interdependence. As well as considering the management of ageing, integrity management focuses on maintaining asset integrity through operation controls, planned maintenance, testing, refurbishment, upgrading and replacement.

It is difficult to find references to ageing within the context of asset management. For many types of assets, ageing is regarded as a natural process that is accommodated through periodic replacement once the asset no longer performs to its required level or sustains some level of failure. This position on ageing is, however, usually not tenable for physical assets in the high hazard industry sectors, such as the petrochemical and nuclear industries, where the risk of failure cannot be tolerated and components are not easily repairable or replaceable. In these sectors the proactive management of ageing becomes a necessity and a benefit.


The need to manage ageing plant is not new. The ability to do so effectively has improved markedly over the past 20–30 years with developments in understanding materials behaviour and inspection and NDT technology and fitness-for-service assessment procedures. These technical developments are allied to the evolution of the formalisation of systems for lifetime asset management and more specifically the management of asset integrity.

Different industry sectors are managing ageing in a way that is consistent with their context, character and culture, although the basic principles are common across all sectors. Industry forums and networks through different media are vital components for learning from experience and sharing knowledge and information within and across industry sectors. The launch of Managing Aging Plants magazine is to be welcomed and will surely make an important contribution to this field.

To find out how TWI's expertise can help support the life extension of your company's ageing assets, contact us.

For more information please email: